[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diurnal variation in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity (chronotoxicity) reportedly is driven by oscillations in metabolism that are influenced by the circadian phases of feeding and fasting. To determine the relative contributions of the central clock and the hepatocyte circadian clock in modulating the chronotoxicity of APAP, we used a conditional null allele of brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1, aka Mop3 or Arntl) allowing deletion of the clock from hepatocytes while keeping the central and other peripheral clocks (e.g., the clocks controlling food intake) intact. We show that deletion of the hepatocyte clock dramatically reduces APAP bioactivation and toxicity in vivo and in vitro because of a reduction in NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene expression, protein, and activity.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MyoD, a master regulator of myogenesis, exhibits a circadian rhythm in its mRNA and protein levels, suggesting a possible role in the daily maintenance of muscle phenotype and function. We report that MyoD is a direct target of the circadian transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1, which bind in a rhythmic manner to the core enhancer of the MyoD promoter. Skeletal muscle of Clock(Δ19) and Bmal1(-/-) mutant mice exhibited ∼30% reductions in normalized maximal force. A similar reduction in force was observed at the single-fiber level. Electron microscopy (EM) showed that the myofilament architecture was disrupted in skeletal muscle of Clock(Δ19), Bmal1(-/-), and MyoD(-/-) mice. The alteration in myofilament organization was associated with decreased expression of actin, myosins, titin, and several MyoD target genes. EM analysis also demonstrated that muscle from both Clock(Δ19) and Bmal1(-/-) mice had a 40% reduction in mitochondrial volume. The remaining mitochondria in these mutant mice displayed aberrant morphology and increased uncoupling of respiration. This mitochondrial pathology was not seen in muscle of MyoD(-/-) mice. We suggest that altered expression of both Pgc-1α and Pgc-1β in Clock(Δ19) and Bmal1(-/-) mice may underlie this pathology. Taken together, our results demonstrate that disruption of CLOCK or BMAL1 leads to structural and functional alterations at the cellular level in skeletal muscle. The identification of MyoD as a clock-controlled gene provides a mechanism by which the circadian clock may generate a muscle-specific circadian transcriptome in an adaptive role for the daily maintenance of adult skeletal muscle.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circadian cycles affect a variety of physiological processes, and disruptions of normal circadian biology therefore have the potential to influence a range of disease-related pathways. The genetic basis of circadian rhythms is well studied in model organisms and, more recently, studies of the genetic basis of circadian disorders has confirmed the conservation of key players in circadian biology from invertebrates to humans. In addition, important advances have been made in understanding how these molecules influence physiological functions in tissues throughout the body. Together, these studies set the scene for applying our knowledge of circadian biology to the understanding and treatment of a range of human diseases, including cancer and metabolic and behavioural disorders.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Nature Reviews Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms are approximate 24-h behavioral and physiological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. The basic clock mechanism is a network of transcriptional-translational feedback loops that drive rhythmic expression of genes over a 24-h period. The objectives of this study were to identify transcripts with a circadian pattern of expression in adult skeletal muscle and to determine the effect of the Clock mutation on gene expression. Expression profiling on muscle samples collected every 4 h for 48 h was performed. Using COSOPT, we identified a total of 215 transcripts as having a circadian pattern of expression. Real-time PCR results verified the circadian expression of the core clock genes, Bmal1, Per2, and Cry2. Annotation revealed cycling genes were involved in a range of biological processes including transcription, lipid metabolism, protein degradation, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. The tissue specificity of the skeletal muscle circadian transcriptome was highlighted by the presence of known muscle-specific genes such as Myod1, Ucp3, Atrogin1 (Fbxo32), and Myh1 (myosin heavy chain IIX). Expression profiling was also performed on muscle from the Clock mutant mouse and sarcomeric genes such as actin and titin, and many mitochondrial genes were significantly downregulated in the muscle of Clock mutant mice. Defining the circadian transcriptome in adult skeletal muscle and identifying the significant alterations in gene expression that occur in muscle of the Clock mutant mouse provide the basis for understanding the role of circadian rhythms in the daily maintenance of skeletal muscle.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Physiological Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms of cell and organismal physiology are controlled by an autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop that regulates the expression of rhythmic genes in a tissue-specific manner. Recent studies have suggested that components of the circadian pacemaker, such as the Clock and Per2 gene products, regulate a wide variety of processes, including obesity, sensitization to cocaine, cancer susceptibility, and morbidity to chemotherapeutic agents. To identify a more complete cohort of genes that are transcriptionally regulated by CLOCK and/or circadian rhythms, we used a DNA array interrogating the mouse protein-encoding transcriptome to measure gene expression in liver and skeletal muscle from WT and Clock mutant mice. In WT tissue, we found that a large percentage of expressed genes were transcription factors that were rhythmic in