Eoin C Kavanagh

Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland

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Publications (119)249.63 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society
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    ABSTRACT: Hintergrund: Ipilimumab kann nachweislich das Gesamtüberleben bei Patienten mit metastasiertem Melanom verbessern; vollständige Remissionen (CRs) bewirkt es jedoch selten. Immunologische Nebenwirkungen betreffen meist die Haut oder den Gastrointestinaltrakt. Neurologische Ereignisse treten weniger häufig auf, sind aber umfassend beschrieben. Fallbericht: Wir berichten hier über den Fall eines 58-jährigen Mannes mit metastasiertem Melanom, bei dem nach einer spinalen Dekompression und Bestrahlung eine Behandlung mit Ipilimumab begonnen wurde. Nach dem 2. Zyklus entwickelte er eine Colitis, und das Ipilimumab wurde abgesetzt. Die Bildgebung zeigte jedoch eine radiologische CR. Acht Wochen später traten bei dem Patienten, trotz weiterhin bestehender CR, eine Paraplegie und Myelitis auf. Die Anwendung von Steroiden bewirkte eine gewisse radiologische Verbesserung, jedoch keine klinische. Schlussfolgerung: Wir berichten über Myelitis mit nachfolgender Paraplegie als potenzielle neurologische, immunvermittelte Nebenwirkung von Ipilimumab. Hierbei beschreiben wir einen Patienten mit einer CR nach 2 Zyklen Ipilimumab im Zusammenhang mit einer Bestrahlung.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy in the multimodality treatment of osteosarcoma has improved survival. Reported outcomes on adult patients are limited. Poor necrosis rates post neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is considered an adverse prognostic factor and attempts have been made to improve survival in this group. Adult and young adult patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma between January 1986 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients identified were stratified according to stage (localised or metastatic) and age (≤40 and >40 years). Event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) outcomes were determined. In patients with localised disease ≤40 years, survival was assessed according to necrosis rates post NAC (<90 and ≥90%). NAC consisted of two cycles of methotrexate alternating with doxorubicin/cisplatin (MAP) followed by definitive surgery. Those with ≥90% tumour necrosis continued on MAP. Patients with <90% necrosis received ifosfamide and etoposide (IE) post operatively. A total of 108 patients were reviewed and 97 were included. Median age was 23 years (range 16-75) and 70% of patients were male. Five year EFS and OS across all groups was 57% and 63% respectively. Of the patients with localised disease (N = 81), 5-year overall survival (OS), with a median follow up of 7 years (2-26) was 70% (p < 0.0001). Patients aged 16-40 (N = 68) with localised osteosarcoma had a significantly improved 5-year OS (74%) compared to those >40 years (N = 13) (42%) (p = 0.004). Of the 68 patients with localised osteosarcoma ≤40 years, 62 were evaluated according to necrosis rates post MAP. In 33 patients who achieved ≥90% necrosis and continued MAP, 5-year OS was 82%. In 29 patients who had <90% tumour necrosis and received adjuvant IE, 5-year OS was 68% (p = 0.15). Multivariate analysis confirmed age and stage as prognostic factors but not poor necrosis rates in our treated population. Long-term survival outcomes in a predominantly adult Irish population are similar to large reported trials. Age and stage at diagnosis are prognostic. Postoperative ifosfamide/etoposide alone in patients with poor necrosis rates is a feasible regimen, but its role in the adjuvant setting remains uncertain.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
  • A. C. O'Brien · P. MacMahon · S. Eustace · E. Kavanagh

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Irish Journal of Medical Science

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is now the first line diagnostic imaging modality for the majority of vascular pathologies of the head and neck with diagnostic value comparable to or better than traditional angiographic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. A retrospective review of the CTCCA reports of 302 consecutive patients from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. Extravascular incidental findings were classified, according to an adaptation of the CT colonography data and reporting system (CRADS), as EV1-EV4. EV1=no incidental findings, EV2=clinically insignificant incidental finding, EV3=incidental finding of intermediate clinical significance, EV4=highly clinically significant finding. Follow up of the electronic medical records of patients with EV3 or EV4 findings was undertaken to determine subsequent management. Potentially clinically significant findings were demonstrated in 14.2% of patients with 8.6% of patients having a highly clinically significant finding. 4 incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant lesions and 5 required acute intervention. In addition 19% of patients with highly clinically significant incidental findings did not receive appropriate follow up. This study has demonstrated the presence of clinically important incidental findings in a significant proportion of patients undergoing CTCCA with a significant minority of these patients not receiving follow up. A standardised method of reporting incidental findings, such as that used in this paper, would aid radiologists and referring physicians in recording and communicating these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · European journal of radiology

