[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African horse sickness virus (AHSV) belongs to the genus Orbivirus. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) expressing VP2 and NS1 proteins from AHSV-4. IFNAR((-/-)) mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-NS1 from AHSV-4 in an heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of neutralizing antibodies specific of AHSV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific T cell responses against the virus. The vaccine elicited partial protection against an homologous AHSV-4 infection and induced cross-protection against the heterologous AHSV-9. Similarly, IFNAR((-/-)) mice vaccinated with an homologous prime-boost strategy with rMVA-VP2-NS1 from AHSV-4 developed neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against AHSV-4. Furthermore, the levels of immunity were very high since none of vaccinated animals presented viraemia when they were challenged against the homologous AHSV-4 and very low levels when they were challenged against the heterologous virus AHSV-9. These data suggest that the immunization with rMVA/rMVA was more efficient in protection against a virulent challenge with AHSV-4 and both strategies, DNA/rMVA and rMVA/rMVA, protected against the infection with AHSV-9. The inclusion of the protein NS1 in the vaccine formulations targeting AHSV generates promising multiserotype vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently described the antiviral effect in mice of in vitro-transcribed RNAs mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome RNA. These small, synthetic and non-infectious RNA molecules (ncRNAs) are potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers in vivo. In this work, the immunomodulatory effect of the ncRNA corresponding to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) on immunization with two different FMD vaccine formulations, both based on inactivated virus, including or not a commercial adjuvant, was analyzed in the mice model. The effect of the time interval between RNA inoculation and immunization was also studied. RNA delivery consistently increased the titers of specific anti-FMDV antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, elicited after vaccination. Moreover, at day 2 after immunization, significant differences in mean antibody titers could be detected between the groups of mice receiving either vaccine co-administered with the RNA and the control group, unlike those immunized with the vaccine alone. When vaccinated mice were challenged with FMDV, the mean values of viral load were lower in the groups receiving the RNA together with the vaccine. Our results show the enhancing effect of the IRES RNA on the immune response elicited after vaccination and suggest the potential of this molecule as an adjuvant for new FMD vaccine design.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protective efficacy of recombinant vaccines expressing serotype 8 bluetongue virus (BTV-8) capsid proteins was tested in a mouse model. The recombinant vaccines comprised plasmid DNA or Modified Vaccinia Ankara viruses encoding BTV VP2, VP5 or VP7 proteins. These constructs were administered alone or in combination using either a homologous prime boost vaccination regime (rMVA/rMVA) or a heterologous vaccination regime (DNA/rMVA). The DNA/rMVA or rMVA/rMVA prime-boost were administered at a three week interval and all of the animals that received VP2 generated neutralising antibodies. The vaccinated and non-vaccinated-control mice were subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of BTV-8. Mice vaccinated with VP7 alone were not protected. However, mice vaccinated with DNA/rMVA or rMVA/rMVA expressing VP2, VP5 and VP7 or VP2 alone were all protected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the generation of monoclonal antibodies directed to immunogenic nucleoprotein N epitopes of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), and their application in diagnostics, both for antibody detection in competitive ELISA and for antigen capture in a sandwich ELISA. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated after DNA immunization of Balb/c mice and characterized by western blot, ELISA and cell immunostaining assays. At least three different immunorelevant epitopes were defined by mAb competition assays. Interestingly, two of the mAbs generated were able to distinguish between RVFV strains from Egyptian or South African lineages. These monoclonal antibodies constitute useful tools for diagnosis, especially for the detection of serum anti-RVFV antibodies from a broad range of species by means of competitive ELISA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for the majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. Recently, NoV strains which are genetically closely related to human genogroup II (GII) NoVs have been detected in fecal specimens from swine. These findings have raised concern about the possible role of pigs as reservoirs for NoVs that could infect humans. To better understand the epidemiology of swine NoVs in both the swine and the human populations, rapid immunoassays are needed. In this study, baculovirus recombinants were generated to express the capsid gene of a swine NoV GII genotype 11 (GII.11) strain which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). Subsequently, the purified VLPs were used to evoke monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in mice. A panel of eight promising MAbs was obtained and evaluated for their ability to bind to heterologous VLPs, denaturated antigens, and truncated capsid proteins. The MAbs could be classified into two groups: two MAbs that recognized linear epitopes located at the amino-terminal half (shell domain) of the swine NoV GII.11 VLPs and that cross-reacted with human GII.4 NoV VLPs. The other six MAbs bound to conformational epitopes and did not cross-react with the human GII.4 VLPs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of MAbs against swine NoVs. The swine NoV VLPs and the MAbs described here may be further used for the design of diagnostic reagents that could help increase our knowledge of the prevalence of NoV infections in pigs and the possible role of pigs as reservoirs for NoVs.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of clinical microbiology