[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVAIgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic susceptibility factors, parasite strain, and an adequate modulation of the immune system seem to be crucial for disease progression after Trypanosoma cruzi infection. HLA-G and its murine functional homolog Qa2 have well-recognized immunomodulatory properties. We evaluated the HLA-G 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) polymorphic sites (associated with mRNA stability and target for microRNA binding) and HLA-G tissue expression (heart, colon, and esophagus) in patients presenting Chagas disease, stratified according to the major clinical variants. Further, we investigated the transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in affected mouse tissues during T. cruzi experimental acute and early chronic infection induced by the CL strain. Chagas disease patients exhibited differential HLA-G 3'UTR susceptibility allele/genotype/haplotype patterns, according to the major clinical variant (digestive/cardiac/mixed/indeterminate). HLA-G constitutive expression on cardiac muscle and colonic cells was decreased in Chagasic tissues; however, no difference was observed for Chagasic and non-Chagasic esophagus tissues. The transcriptional levels of Qa2 and other anti and proinflammatory (CTLA-4, PDCD1, IL-10, INF-γ, and NOS-2) genes were induced only during the acute T. cruzi infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We present several lines of evidence indicating the role of immunomodulatory genes and molecules in human and experimental T. cruzi infection.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To correlate subclinical conjunctival inflammation and trabeculectomy results.
Prospective case series of 28 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (28 eyes) under topical anti-glaucoma medication who underwent trabeculectomy. During surgery, a sample from the inferior bulbar conjunctiva was collected and the expression of HLA-DR together with the presence of inflammatory cells was correlated with trabeculectomy outcomes after 24 months. Surgical success was defined as intraocular pressure between 6 and 20 mmHg irrespective of the use of anti-glaucoma medication.
Five patients missed follow-up visits and were removed from the study. Ten eyes (43.5%) were HLA-DR(+), but no significant differences were observed between eyes with successful and failed surgeries (p = 0.214). There was no significant association between the number of neutrophils and surgical outcomes (p = 0.353).
The presence of inflammatory cells and expression of the inflammation marker HLA-DR in the conjunctiva did not correlate with the prognosis of trabeculectomy in this study.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Ocular immunology and inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)E is a non-classical molecule of the histocompatibility complex that functions as one of the main ligands of the Natural Killer (NK) cell inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A and inhibits its potent cytotoxic activity. Due to the important role of NK cells in combating neoplasm, we hypothesized that the differential expression of HLA-E could favor the progression of heterogeneous thyroid tumors.Using an immunohistochemistry technique in 143 biopsies of thyroid tumors, including benign and malignant neoplasms and goiters, we evaluated the expression of HLA-E among various tumor types and its association with the clinicopathological factors of diseases. We verified high HLA-E expression in all types of neoplastic tumors, although no significant differences between the groups were found. Low expression was observed in 95 percent of the goiter samples, showing significant differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Furthermore, a significant result was found with regard to the tumor size, with high HLA-E expression being related to smaller tumors. Therefore, our data suggest that an increase in HLA-E may be associated with the establishment of thyroid neoplasms, with either benign or malignant features.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering that downregulation of HLA expression could represent a potential mechanism for breast carcinogenesis and metastasis, the aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemical methods to analyze the expression of HLA-Ia, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-E, and HLA-G in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and to relate this HLA profile to anatomopathological parameters. Fifty-two IDC from breast biopsies were stratified according to histological differentiation (well, moderately, and poorly differentiated) and to the presence of metastases in axillary lymph nodes. The expression of HLA molecules was assessed by immunohistochemistry, using a computer-assisted system. Overall, 31 (59.6%) out of the 52 IDC breast biopsies exhibited high expression of HLA-G, but only 14 (26.9%) showed high expression of HLA-E. A large number (41, 78.8%) of the biopsies showed low expression of HLA-Ia, while 45 (86.5%) showed high expression of HLA-DQ and 36 (69.2%) underexpressed HLA-DR. Moreover, 24 (41.2%) of 52 biopsies had both low HLA-Ia expression and high HLA-G expression, while 11 (21.2%) had low HLA-Ia expression and high HLA-E expression. These results suggest that, by different mechanisms, the downregulation of HLA-Ia, HLA-E, and HLA-DR and the upregulation of HLA-G and HLA-DQ are associated with immune response evasion and breast cancer aggressiveness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
HLA-G is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex molecule that has well-recognized immunomodulatory properties. The expression of HLA-G in tumor cells has been considered to be detrimental, permitting tumor spreading and decreased survival. We evaluated the expression of HLA-G in histologically normal thyroid tissue, goiter, and benign and malignant thyroid tumors, and studied the relationship between HLA-G expression and patient clinical variables.
