[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) genotype comprising 5394 nt was identified by next generation sequencing from sera of healthy cattle at different age groups farmed in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The genome organization of new BPV2 genotype retains the two ORFs typical of members of the Parvovirinae with 86.4 % of overall nucleotide sequence identities in comparison to other members of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similar clustering with two previously described bovine BPV2 within the genus Copiparvovirus. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) were detected in the distribution of BPV2 infection in cattle at different age groups. This is the third complete or near complete genome sequence of BPV2 reported to date and may contribute to a better understanding of the biology of copiparvoviruses and its interactions with the host.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes the identification and characterization of a novel circovirus using metagenomic approaches in respiratory fluid samples from Brazilian free-tailed bats (
). The genome and deduced protein sequences share low identity with another circovirus recovered in distantly related bats from China.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Genome Announcements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de 109 amostras de Escherichia coli (E. coli) de origem ambiental frente a antibióticos e caracterizar esses isolados quanto ao grau de patogenicidade in vivo, verificando-se uma possível relação entre esta variável e a suscetibilidade aos princípios ativos testados. Os isolados foram submetidos ao teste de disco-difusão para 14 antibióticos. Entre 16.5% a 90% das amostras foram sensíveis, 1-28.5% apresentaram grau de suscetibilidade intermediário e entre 9-78% das E. coli analisadas foram resistentes. Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram encontrados para a classe das quinolonas e das tetraciclinas (>75%), e de sensibilidade para a classe dos anfenicóis (68.8%). Por meio da inoculação em pintinhos de um dia de idade, os isolados foram classificados como sendo de patogenicidade alta (2.7%), intermediária (10.1%), baixa (42.2%) e apatogênicos (45%). Foi observada uma ampla variação no perfil de suscetibilidade das amostras frente aos antimicrobianos. Verificou-se também que a maioria apresentou potencial patogênico (55%), sendo, portanto, consideradas APEC (E. coli patogênica para aves). Não foi observada relação entre a patogenicidade e a suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos (P≤0.05).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is potentially
found in wild birds of different species. This
work reports the survey of coronaviruses in wild birds
from Madagascar based on the targeting of a conserved
genome sequence among different groups of CoVs. Phylogenetic
analyses revealed the presence of
gammacoronaviruses in different species of Gruiformes,
Passeriformes, Ciconiiformes, Anseriformes, and
Charadriiformes. Furthermore, some sequences were related
to various IBV strains. Aquatic and migratory birds
may play an important role in the maintenance and spread
of coronaviruses in nature, highlighting their possible contribution
in the emergence of new coronavirus diseases in
wild and domestic birds.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · European Journal of Wildlife Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two novel genomes comprising ≈4.9 kb were identified by next-generation sequencing from pooled organs of Tadarida brasiliensis bats. The overall nucleotide sequence identities between the viral genomes characterized here were less than 80 % in comparison to other polyomaviruses (PyVs), members of the family Polyomaviridae. The new genomes display the archetypal organization of PyVs, which includes open reading frames for the regulatory proteins small T antigen (STAg) and large T antigen (LTAg), as well as capsid proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3. In addition, an alternate ORF was identified in the early genome region that is conserved in a large monophyletic group of polyomaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed similar clustering with group of PyVs detected in Otomops and Chaerephon bats and some species of monkeys. In this study, the genomes of two novel PyVs were detected in bats of a single species, demonstrating that these mammals can harbor genetically diverse polyomaviruses.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circoviruses are highly prevalent porcine and avian pathogens. In recent years, novel circular ssDNA genomes have recently been detected in a variety of fecal and environmental samples using deep sequencing approaches. In this study the identification of genomes of novel circoviruses and cycloviruses in feces of insectivorous bats is reported. Pan-reactive primers were used targeting the conserved rep region of circoviruses and cycloviruses to screen DNA bat fecal samples. Using this approach, partial rep sequences were detected which formed five phylogenetic groups distributed among the Circovirus and the recently proposed Cyclovirus genera of the Circoviridae. Further analysis using inverse PCR and Sanger sequencing led to the characterization of four new putative members of the family Circoviridae with genome size ranging from 1,608 to 1,790 nt, two inversely arranged ORFs, and canonical nonamer sequences atop a stem loop.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) genomes in commercially available poultry vaccines. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (dqPCR), capable of identifying genomes of both viruses in a single assay, was employed to determine the viral loads of these agents in commercially available vaccines. Thirty five vaccines from eight manufacturers (32 prepared with live and 3 with inactivated microorganisms) were examined. Genomes of CAV were detected as contaminants in 6132 live vaccines and in 1/3 inactivated vaccines. The CAV genome loads ranged from 6.4 to 173.4 per 50 ng of vaccine DNA (equivalent to 0.07 to 0.69 genome copies per dose of vaccine). Likewise, AGV2 genomes were detected in 9/32 live vaccines, with viral loads ranging from 93 to 156,187 per 50 ng of vaccine DNA (equivalent to 0.28-9176 genome copies per dose of vaccine). These findings provide evidence for the possibility of contamination of poultry vaccines with CAV and AGV2 and they also emphasize the need of searching for these agents in vaccines in order to ensure the absence of such potential contaminants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to
a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the first detection of adenovirus in a Brazilian Desmodus rotundus bat, the common vampire bat. As part of a continuous rabies surveillance program, three bat specimens were captured in Southern Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from pooled organs and submitted to a nested PCR designed to amplify a 280 bp long portion of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. One positive sample was subjected to nucleotide sequencing, confirming that this DNA fragment belongs to a member of the genus Mastadenovirus. This sequence is approximately 25 % divergent at the nucleotide level from equine adenovirus 1 and two other recently characterized bat adenoviruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey was carried out in search for bat coronaviruses in an urban maternity roost of about 500 specimens of two species of insectivorous bats, Molossus molossus and Tadarida brasiliensis, in Southern Brazil. Twenty-nine out of 150 pooled fecal samples tested positive by reverse transcription-PCR contained fragments of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of coronavirus-related viruses. The sequences clustered along with bat alphacoronaviruses, forming a subcluster within this group. Our findings point to the need for risk assessment and continued surveillance of coronavirus infections of bats in Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Rabies has long been recognized as the major cause of encephalitis in cattle in Latin American countries. It has been estimated that nearly 50.000 cattle heads per year are lost due to encephalitis in that subcontinent, with a signifi cant economic impact on cattle productive chains. In Brazil only, 2.500 to 3.000 cattle heads are estimated to be lost every year due to rabies. However, it is believed that rabies incidence in cattle is much larger, since usually only a few samples from affected animals in disease outbreaks are submitted to diagnostic laboratories. Rabies encephalitis is promptly and accurately diagnosed; however,
particularly when rabies is excluded as causa mortis, the agent responsible for neurological disease of infectious origin often remains undetermined. Two bovine herpesviruses (BoHVs), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) are major pathogens of cattle which are widely disseminated in Brazil. As usual in herpesvirus’ biology, these tend to infect a large number of hosts and establish lifelong latent infections which may occasionally be reactivated. Both viruses, particularly BoHV-5, are often recovered from cases of neurological disease in cattle. The participation of BoHVs in the differential
diagnosis of rabies must be evaluated. Besides, there might be associations between the occurrence of rabies and BoHV infections that deserve investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 would play a signifi cant role in cases of neurological disease where rabies was the presumptive clinical diagnosis. In addition, associations between the occurrence of rabies and BoHV infections were searched for. The approach adopted for conducting such investigations was based on the search for viral nucleic acids as well as classical virus isolation on tissues of cattle submitted to rabies
diagnosis over a two-year period, including rabies-positive and rabies-negative specimens.
Materials, Methods & Results: Brain tissue samples of 101 cattle originally submitted to rabies diagnosis were collected over a two year period (2009-2010) from various municipalities within the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thirty nine of these samples had the diagnosis of rabies confi rmed by standard laboratory diagnostic methods. Aliquots of tissues were submitted to DNA extraction and examined in search for genomes of bovine herpesviruses (BoHV) types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) by as well as for infectious virus. Bovine herpesvirus genomes were detected in 78/101 (77.2%) samples, in which BoHV-1 genomes were detected in 26/78 (25.7%), BoHV-5 genomes in 22/78 (21.8%) and mixed BoHV infections (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 genomes) were detected in 30/101 (29.7%) samples. In the 39 samples with confi rmed rabies diagnosis, BoHV-1 DNA was detected in 9/39 (23%), BoHV-5 DNA in 6/39 (15.4%) and mixed infections with both BoHV types in 16/39 (41%) samples. However, no infectious herpesvirus was recovered from any of the specimens examined.
