[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome positions within the nucleus of mammalian cells are nonrandom and it is assumed that chromosomal neighborhoods affect the probability of translocations. Four chromosomes can be involved in c-myc-activating chromosomal translocations in mouse plasmacytoma (PCT): the c-myc gene on mouse chromosome 15 can be juxtaposed to either one of the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci on chromosomes 12 (IgH), 16 (Igλ), or 6 (Igκ). In the BALB/c mouse, the translocation between chromosomes 12 and 15, T(12;15), is most common (90%) while the other two possible translocations, T(6;15) and T(16;15), are much less common (<10%). In contrast, in the BALB/cRb6.15 mouse, T(6;15) is found with the same frequency as T(12;15). We, therefore, examined the distance between chromosomes 15 and 12, 6, and 16 in primary mouse B lymphocytes in order to examine the effect of the chromosome proximity on the translocation frequency. We performed three-dimensional fluorescent in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) with chromosome paints. We acquired three-dimensional image stacks with 90 slices per stack and used constrained iterative deconvolution. The nucleus and chromosomes were segmented from this image stack and the interchromosomal distances were measured. Chromosomes 6 and 15 were found in close proximity in BALB/cRb6.15 mice (82%), whereas they did not share this neighborhood relationship in BALB/c mice. No other chromosome combinations showed such a high percentage of close proximities in either mouse strain. Chromosome positions contribute to translocation frequencies in mouse PCTs. The BALB/cRb6.15 mouse data argue for a proximity relationship of chromosomes that engage in illegitimate recombination. These positions are not, however, the only contributing factor as the T(12;15) translocation preference in BALB/c mice could not be supported by significantly elevated proximity of chromosomes 12 and 15 versus 12 and 16 or 12 and 6. Moreover, while there is a significant increase in T(6;15) in BALB/cRb6.15 mice, T(12;15) still occurs in this mouse strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome 11 aberrations constitute the second most frequent chromosomal aberration in mouse plasmacytomas (PCTs) in which both the myc and abl oncogenes are constitutively expressed. In these tumors, previous G-banding studies had revealed numerical aberrations including duplication of the entire chromosome 11 or segments of telomeric bands D and E. The trisomy of chromosome 11 was always associated with accelerated pristane + v-abl/myc-induced PCT development. In the present study, PCT development was studied in a unique BALB/c congenic mouse strain, (T38HxBALB/c) F1, carrying a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes X and 11. After v-abl/myc induction, PCTs in this strain had acquired a nonrandom duplication of subcytoband 11E2. This duplication was always associated with accelerated PCT development. Corresponding synteny regions in the human and rat are changed in many tumors and involved in duplication, amplification, or translocation events. Thus, together with these synteny data, our findings strongly suggest a causal involvement of 11E2 in the acceleration of v-abl/myc-induced PCTs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The location of the Myc and immunoglobulin (Ig) loci on metacentric Robertsonian (Rb) fusion chromosomes may affect the development of mouse plasmacytomas (Pcts) by changing the probability with which chromosomal Myc-Ig translocations occur. To test this hypothesis, we induced Pcts in BALB/c (C) mice that carried Rb(4.12) and/or Rb(6.15) chromosomes. The Rb mice developed Pcts (n = 198) with similar onset and incidence to that in the inbred C mice. Karyotyping of 70 Rb-carrying Pcts demonstrated that in these tumors, just as in their counterparts in inbred C mice, the Igh heavy-chain locus was translocated with Myc more often than was the Igk light-chain locus. Pcts harboring Igh or Igk on normal and Rb chromosomes showed no bias toward either in generating Myc translocations. These findings indicated that the location of Myc, Igh, and Igk on normal or Rb chromosomes is inconsequential for Myc translocation and Pct development. In contrast, in Rb(6.15) mice, in which chromosomal inversions competed with chromosomal translocations for Igk-Myc juxtapositions, the former occurred more frequently than the latter in the resulting Pcts. This suggested that spatial proximity of Igk and Myc on the same chromosome facilitates the rearrangement of these loci. Myc translocation-dependent mouse Pct may provide a good model system for furthering our understanding of the relationship of higher-order genome organization in the interphase nucleus, origin of chromosomal translocations, and development of cancer.