either muscle or liver, but not in both, suggesting that tissue-specific output of the pacemaker is regulated in part by a transcriptional cascade. In comparing tissues from WT and Clock mutant mice, we found that the Clock mutation affects the expression of many genes that are rhythmic in WT tissue, but also profoundly affects many nonrhythmic genes. In both liver and skeletal muscle, a significant number of CLOCK-regulated genes were associated with the cell cycle and cell proliferation. To determine whether the observed patterns in cell-cycle gene expression in Clock mutants resulted in functional dysregulation, we compared proliferation rates of fibroblasts derived from WT or Clock mutant embryos and found that the Clock mutation significantly inhibits cell growth and proliferation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed genome-wide chemical mutagenesis of C57BL/6J mice using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Electroretinographic screening of the third generation offspring revealed two G3 individuals from one G1 family with a normal a-wave but lacking the b-wave that we named nob4. The mutation was transmitted with a recessive mode of inheritance and mapped to chromosome 11 in a region containing the Grm6 gene, which encodes a metabotropic glutamate receptor protein, mGluR6. Sequencing confirmed a single nucleotide substitution from T to C in the Grm6 gene. The mutation is predicted to result in substitution of Pro for Ser at position 185 within the extracellular, ligand-binding domain and oocytes expressing the homologous mutation in mGluR6 did not display robust glutamate-induced currents. Retinal mRNA levels for Grm6 were not significantly reduced, but no immunoreactivity for mGluR6 protein was found. Histological and fundus evaluations of nob4 showed normal retinal morphology. In contrast, the mutation has severe consequences for visual function. In nob4 mice, fewer retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) responded to the onset (ON) of a bright full field stimulus. When ON responses could be evoked, their onset was significantly delayed. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, measured with optomotor responses, were reduced under both photopic and scotopic conditions. This mutant will be useful because its phenotype is similar to that of human patients with congenital stationary night blindness and will provide a tool for understanding retinal circuitry and the role of ganglion cell encoding of visual information.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Visual Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain transcription factor BMAL1 is an essential component of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Bmal1-/- mice lose circadian rhythmicity but also display tendon calcification and decreased activity, body weight, and longevity. To investigate whether these diverse functions of BMAL1 are tissue-specific, we produced transgenic mice that constitutively express Bmal1 in brain or muscle and examined the effects of rescued gene expression in Bmal1-/- mice. Circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity were restored in brain-rescued Bmal1-/- mice in a conditional manner; however, activity levels and body weight were lower than those of wild-type mice. In contrast, muscle-rescued Bmal1-/- mice exhibited normal activity levels and body weight yet remained behaviorally arrhythmic. Thus, Bmal1 has distinct tissue-specific functions that regulate integrative physiology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: alpha-Dystroglycan was quantitatively enriched from mammalian brain based on its uniform reactivity with Vicia villosa agglutinin and resolved into sub-populations possessing or lacking the sulfated glucuronic acid epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody HNK-1. We generated a new monoclonal antibody specific for a glycoepitope on brain alpha-dystroglycan but absent from alpha-dystroglycan expressed in all other tissues examined. Finally, we found that laminin-10/11 preferentially bound to brain alpha-dystroglycan compared to skeletal muscle alpha-dystroglycan. Our results suggest that tissue-specific glycosylation modifies the laminin binding specificity of alpha-dystroglycan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed genome-wide mutagenesis of C57BL/6J mice using the
mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and screened the
third generation (G3) offspring for visual system alterations using
electroretinography and fundus photography. Several mice in one pedigree
showed characteristics of retinal degeneration when tested at 12–14
weeks of age: no recordable electroretinogram (ERG), attenuation of
retinal vessels, and speckled pigmentation of the fundus. Histological
studies showed that the retinas undergo a photoreceptor degeneration with
apoptotic loss of outer nuclear layer nuclei but visual acuity measured
using the optomotor response under photopic conditions persists in spite
of considerable photoreceptor loss. The Noerg-1 mutation showed
an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance in progeny. Studies in early
postnatal mice showed degeneration to occur after formation of partially
functional rods. The Noerg-1 mutation was mapped genetically to
chromosome 6 by crossing C57BL/6J mutants with DBA/2J or
BALB/cJ mice to produce an N2 generation and then determining the ERG
phenotypes and the genotypes of the N2 offspring at multiple loci using
SSLP and SNP markers. Fine mapping was accomplished with a set of closely
spaced markers. A nonrecombinant region from 112.8 Mb to 115.1 Mb was
identified, encompassing the rhodopsin (Rho) coding region. A single
nucleotide transition from G to A was found in the Rho gene that is
predicted to result in a substitution of Tyr for Cys at position 110, in
an intradiscal loop. This mutation has been found in patients with
autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and results in misfolding of
rhodopsin expressed in
vitro. Thus, ENU mutagenesis is capable of
replicating mutations that occur in human patients and is useful for
novo models of human inherited eye disease.