Patients and methods:
The immunohistochemistry expression of HLA-G was performed on 72 specimens of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 19 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), 22 follicular adenomas (FA), 22 colloid goiters (CG), and 14 histologically normal thyroid glands (NT). The percentage of HLA-G staining was graded from absent (-) to intense (+++).
HLA-G was faintly expressed in areas of hyperplasia in NT and CG. In PTC, FTC, and FA, the percentage of cell staining was significantly higher than in NT and CG (p<0.001 for each comparison). The tumor area with HLA-G expression was greater in FTC (p=0.0059) and PTC (p=0.0330) compared to FA. According to the magnitude of HLA-G staining, PTC tumors >1 cm exhibited increased HLA-G staining when compared to smaller tumors (p=0.03). Aggressive histologic subtypes of PTC have a higher median stained tumor area. No association was found between HLA-G expression and tumoral staging or patient disease-free survival.
The gradual increase of HLA-G expression from hyperplasia to carcinomas, and the association of strong HLA staining with some variables implicated in poor prognosis corroborate the unfavorable role of HLA-G in tumor thyroid cells, inhibiting cytotoxic immune system cells and facilitating tumor evasion and progression.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rocio virus (ROCV) caused an outbreak of human encephalitis during the 1970s in Brazil and its immunopathogenesis remains poorly understood. CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that binds to macrophage inflammatory protein 1 α. Both molecules are associated with inflammatory cells migration during infections. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of the CCR5 and MIP-1 α, in the outcome of viral encephalitis of ROCV-infected mice. CCR5 and MIP-1 α knockout mice survived longer than wild-type ROCV-infected animals. In addition, knockout mice had reduced inflammation in the brain. Assessment of brain viral load showed mice virus detection five days post-infection wild-type and CCR5-/- mice, and MIP-1 α-/- mice had lower viral loads seven days post-infection. In addition, knockout mice required a higher lethal dose than wild-type mice. The CCR5/MIP-1 α axis may contribute to migration of infected cells to the brain and consequently affect the pathogenesis during ROCV infection.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown that the ethanolic extract of Lafoensia pacari inhibits eosinophilic inflammation induced by Toxocara canis infection, and that ellagic acid is the secondary metabolite responsible for the anti-eosinophilic activity seen in a model of β-glucan peritonitis. In the present study, we investigated the preventive and curative effects of L. pacari extract and ellagic acid on allergic lung inflammation using a murine model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, preventive (22-day) treatment with L. pacari (200 mg/kg) and ellagic acid (10 mg/kg) inhibited neutrophil counts (by 75% and 57%) and eosinophil counts (by 78% and 68%). L. pacari reduced IL-4 and IL-13 levels (by 67% and 73%), whereas ellagic acid reduced IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 (by 67%, 88% and 85%). To investigate curative anti-inflammatory effects, we treated mice daily with ellagic acid (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg), also treating selected mice with L. pacari (200 mg/kg) from day 18 to day 22. The highest ellagic acid dose reduced neutrophil and eosinophil numbers (by 59% and 82%), inhibited IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 (by 62%, 61%, and 49%). Neither L. pacari nor ellagic acid suppressed ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness or cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis in lung homogenates. In mice treated with ellagic acid (10 mg/kg) or L. pacari (200 mg/kg) at 10 min after the second ovalbumin challenge, eosinophil numbers were 53% and 69% lower, respectively. Cytokine levels were unaffected by this treatment. L. pacari and ellagic acid are effective eosinophilic inflammation suppressors, suggesting a potential for treating allergies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the frequency of conjunctival HLA-DR expression (a surrogate marker for inflammation) in eyes treated with topical prostaglandin analogues versus eyes treated with other topical antiglaucomatous drugs.
Patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma presenting indication for trabeculectomy were divided in groups according to the use or not of prostaglandin analogues. All subjects were treated with the maximum tolerated dose of antiglaucomatous drugs until the date of the surgery. At the beginning of the surgical procedure, a 5 x 5 mm biopsy of the bulbar conjunctiva was collected, incubated with monoclonal anti-HLA-DR antibody and processed for histological analysis.