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work has demonstrated that chromosome 11 is trisomic or shows a duplicated region encompassing the E1/E2 band of chromosome 11 in 90% of v-abl/myc-induced plasmacytomas (Wiener et al. 1995). In the present report, we have studied BALB/c PreB lymphocytes that were immortalized by v-abl and stably transfected with a conditional MycER vector (Mai et al. 1999). These cells, termed PreB ABL/MYC, showed changes in the E1/E2 bands of chromosome 11 that are similar to those reported previously for v-abl/myc-induced plasmacytomas. This was shown by the use of chromosome painting, SKY, FISH and mBAND. Our findings suggest that the Pre-B ABL/MYC cells may be used to analyse the genetic changes affecting chromosome 11 that are associated with v-abl/myc-dependent tumorigenesis in mouse B cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Chromosome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms through which the oncoprotein c-Myc initiates locus-specific gene amplification are not understood. When analysing the initiation mechanism of c-Myc-dependent amplification of the mouse ribonucleotide reductase R2 (R2) gene, we observe c-Myc-dependent initiation of illegitimate DNA replication of the R2 gene. We demonstrate multiple simultaneous c-Myc-induced R2 replication forks, whereas R2 normally replicates with a single fork. In contrast, cyclin C replicates with only a single replication fork irrespective of c-Myc deregulation. In addition to de novo replication forks, c-Myc also initiates bi-allelic replication of R2, abrogating its normal mono-allelic replication pattern. Moreover, several chromosomal regions also display c-Myc-induced illegitimate replication profiles. Thus, c-Myc can act as an illegitimate replication-licensing factor that promotes de novo replication initiation and illegitimate replication timing that adversely impacts upon genomic stability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse plasmacytomas (PCTs) are characterized by c-myc-activating translocations that juxtapose c-myc on chromosome 15 onto one of the immunoglobulin loci (IgH on chromosome 12, IgK on chromosome 6, or IgA on chromosome 16). To assess the impact of p53 loss on PCT genesis, we induced PCTs in p53-deficient BALB/cRb6.15 mouse strains. We show that p53 loss accelerates tumor development and causes a shift in the typical translocation patterns. PCTs that carry variant T(6;15) translocations become as frequent as those with typical T(12;15) translocations (41.66%). In addition, in the absence of p53, the number of translocation-negative PCTs increases from less than 1% to 16.66%. It is noteworthy that neither the shortened latency periods nor the shift in translocation patterns had an impact on the incidence of PCT development. The 42.2% incidence in N3p53-/- mice is similar to the percentages recorded in groups of conventional BALB/cAn mice. The possible mechanisms underlying the accelerated tumorigenesis and the shift in translocation patterns are discussed.
No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Chromosome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The induced expression of c-Myc in plasmacytomas in BALB/c mice is regularly associated with nonrandom chromosomal translocations that juxtapose the c-myc gene to one of the Ig loci on chromosome 12 (IgH), 6 (IgK), or 16 (IgL). The DCPC21 plasmacytoma belongs to a small group of plasmacytomas that are unusual in that they appear to be translocation-negative. In this paper, we show the absence of any c-myc-activating chromosomal translocation for the DCPC21 by using fluorescent in situ hybridization, chromosome painting, and spectral karyotyping. We find that DCPC21 harbors c-myc and IgH genes on extrachromosomal elements (EEs) from which c-myc is transcribed, as shown by c-myc mRNA tracks and extrachromosomal gene transfer experiments. The transcriptional activity of these EEs is supported further by the presence of the transcription-associated phosphorylation of histone H3 (H3P) on the EEs. Thus, our data suggest that in this plasmacytoma, c-Myc expression is achieved by an alternative mechanism. The expression of the c-Myc oncoprotein is initiated outside the chromosomal locations of the c-myc gene, i.e., from EEs, which can be considered functional genetic units. Our data also imply that other "translocation-negative" experimental and human tumors with fusion transcripts or oncogenic activation may indeed carry translocation(s), however, in an extrachromosomal form.