Furthermore, the availability of the mouse genomic sequence and extensive
DNA polymorphisms made the rapid identification of this gene possible,
demonstrating that the use of ENU-induced mutations for functional gene
identification is now practical for individual laboratories.
No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Visual Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CLOCK transcription factor is a key component of the molecular circadian clock within pacemaker neurons of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. We found that homozygous Clock mutant mice have a greatly attenuated diurnal feeding rhythm, are hyperphagic and obese, and develop a metabolic syndrome of hyperleptinemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia. Expression of transcripts encoding selected hypothalamic peptides associated with energy balance was attenuated in the Clock mutant mice. These results suggest that the circadian clock gene network plays an important role in mammalian energy balance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although unique O-linked oligosaccharides on alpha-dystroglycan are important for binding to a variety of extracellular ligands, the function(s) of more generic carbohydrate structures on alpha-dystroglycan remain unclear. Recent studies suggest a role for glycoconjugates bearing the core 1 disaccharide Galbeta(1-3)GalNAc in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering on the surface of muscle cells. Here, we report experiments demonstrating that the core 1-specific lectin jacalin almost completely abrogated laminin-induced AChR clustering in C2C12 myotubes and that alpha-dystroglycan was the predominant jacalin-binding protein detected in C2C12 myotube lysates. Although jacalin likely inhibited laminin-induced AChR clustering by directly binding to alpha-dystroglycan, jacalin had no effect on laminin binding to the myotube surface or to alpha-dystroglycan. Like jacalin, peanut agglutinin lectin also binds the core 1 disaccharide but not when it is terminally sialylated as expressed on alpha-dystroglycan. We show that C2C12 alpha-dystroglycan bound to peanut agglutinin only after digestion with neuraminidase. Simultaneous treatment of myotubes with neuraminidase and endo-O-glycosidase diminished alpha-dystroglycan binding to peanut agglutinin and inhibited neuraminidase-induced AChR clustering. We conclude that sialylated core 1 oligosaccharides of alpha-dystroglycan are important for laminin-induced AChR clustering and that their function in this process is distinct from the established role of alpha-dystroglycan oligosaccharides in laminin binding.
Preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle remodeling is a critical component of an organism's response to environmental changes. Exercise causes structural changes in muscle and can induce phase shifts in circadian rhythms, fluctuations in physiology and behavior with a period of around 24 hours that are maintained by a core clock mechanism. Both exercise-induced remodeling and circadian rhythms rely on the transcriptional regulation of key genes.
We used DNA microarrays to determine the effects of resistance exercise (RE) on gene regulation in biopsy samples of human quadriceps muscle obtained 6 and 18 hours after an acute bout of isotonic exercise with one leg. We also profiled diurnal gene regulation at the same time points (2000 and 0800 hours) in the non-exercised leg. Comparison of our results with published circadian gene profiles in mice identified 44 putative genes that were regulated in a circadian fashion. We then used quantitative PCR to validate the circadian expression of selected gene orthologs in mouse skeletal muscle.