Of the 31 eyes included (31 patients), 25 were under topical prostaglandin analogues (Group 1) and six under other topical pharmacological agents (Group 2). Fourteen eyes of Group 1 (56%) and three of Group 2 (50 %) were positive for the inflammatory marker HLA-DR (P=1.0). The percentage of stained cells ranged from 15.49 to 48.09% (median: 27.61) in Group 1, and from 18.35 to 28 (median: 20.71) in Group 2, with no differences statistically significant (p=0.33).
The use of prostaglandin analogues did not increase conjunctival expression of HLA-DR compared to other topical antiglaucomatous agents.
No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer remains persistently the second most common malignancies among women worldwide, responsible for 500,000 new cases annually. Only in Brazil, the estimate is for 18,430 new cases in 2011. Several types of molecular markers have been studied in carcinogenesis including proteins associated with apoptosis such as BAG-1 and PARP-1. This study aims to demonstrate the expression of BAG-1 and PARP-1 in patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the uterine cervix and to verify a possible association with HPV infection. Fifty samples of LSILs, 50 samples of HSILs and 50 samples of invasive SCCs of the uterine cervix were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for BAG-1 and PARP-1 expression. PCR was performed to detect and type HPV DNA. BAG-1 expression levels were significantly different between LSILs and HSILs (p = 0,014) and between LSILs and SCCs (p = 0,014). In regards to PARP-1 expression, we found significant differences between the expression levels in HSILs and SCCs (p = 0,022). No association was found between BAG-1 expression and the presence of HPV. However, a significant association was found between PARP-1 expression and HPV positivity in the HSILs group (p = 0,021). In conclusion our research suggests that BAG-1 expression could contribute to the differentiation between LSIL and HSIL/SCC whereas PARP-1 could be useful to the differentiation between HSIL HPV-related and SCC. Further studies are needed to clarify the molecular aspects of the relationship between PARP-1 expression and HPV infection, with potential applications for cervical cancer prediction.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Pathology & Oncology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck. In Brazil, laryngeal tumors represent 2% of all cancers and are associated with approximately 3,000 deaths annually. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been reported to play an important role in the etiology of laryngeal cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of p53, p27, and Mdm2 in laryngeal carcinomas. Sixty-three larynx biopsies were selected for the study, including 9 in situ laryngeal carcinomas, 27 laryngeal carcinomas without metastasis and 27 laryngeal carcinomas with metastasis. Twenty-seven cervical lymph nodes from patients with metastatic lesions were also evaluated. The expression levels of p53, p27, and Mdm2 were assessed by immunohistochemistry using a computer-assisted system. HPV detection and typing were performed using PCR, and the HPV types that were evaluated included HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33. Out of 63 patients, 53 (84.1%) were positive for β-globin (internal control), and 10 (15.9%) were β-globin negative and therefore excluded from the evaluation. Thus, 7 (13.2%) out of 53 patients were HPV positive, and 46 (86.8%) out of 53 patients were HPV negative. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in Mdm2 expression levels were observed in the in situ laryngeal carcinoma samples compared with the laryngeal carcinoma samples with metastasis. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in either p53 or p27 expression levels were detected. These findings suggest that Mdm2 may be associated with the invasiveness and aggressiveness of laryngeal carcinomas.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HLA-G and HLA-E are two nonclassical class I molecules, which have been well recognized as modulators of innate and adaptive immune responses, and the expression of these molecules in virus infected cells has been associated with subversion of the immune response. Objective: In this study we performed a cross-sectional study, systematically comparing the expression of HLA-G and HLA-E in benign, pre-malignant and malignant laryngeal lesions, correlating with demographic and clinical variables and with the presence of high-risk and low-risk HPV types.
Laryngeal lesions were collected from 109 patients and stratified into 27 laryngeal papillomas, 17 dysplasias, 10 in situ laryngeal carcinomas, 27 laryngeal carcinomas without metastases, 28 laryngeal carcinomas with metastasis along with their respective draining cervical lymph nodes, and 10 normal larynx specimens. The expression of HLA-G and HLA-E molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA detection and typing was performed using generic and specific primers.