Full-text · Article · Dec 1999 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of the c-myc gene by chromosomal translocation in >95% of murine plasmacytomas (MPCs) is an obligatory requirement for the transformation of B lymphocytes into MPCs. However, it is still unknown whether sIg+ B cells or differentiated plasma cells are the legitimate precursor cells from which MPCs develop. To address this question, C.B-17 scid/scid (SCID) mice were reconstituted with splenic surface Ig-positive (sIg+) B lineage cells originating from BALB/cRb6.15 (B/cRb6.15) or human IL-6 transgene-congenic BALB/cRb8.12 mice (B/cRb8.12 IL-6-Tg). Six of 80 SCID mice reconstituted with B/cRb6.15 sIg+ B cells developed MPCs after pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) treatment followed by Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) infection (incidence 7.5%) and four of 40 after pristane treatment alone (incidence 10%). Similarly, in 20 SCID mice reconstituted with B/cRb8.12 IL-6-Tg splenic sIg+ B cells the MPC incidence was 10%. Karyotype analysis revealed that all the translocations were of typical t(12;15) type and all tumors carried the Rb6.15 or Rb8.12 marker chromosome, indicating their donor cell origin. In contrast, none of the 48 SCID mice reconstituted with plasma cells obtained from the lymph nodes of B/cRb8.12 IL-6-Tg mice developed MPCs when treated either with pristane plus A-MuLV (20 mice) or with pristane alone (28 mice), although the transferred plasma cells were still functional in the recipient SCID mice 6 months after transfer. The findings indicate that the malignant transformation triggered by Ig/myc juxtaposition occurs more in immature (sIgM+) and/or mature (sIgM+/sIgD+, sIgG+ and sIgA+) B cells than in differentiated G0 or cycling plasma cells. We inferred that immature and/or mature B cells and not differentiated plasma cells are most likely the principal source of precursor cells from which the typical t(12;15) MPCs develop.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loss of p53 tumor suppressor functions results in genetic instability, characteristically associated with changes in chromosome ploidy and gene amplification. In vivo, we find that cells from various organs of 4 to 6-week old p53-nullizygous (p53-/-) mice display aneuploidy and frequent gene amplification as well as evidence for apoptosis. Regardless of tissue types, many p53-/- cells contain multiple centrosomes and abnormally formed mitotic spindles. Thus, chromosome instability in vivo may be associated with abnormal centrosome amplification. Moreover, we observed a significant increase in the number of cells overexpressing c-Myc in p53-/- mice. Consistent with previous studies showing that c-Myc overexpression is associated with gene amplification in vitro, many of the p53-/- cells exhibited, in the same cell, c-Myc overexpression and amplified c-myc, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamoyl-dihydroorotase (CAD) genes. Furthermore, apoptosis was frequently observed in cells isolated from p53-/- mice. The apoptotic cells contained abnormally amplified centrosomes, displayed aneuploidy, high levels of c-Myc expression, as well as gene amplification. These results indicate that a high number of aberrant cells is eliminated by p53-independent pathways in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty per cent of BALB/cAnPt mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with tetramethylpentadecane (pristane) develop plasmacytomas (PCs), whereas less than 10% of BALB/cJ develop such tumours. Most other mouse strains are completely resistant. Resistance is dominant over susceptibility in F1 hybrids between BALB/cAnPt and the resistant non-BALB/c strains, suggesting that susceptibility may be due to some genetic defect. (BALB/cAnPtxBALB/cJ)F1 hybrids have a PC incidence of 36-42%. Previously, BALB/cJ has been shown to harbour at least one resistance gene (Potter et al., Genomics 1988, Vol. 2, pp. 257-262). On the assumption that BALB/cJ may contain a segregating resistance gene, we cross BALB/cJ females with pristane-pretreated BALB/cJ males that were found to be carrying PC cells intraperitoneally 5-7 months after pristane treatment. After two selective crosses, 62% of the BALB/cJ subline BALB/cM2/22 developed PC after pristane and 52% after pristane followed by Abelson virus, while unselected controls had an incidence of 11% and 0%, respectively. Moreover, six spontaneous plasmacytomas developed in untreated females of the selected colony. Five of these carried T(12; 15) (F2; D2/3) translocations. The sixth had a T(1; 10) (G; C1) translocation and an interstitial duplication of segment (C1/E3) on one chromosome 5. It may be concluded that pristane treatment is not a prerequisite for the induction of the PC associated Ig/myc translocations.