Discussion: The high prevalence of BoHV1 and BoHV-5 infections was evidenced in the sampled population, but the absence of infectious BoHVs indicate that these were not associated to the occurrence of the cases of encephalitis where rabies was the primary suspicion. In addition, no association was detected between occurrence of rabies and detection of BoHVs, since the frequency of detection of herpesvirus genomes did not signifi cantly differ between rabies-positive and rabies-negative samples. The detection of BoHV DNA in scattered areas of the brain with no infectious virus suggests that latency may take place in different
regions of the brain.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Acta Scientiae Veterinari
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regarded as an incidental finding, biliary sludge is often diagnosed in dogs on abdominal ultrasound. The aims of the present study were to assess the risk factors, biochemical markers and ultrasonographic findings and to estimate the prevalence and influence of different breeds, sexes, and ages on biliary sludge in dogs. Results demonstrate that the prevalence of biliary sludge is high, especially in senior dogs. The biochemical markers did not have a significant correlation with biliary sludge, and the type of diet was not considered to be the major risk factor. Hepatomegaly was frequently observed on the ultrasound scan of affected animals and of dogs on different systemic drugs and with cardiopathies, which have been referred to as risk groups for the development of inspissated bile.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Research in Veterinary Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An immunoperoxidase inhibition assay (IIA) for detection of rabies antibodies in human sera is described. Diluted test sera are added to microplates with paraformaldehyde-fixed, CER cells infected with rabies virus. Antibodies in test sera compete with a rabies polyclonal rabbit antiserum which was added subsequently. Next, an anti-rabbit IgG-peroxidase conjugate is added and the reaction developed by the addition of the substrate 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC). The performance of the assay was compared to that of the "simplified fluorescence inhibition microtest" (SFIMT), an established virus neutralization assay, by testing 422 human sera. The IIA displayed 97.6% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97.6% accuracy (Kappa correlation coefficient=0.9). The IIA results can be read by standard light microscopy, where the clearly identifiable specific staining is visible in antibody-negative sera, in contrast to the absence of staining in antibody-positive samples. The assay does not require monoclonal antibodies or production of large amounts of virus; furthermore, protein purification steps or specialized equipment are not necessary for its performance. The IIA was shown to be suitable for detection of rabies antibodies in human sera, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy comparable to that of a neutralization-based assay. This assay may be advantageous over other similar methods designed to detect rabies-specific binding antibodies, in that it can be easily introduced into laboratories, provided basic cell culture facilities are available.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of virological methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is the causative agent of bovine herpetic encephalitis. In countries where BoHV-5 is prevalent, attempts to vaccinate cattle to prevent clinical signs from BoHV-5-induced disease have relied essentially on vaccination with BoHV-1 vaccines. However, such practice has been shown not to confer full protection to BoHV-5 challenge. In the present study, an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine prepared with a recombinant BoHV-5 from which the genes coding for glycoprotein I (gI), glycoprotein E (gE) and membrane protein US9 were deleted (BoHV-5 gI/gE/US9(-)), was evaluated in cattle in a vaccination/challenge experiment. The vaccine was prepared from a virus suspension containing a pre-inactivation antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.69) TCID(50)/dose. Three mL of the inactivated vaccine were administered subcutaneously to eight calves serologically negative for BoHV-5 (vaccinated group). Four other calves were mock-vaccinated with an equivalent preparation without viral antigens (control group). Both groups were boostered 28 days later. Neither clinical signs of disease nor adverse effects were observed during or after vaccination. A specific serological response, revealed by the development of neutralizing antibodies, was detected in all vaccinated animals after the first dose of vaccine, whereas control animals remained seronegative. Calves were subsequently challenged on day 77 post-vaccination (pv) with 10(9.25) TCID(50) of the wild-type BoHV-5 (parental strain EVI 88/95). After challenge, vaccinated cattle displayed mild signs of respiratory disease, whereas the control group developed respiratory disease and severe encephalitis, which led to culling of 2/4 calves. Searches for viral DNA in the central nervous system (CNS) of vaccinated calves indicated that wild-type BoHV-5 did not replicate, whereas in CNS tissues of calves on the control group, viral DNA was widely distributed. BoHV-5 shedding in nasal secretions was significantly lower in vaccinated calves than in the control group on days 2, 3, 4 and 6 post-challenge (pc). In addition, the duration of virus shedding was significantly shorter in the vaccinated (7 days) than in controls (12 days). Attempts to reactivate latent infection by administration of dexamethasone at 147 days pv led to recrudescence of mild signs of respiratory disease in both vaccinated and control groups. Infectious virus shedding in nasal secretions was detected at reactivation and was significantly lower in vaccinated cattle than in controls on days 11-13 post-reactivation (pr). It is concluded that the inactivated vaccine prepared with the BoHV-5 gI/gE/US9(-) recombinant was capable of conferring protection to encephalitis when vaccinated cattle were challenged with a large infectious dose of the parental wild type BoHV-5. However, it did not avoid the establishment of latency nor impeded dexamethasone-induced reactivation of the virus, despite a significant reduction in virus shedding after challenge and at reactivation on vaccinated calves.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Veterinary Microbiology