The coordinated regulation of the circadian clock genes Cry1, Per2, and Bmal1 6 hours after RE and diurnal genes 18 hours after RE in the exercised leg suggest that RE may directly modulate circadian rhythms in human skeletal muscle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alpha2-laminin subunit contributes to basement membrane functions in muscle, nerve, and other tissues, and mutations in its gene are causes of congenital muscular dystrophy. The alpha2 G-domain modules, mutated in several of these disorders, are thought to mediate different cellular interactions. To analyze these contributions, we expressed recombinant laminin-2 (alpha(2)beta(1)gamma(1)) with LG4-5, LG1-3, and LG1-5 modular deletions. Wild-type and LG4-5 deleted-laminins were isolated from medium intact and cleaved within LG3 by a furin-like convertase. Myoblasts adhered predominantly through LG1-3 while alpha-dystroglycan bound to both LG1-3 and LG4-5. Recombinant laminin stimulated acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering; however, clustering was induced only by the proteolytic processed form, even in the absence of LG4-5. Furthermore, clustering required alpha(6)beta(1) integrin and alpha-dystroglycan binding activities available on LG1-3, acting in concert with laminin polymerization. The ability of the modified laminins to mediate basement membrane assembly was also evaluated in embryoid bodies where it was found that both LG1-3 and LG4-5, but not processing, were required. In conclusion, there is a division of labor among LG-modules in which (i) LG4-5 is required for basement membrane assembly but not for AChR clustering, and (ii) laminin-induced AChR clustering requires furin cleavage of LG3 as well as alpha-dystroglycan and alpha(6)beta(1) integrin binding.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present evidence for the expression of three alpha-dystroglycan glycoforms in skeletal muscle cells, including two minor glycoforms marked by either patent or latent reactivity with the N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin. Both minor glycoforms co-isolated with beta-dystroglycan, but not with other dystrophin/utrophin-glycoprotein complex components, suggesting that they may perform distinct or modified cellular functions. We also confirmed that both patent and latent V. villosa agglutinin-reactive alpha-dystroglycan glycoforms are expressed in C2C12 myotubes. However, we found that the combined effect of saturating concentrations of V. villosa agglutinin and laminin-1 were strictly additive with respect to acetylcholine receptor cluster formation in C2C12 myotubes, which suggests that laminin-1 and V. villosa agglutinin do not compete for the same binding site on the cell surface. Finally, although beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase digestion dramatically inhibited agrin-, V. villosa agglutinin-, and laminin-1-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering in C2C12 myotubes, treatment with this enzyme had no effect on the amount of alpha-dystroglycan that was bound to V. villosa agglutinin-agarose. We conclude that alpha-dystroglycan is not the V. villosa agglutinin receptor implicated in acetylcholine receptor cluster formation. However, our data provide new support for the hypothesis that different glycoforms of alpha-dystroglycan may perform distinct functions even within the same cell.
No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alpha-dystroglycan binding properties of laminins extracted from fully differentiated skeletal muscle were characterized. We observed that the laminins expressed predominantly in normal adult rat or mouse skeletal muscle bound alpha-dystroglycan in a Ca2+-dependent, ionic strength-sensitive, but heparin-insensitive manner as we had observed previously with purified placental merosin (Pall, E. A., Bolton, K. M., and Ervasti, J. M. 1996 J. Biol. Chem. 271, 3817-3821). Rat skeletal muscle laminins partially purified by heparin-agarose affinity chromatography also bound alpha-dystroglycan without sensitivity to heparin. We also confirm previous studies of dystrophic dy/dy mouse skeletal muscle showing that the alpha2 chain of merosin is reduced markedly and that the laminin alpha1 chain is not up-regulated detectably. However, we further observed a quantitative decrease in the expression of laminin beta/gamma chain immunoreactivity in alpha2 chain-deficient dy/dy skeletal muscle and reduced alpha-dystroglycan binding activity in laminin extracts from dy/dy muscle. Most interestingly, the alpha-dystroglycan binding activity of residual laminins expressed in merosin-deficient dy/dy skeletal muscle was inhibited dramatically (69 +/- 19%) by heparin. These results identify a potentially important biochemical difference between the laminins expressed in normal and dy/dy skeletal muscle which may provide a molecular basis for the inability of other laminin variants to compensate fully for the deficiency of merosin in some forms of muscular dystrophy.
No preview · Article · Oct 1998 · Journal of Biological Chemistry