No preview · Article · Apr 1997 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trisomy of chromosome 11 (Ts11) is the second most frequent nonrandom chromosomal change in murine plasmacytomas (PCTs). The frequency of Ts11 is significantly higher in PCTs induced in pristane-conditioned mice infected by Abelson-murine leukemia virus (52%) compared to those induced by pristane alone (8.1%). Although the significance of Ts11 in mouse plasmacytomagenesis is not clearly understood it is hypothesized that a gene or genes located on chromosome (Chr) 11 may specifically promote the development of PCTs in which both oncogenes, c-myc and v-abl, are abundantly expressed. To test this assumption we induced PCTs by three highly effective plasmacytomagenic retroviruses: ABL-MYC, J3V1, and RIM. Nearly 90% of PCTs that arose in BALB/c, (BALB/c x DBA/2N)F1, BALB/c-nu/nu, and 5-month-old SCID mice infected with ABL-MYC virus were trisomic for Chr 11. In contrast, < 10% of PCTs induced by J3V1 or RIM retroviral constructs encompassing either v-myc and v-raf or c-myc and v-Ha-ras oncogenes, respectively, contained Ts11. We have also investigated whether the entire Chr 11 or any particular subregion is preferentially duplicated in the process of ABL-MYC plasmacytomagenesis. By inducing PCTs in F1 heterozygous mice that are carriers of reciprocal translocations involving Chr 11 we found that the duplicated chromosomal region is located distal to the T4Dn breakpoint (11B5 band) on the telomeric segment of Chr 11. The regular duplication of this chromosomal segment strongly suggests the presence of a gene or genes whose amplification is of critical importance for v-abl associated murine plasmacytomagenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytomas can be induced in high frequency in susceptible strains of mice by the intraperitoneal introduction of plastics or paraffin oils, including the chemically defined oil pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane). These materials persist in the peritoneal cavity, where they induce chronic inflammation during the long periods before plasmacytomas develop. Such plasmacytomas appear to arise from B cells carrying chromosomal translocations that affect c-myc transcription.
Because silicone gels are in widespread medical use and share many of the characteristics of other materials known to be inducers of plasmacytomas, we wished to determine their capacity to induce plasmacytomas in mice.
In a series of parallel experiments, corn oil, pristane, silicone oil (dimethylpolysiloxane), or silicone gel from commercially obtained mammary implants was injected intraperitoneally into plasmacytoma-susceptible BALB/cAnPt-A and congenic BALB/cAnPt.DBA/2-Idh1-Pep3 mice, as well as into plasmacytoma-resistant C57BL/6N, C3H/HeJ, DBA/2N, and (BALB/c x DBA/2)F1 mice. Mice were examined at least once every 2 weeks for signs of abdominal tumor or weight loss and screened every 4-6 weeks for peritoneal plasmacytoma cells by peritoneal lavage. Tissues were examined by histologic and immunohistochemical techniques. Metaphase chromosome spreads were made from ascitic plasmacytomas without Colcemid treatment, and metaphase plates were G-banded according to standard techniques. The t(12;15) or t(6;15) translocation chromosomes were identified under the microscope in at least five metaphase plates of high banding quality. Mice were autopsied 125-400 days after the injection of test material. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were utilized to determine the composition of the silicone oil and silicone gel used in the injections.
The silicone gels tested induced plasmacytomas in BALB/cAnPt-A and BALB/cAnPt.DBA/2-Idh1-Pep3 mice. Neither corn oil used as a control nor 1000-centistoke or 12,500-centistoke dimethylpolysiloxane induced plasmacytomas in these mice. The plasmacytomas were transplantable in syngeneic hosts. Cytogenetic studies of 41 silicone-induced plasmacytomas showed that 30 had t(12;15) translocations, eight had t(6;15) translocations, and three had no translocations.
The silicone gels used in mammary implants, which contain a complex mixture of different siloxanes, induced peritoneal plasmacytomas in genetically susceptible mice. Silicone gels provide new chemically defined materials that are effective inducers of plasmacytomas in BALB/cAnPt-A and BALB/cAnPt.DBA/2-Idh1-Pep3 mice. Further studies will be required to determine which of the components of these gels are the active materials.