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Groin pain is a common symptom in athletes, particularly in sports requiring sudden changes in speed and direction and those involving kicking. Despite a high prevalence of groin pain in this patient cohort, the diagnosis and management of the underlying pathological processes remains a challenge for surgeons and radiologists alike. The aim of this paper is to review the imaging findings and management of the common pathological processes which produce groin pain in athletes. The anatomy of the groin region will be defined as a basis for further discussion. The common pathological processes underlying groin pain such as adductor dysfunction, rectus abdominus injury, osteitis pubis, and femuro-acetabular impingement will then be reviewed and correlating radiological imaging findings presented. Current management options will also be considered. This paper will aid surgeons and radiologists in navigating the challenging diagnostic and management dilemma of groin pain in athletes.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Surgical technology international
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    ABSTRACT: Correspondence to: DNI (Dublin Neurological Institute) at the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the biomechanical stability of three types of chondral flap repair techniques as well as a hydrogel scaffold implantation on the acetabular articular surface using a physiological human cadaveric model. Chondral flaps were created in the antero-superior zone of the acetabulum in a series of human cadaveric hip joints. The chondral flap was repaired by fibrin-glue, cyanoacrylate, suture technique and an agarose hydrogel scaffold sealed with fibrin glue using 6 hips in each case. After each repair, the specimens were mounted in a validated jig and tested for 1500 gait cycles. In order to determine the stability of the repair, specimens were evaluated arthroscopically at specific intervals. The fibrin glue and cyanoacrylate techniques were technically the easiest to perform arthroscopically, all flaps repaired with fibrin were detached at 50 cycles while those repaired with cyanoacrylate lasted for an average of 635 cycles. On the other hand, both the suture repair and scaffold implantation techniques were more technically challenging but were both stable till the endpoint of 1500 cycles. Fibrin glue on its own does not provide sufficient fixation to repair chondral flaps on the acetabular surface. Cyanoacrylate repairs universally failed midway through the testing protocol employed here, raising doubts as to the effectiveness of that technique. The suture and hydrogel scaffold technique were the most reliable for chondral repair at any given cycle. The results of this biomechanical study demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chondral repair and fixation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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    ABSTRACT: The study sought to determine the frequency of nonthromboembolic imaging abnormalities in pregnant women referred for computed tomography pulmonary arteriography (CTPA). CTPA studies on 100 consecutive pregnant women performed over a 5-year period were reviewed independently by 2 radiologists, with conflicts resolved by consensus. Age range was 18-43 years (mean 28 years). The presence or absence of pulmonary embolism and of nonthromboembolic imaging abnormalities was recorded. These were graded as A if the abnormalities were thought to provide potential alternative explanations for acute symptoms, B if findings were incidental that required clinical or radiologic follow-up, and C if the findings did not require further action. Pulmonary embolism was seen in 5 women. In 2 of these additional findings of consolidation and infarction were seen. Ninety-five women did not have pulmonary embolism. Eleven women (12%) had grade A abnormalities; 6 cases of consolidation, 2 cases of lobar collapse, and 3 cases of heart failure with pleural effusions. One woman had a grade B abnormality due to the presence of pulmonary nodules. Ten women had incidental grade C abnormalities. Pulmonary embolism occurs in 5% of pregnant women referred for CTPA. In pregnant women without embolism on CTPA, potential alternative causes for patient symptoms are seen on CT in 12% of cases. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The study aimed to determine the acceptability of the iPad 3 as a display option for American Board of Radiology (ABR) examinations. Subjects and methods: A set of 20 cases for each of nine specialties examined by the ABR was prepared. Each comprised between one and seven images and case information and had been used in previous ABR Initial Certification examinations. Examining radiologists (n = 119) at the ABR oral Initial Certification examinations reviewed sets from one or more specialties on both a 2 MP LED monitor and on the iPad 3 and rated the visibility of the salient image features for each case. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to compare ratings. In addition, a thematic analysis of participants' opinions was undertaken. Results: When all specialties were pooled, the iPad 3 ratings were significantly higher than the monitor ratings (p = 0.0217). The breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and nuclear medicine specialties also returned significantly higher ratings for the visibility of relevant image features for the iPad 3. Monitor ratings were significantly higher for the vascular and interventional specialty, although no images were rated unacceptably poor on the iPad in this specialty. Conclusion: The relevant image features were rated more visible on the iPad 3 than on the monitors overall. The iPad 3 was well accepted by a large majority of examiners and can be considered adequate for image display for examination in most or all specialties.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: Ipilimumab has been shown to improve overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma; however, complete responses (CRs) are uncommon. Immune-related side effects usually involve the skin or gastrointestinal tract. Neurologic events occur less frequently but are well described. We report the case of a 58-year-old man with metastatic melanoma who commenced ipilimumab post spinal decompression and radiation. He developed a colitis post cycle 2 and ipilimumab was discontinued. Imaging, however, documented a radiological CR. 8 weeks later, he developed paraplegia and a myelitis despite an ongoing radiological CR. Steroid use resulted in some improvement radiologically, without clinical improvement. We report myelitis with consequent paraplegia as a potential neurological immune-related side effect of ipilimumab. We further describe a patient with a CR after 2 cycles of ipilimumab in the setting of radiation. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Oncology Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in HIV-positive patients, although the role played by HIV infection versus sociodemographic and metabolic factors remains unclear. Methods: Understanding the Pathology of Bone Disease in HIV-infected individuals (HIV UPBEAT) is a prospective cohort study, enrolled HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants from similar demographic backgrounds. Dual X-ray absorptiometry at femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine and blood tests were performed. Associations between BMD and factors of interest were assessed using multivariable linear regression. Results: A total of 474 participants were recruited. Two hundred and ten were HIV-positive, of whom, 59% were male, 40% African and median (interquartile range) age was 39 (33, 46) years. HIV acquisition risks were heterosexual sex (46.9%), homosexual sex (25.4%) and intravenous drug use (18.7%). Of the HIV-negative participants, 44% were male, 25% were African and median (interquartile range) age was 42 (34-49) years. HIV infection was independently associated with a 0.062 (P < 0.0001), 0.078 (P < 0.0001) and 0.060 g/cm (P = 0.0002) lower BMD at femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine, respectively, after adjustment for demographic/ lifestyle factors and BMI. After further adjustment for bone biomarkers, HIV remained independently associated with reduced BMD at each site, although effect sizes were reduced. The HIV-positive group had significantly higher bone turnover (all between-group P < 0.0001). Treatment variables and cumulative exposure to antiretroviral therapy were not associated with lower BMD at femoral neck or total hip, but acquisition of HIV infection via intravenous drug use and longer time since HIV diagnosis were independently associated with lower lumbar spine BMD. Discussion: HIV is independently associated with lower BMD, and its effect is likely mediated, in part, by alterations in bone metabolism.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Materials and methods: Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Results: Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Conclusions: Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Skeletal Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are the most common calcium-containing crystals associated with rheumatic disease. Clinical manifestations of calcium crystal deposition include acute or chronic inflammatory and degenerative arthritides and certain forms of periarthritis. The intra-articular presence of BCP crystals correlates with the degree of radiographic degeneration. Calcium crystal deposition contributes directly to joint degeneration. Vascular calcification is caused by the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the arterial intima. These deposits may contribute to local inflammation and promote further calcification, thus aggravating the atherosclerotic process. Calcium crystal deposition results in substantial structural consequence in humans.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that serum lipids, which experimental data suggest may be key initiators of carotid plaque inflammation, would be associated with plaque inflammation on (18)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in patients with acutely symptomatic carotid stenosis. In this cohort study, consecutive patients with acute symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (≥50%) underwent carotid PET-CT. We quantified plaque FDG uptake as follows: (1) average maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) across 10 regions of interest (ROI); (2) highest single ROI SUV measure (SUVROImax); (3) averaged mean SUV across 10 ROIs (SUVmean). Sixty-one patients were included. Plaque inflammatory FDG SUVmax was associated with increasing tertiles of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (trend p = 0.004), total cholesterol (p = 0.009), and triglycerides (p = 0.01), and with lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.005). When analyzed as a continuous variable, LDL was associated with symptomatic ICA SUVmean (Spearman rho 0.44, p = 0.009), SUVROImax (rho 0.33, p = 0.01), and SUVmax (rho 0.35, p = 0.06). Total cholesterol was associated with SUVmean (rho 0.33, p = 0.009), with trends for SUVmax (rho 0.24, p = 0.059) and SUVROImax (rho 0.23, p = 0.08). Triglycerides were associated with SUVmax (rho 0.32, p = 0.01) and SUVROImax (rho 0.35, p = 0.005). HDL was associated with lower SUVmax (rho -0.37, p = 0.004) and SUVROImax (rho -0.44, p = 0.0004). On multivariable linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, degree of carotid stenosis, statins, and smoking, LDL (p = 0.008) and total cholesterol (p = 0.04) were independently associated with SUVmax. Serum LDL and total cholesterol were associated with acutely symptomatic carotid plaque FDG uptake, supporting experimental data suggesting lipids may promote plaque inflammation, mediating rupture and clinical events.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: A 51-year-old man presented with a prodrome of arthralgia, intermittent oral ulceration, and raised inflammatory markers. He was extensively investigated; however, no firm diagnosis could be established, and he remained under regular surveillance by rheumatology and infectious disease services. After 12 months, he presented with painful ear swelling. Clinical examination revealed a swollen tender ear (Figure 1) and a soft diastolic heart murmur. Serum inflammatory markers were raised, with a c-reactive protein (CRP) of 28 mg/L and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 25 mm/h.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging

Publication Stats

988 Citations
249.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2016
    • Mater Misericordiae University Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2014
    • University College Dublin
      • School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Population Science
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2003-2014
    • Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Department of Radiology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2010
    • Dublin Dental University Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2006-2009
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Radiology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Radiology
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2008
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2006-2008
    • Vancouver General Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2007
    • UPMC
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States