No preview · Article · Aug 1994 · JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oil-induced murine plasmacytomas typically carry c-myc-activating non-random reciprocal chromosomal translocations that take the form of either a T(12;15) that fuses the c-myc proto-oncogene to an immunoglobulin heavy chain switch region or a T(6;15) that juxtaposes the Pvt-1 locus, located 220 kb 3' of c-myc, to the immunoglobulin light china locus, C kappa. In this report we show that the plasmacytoma ABPC 60 harbors a novel c-myc-activating T(12;15) in which the chromosome 15 breakpoint occurs in the Pvt-1 region, resulting in the head-to-tail juxtaposition of the Pvt-1 major breakpoint cluster to the IgA switch region. Restriction mapping and nucleotide sequencing of this atypical translocation indicate that a paracentric inversion in chromosome 12 must have preceeded the translocation. This is the first example of a T(12;15) with a break 3' of the c-myc gene. The rearrangement places the 3' C alpha enhancer (3' alpha E) greater than 200 kb downstream of the c-myc promoters, however c-myc mRNA levels are similar to those observed in plasmacytomas with typical T(12;15)s that translocate 3' alpha E much closer (15-25 kb) and upstream of c-myc. The up regulation of c-myc that results from this rearrangement is thought to be brought about by the interaction of the c-myc promoters with the IgA enhancer element that has been strategically relocated into the Pvt-1 region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From a lymphoid tumour induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz-[a]-anthracene (DMBA) + methyl-N-nitrose-N-urea (MNU) in an [AKR Rb(6.15) x CBAT6T6]F1 mouse, a macrophage- monocyte line (KT-10) was isolated. Following ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treatment, a bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) resistant subline was selected. Serial propagation of this line in vitro in the presence of BUdR (28 months) with periodic cytogenetic and molecular examinations, has led to the definition of four successive stages. During stage I, the cells were trisomic for chromosome 15. They contained Rb(6.15) and Rb(del6.15) of AKR and T(14;15) of CBA origin. Southern blotting showed the presence of both germline (G) and rearranged (R) c-myc. At stage II, Rb(del6.15) has duplicated. Both Rb(6.15) and T(14;15) persisted together with G-myc and R-myc. In stage III, the CBA-derived T(14;15) was lost, in parallel with G-myc. At this stage, a Dic.In(6.15) was detected. One of its arms was cytogenetically identical with the long arm of In(6.15) in the variant IgK/myc translocations. This chromosome carried R-myc and IgK in juxtaposition, as indicated by comigration on pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE). At stage IV, the R-myc carrying AKR-derived chromosome 15s were present in six copies. Possible relationships between the increasing R/G myc ratio and changed growth characteristics in vivo and in vitro are discussed.
No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · European Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essentially all murine plasmacytomas have deregulated c-myc expression that is typically brought about by chromosomal translocations between the c-myc/Pvt-1 locus and one of the immunoglobulin loci. ABPC 22 and RFPC 2782 are BALB/c plasmacytomas that lack chromosomal translocations yet have Southern blot evidence of c-myc gene rearrangements. In this report we show that proviral integrations 5' of the c-myc gene can deregulate c-myc expression in mouse plasmacytomas. Analysis of DNA sequences 5' of the c-myc genes from both tumors demonstrated that rearrangements were caused by retroviral integrations 5' of c-myc exon 1. The proviral insertion in RFPC 2782 was associated with a high steady-state c-myc mRNA level comparable to that seen in plasmacytomas with typical translocations. An analogous proviral insertion in ABPC 22 was associated with a c-myc RNA level that was only 38% of that of RFPC 2782. Nuclear run-on studies of c-myc transcription showed that ABPC 22 has both a lower rate of transcription and a greater degree of transcriptional attenuation than RFPC 2782. DNA sequencing of the long terminal repeat of each tumor provirus showed that the ABPC 22 provirus harbors a deletion of one of the two direct repeats in the viral enhancer, whereas both repeats are present in the RFPC 2782 provirus. These data indicate that maximum LTR enhancer effectiveness in plasmacytomas in vivo requires the presence of both LTR direct repeats. The documentation of the low level of steady-state c-myc mRNA in ABPC 22 supports the notion that deregulated c-myc expression, even at low steady state levels, is effective in supporting the development of plasmacytomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three model systems of plasmacytomagenesis that are associated with mutations that affect c-myc transcription were discussed. Plasmacytoma induction by chronic peritoneal irritation induced by non-metabolized paraffin oils or plastic objects is strongly influenced by the immune status of the host. BALB/cAn mice must be exposed to natural environmental antigens to develop a high incidence of plasmacytomas. This may be related to T-cell priming. BALB/cAn mice raised under strict SPF conditions are refractory to plasmacytoma induction by pristane. The genotype of the mouse plays an important role in the chronic peritoneal irritation model of plasmacytomagenesis in mice. Only a few of the standard inbred strains are susceptible, notably BALB/cAn and NZB/B1. The genetic basis of susceptibility and resistance has been studied in crosses and congenic strains involving the susceptible BALB/cAn and resistant DBA/2 strains. While several genes play a role in determining resistance at least one resistance gene located on the distal end of Chr 4 reduces the incidence by at least 50% as determined in the BALB/cAn.DBA/2 Fv-1n/n congenic strain. The action of susceptibility and resistance genes is not known; hypothetically these genes could play a role in plasmacytomagenesis by increasing the probabilities of illegitimate exchanges between genes or by influencing the formation of mutations in genes that regulate mitotic cycling. Plasmacytomas appear to develop in the chronic inflammatory tissues induced by these agents. Fundamental unanswered questions are whether these inflammatory tissues provide products such as oxidants in vivo that damage DNA and promote mutagenesis. In the mouse there is a resident self-renewing B cell population that is CD5+. These B cells, which are known to be precursors of normal lamina propria IgA-secreting plasma cells, are directly in contact with the chronic inflammatory process induced by pristane; they may be targets in plasmacytomagenesis. The plasmacytomas that develop by the peritoneal mode of induction all have chromosomal translocations that directly or indirectly activate c-myc. The predominant MACTR found in 90% of these tumors is T(12;15) in which a heavy-chain switch region sequence is joined to the 5' region of c-myc. The evidence strongly suggests that the translocation develops in a late mature B cell that is in the process of isotype switching. An unanswered question is whether the switching associated T(12;15) takes place in a B cell that is exposed to the inflammatory microenvironment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fusion of the YACUT lymphoma cell line with the Mls-1a-antigen-specific non-tumorigenic T-cell line G4 produced growth-arrested hybrids that could be induced to proliferate in the presence of Mls-1a antigen. Prolonged growth of such hybrids by repeated antigenic stimulation resulted in the appearance of autonomously growing hybrid lines. Of the 4 antigen-independent hybrid clones, I was weakly tumorigenic (25% incidence) while the other 3 were highly tumorigenic (100% incidence). In the growth-arrested hybrids the de-regulated c-myc expression characteristic of the YACUT cells was suppressed. In the autonomously growing clones, however, c-myc expression had reverted to the levels of the lymphoma parent and 1 to 2 extra copies of chromosome 15 were consistently present. These results indicate that repeated antigenic stimulation somehow abrogated the down-regulation of c-myc in the growth-arrested hybrid lines. The increase in the number of copies of chromosome 15, however, suggests that genes located on this chromosome may abolish the effect of the negative regulatory functions of the non-malignant parent in a gene-dosage-dependent manner.
No preview · Article · Jul 1992 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse plasmacytomas induced by pristane oil alone, or in combination with Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV), regularly carry one of three alternative chromosomal translocations that juxtapose c-myc to immunoglobulin heavy- or light-chain loci. E mu-c-myc transgenic mice develop translocation-free plasmacytomas after induction by pristane oil and/or A-MuLV [Sugiyama, H., Silva, S., Wang, Y., Weber, G., Babonits, M., Rosen, A., Wiener, F. & Klein, G. (1990). Int. J. Cancer, 46, 845-852]. In order to test whether another member of the myc family, N-myc, could play a similar role as c-myc, we treated E mu-N-myc transgenic mice with pristane and helper-free A-MuLV. Of 20 mice that received a single pristane injection followed by A-MuLV, 17 developed plasmacytomas with a mean latency period of 54 +/- 20 days. In a corresponding group that only received a single pristane injection, five out of six transgenic mice developed plasmacytomas with a mean latency period of 142 +/- 32 days. However, after three monthly injections of pristane, all 15 transgenic mice developed plasmacytomas with a mean latency period of 128 +/- 20 days. All plasmacytomas expressed the N-myc transgene, while none of them expressed either c-myc or endogenous N-myc. None of the tumors carried the usual plasmacytoma-associated translocations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transgenic mice that contain constructs of the L-myc gene under the transcriptional control of the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer (E mu) develop thymic hyperplasia and are predisposed to T cell lymphomas. Here we describe a second form of malignancy that occurs in aging E mu L-myc transgenic mice. The mean latency period for the development of this malignancy is longer compared with the E mu L-myc T cell lymphomas but the overall incidence is increased threefold. The histopathological morphology is that of a highly malignant mesenchymal neoplasm that closely resembles human fibrous histiocytoma. The tumor cells were classified as myelomonocytic on the basis of several lineage-specific markers and the lack of rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and the T cell receptor beta loci. Cultured tumor cells produce macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) protein and express the M-CSF receptor, suggesting the involvement of an autocrine loop in this malignancy. Similar to the E mu L-myc T cell lymphomas, these tumors show high-level transgene expression but no detectable levels of endogenous c-myc mRNA, directly implicating the deregulated expression of L-myc in the generation of this malignancy. E mu L-myc myelomonocytic tumors show consistent trisomy of chromosome 16, implicating this as a secondary event in the development of this tumor. In the light of recent findings that L-myc is expressed in human myeloid leukemias and in several human myeloid tumor cell lines, the results described here might implicate L-myc in the development of naturally occurring myeloid neoplasias.
Preview · Article · Mar 1992 · Journal of Experimental Medicine