HLA nonclassical molecules showed a distinct distribution pattern, according to the larynx lesion grade. HLA-G expression increased in benign and premalignant lesions, and gradually decreased in invasive carcinomas and in respective draining cervical lymph nodes. Conversely, HLA-E expression increased as far as lesion grade increased, including increased molecule expression in the draining lymph nodes of malignant lesions. Only 17 (15.6%) patients were HPV DNA positive.
Overexpression of HLA-E and underexpression of HLA-G appear to be good markers for malignant larynx lesion.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Histology and histopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional treatment of tuberculosis (TB) demands a long course therapy (6 months), known to originate multiple drug resistant strains (MDR-TB), which emphasizes the urgent need for new antituberculous drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel treatment for TB meant to improve patient compliance by reducing drug dosage frequency. Polymeric microparticles containing the synthetic analogue of neolignan, 1-phenyl-2-phenoxiethanone (LS-2), were obtained by a method of emulsification and solvent evaporation and chemically characterized. Only representative LS-2-loaded microparticles were considered for further studies involving experimental murine TB induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294. The LS-2-loaded microparticles were spherical in shape, had a smooth wall and showed an encapsulation efficiency of 93% in addition to displaying sustained release. Chemotherapeutic potential of LS-2 entrapped in microparticles was comparable to control groups. These findings are encouraging and indicate that LS-2-loaded microparticles are a potential alternative to conventional chemotherapy of TB.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids on the immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice. Balb/c mice were infected with S. venezuelensis and treated with Dexamethasone (Dexa) or vehicle. Dexa treatment increased circulating blood neutrophil numbers and inhibited eosinophil and mononuclear cell accumulation in the blood, bronchoalveolar, and peritoneal fluid compared with control animals. Moreover, Dexa decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the lungs and circulating immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgE antibody levels while increasing the overall parasite burden in the feces and intestine. Dexa treatment enhanced the fertility of female nematodes relative to untreated and infected mice. In summary, the alterations in the immune response induced by Dexa resulted in a blunted, aberrant immune response associated with increased parasite burden. This phenomenon is similar to that observed in S. stercoralis-infected humans who are taking immunosuppressive or antiinflammatory drugs, including corticosteroids.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the hundreds of new tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates, some have therapeutic value in addition to their prophylactic properties. This is the case for the DNA vaccine encoding heat-shock protein 65 (DNAhsp65) from Mycobacterium leprae. However, there are concerns about the use of DNA vaccines in certain populations such as newborns and pregnant women. Thus, the optimization of vaccination strategies that circumvent this limitation is a priority. This study evaluated the efficacy of a single dose subunit vaccine based on recombinant Hsp65 protein against infection with M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The Hsp65 protein in this study was either associated or not with immunostimulants, and was encapsulated in biodegradable PLGA microspheres. Our results demonstrate that the protein was entrapped in microspheres of adequate diameter to be engulfed by phagocytes. Mice vaccinated with a single dose of Hsp65-microspheres or Hsp65+CpG-microspheres developed both humoral and cellular-specific immune responses. However, they did not protect mice against challenge with M. tuberculosis. By contrast, Hsp65+KLK-microspheres induced specific immune responses that reduced bacilli loads and minimized lung parenchyma damage. These data suggest that a subunit vaccine based on recombinant protein Hsp65 is feasible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABH and Lewis antigen expression has been associated with cancer development and prognosis, tumor differentiation, and metastasis. Considering that invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) presents multiple molecular alterations, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the polymorphism of ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes, as well as ABO phenotyping, could be associated with tumor differentiation and lymph nodes metastasis. Seventy-six women with IDC and 78 healthy female blood donors were submitted to ABO phenotyping/genotyping and Lewis and Secretor genotyping. Phenotyping was performed by hemagglutination and genotyping by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes were classified by individual single nucleotide polymorphism at sites 59, 1067, 202, and 314 of the Lewis gene, 428 of the Secretor gene, and 261 (O1 allele), 526 (O2 and B allele), and 703 (B allele). No association was found between breast cancer and ABO antigen expression (P = 0.9323) or genotype (P = 0.9356). Lewis-negative genotype was associated with IDC (P = 0.0126) but not with anatomoclinical parameters. Nonsecretor genotype was associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0149). In conclusion, Lewis and Secretor genotyping could be useful to predict respectively breast cancer susceptibility and axillary lymph nodes metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a nonclassic class I molecule that acts as a modulator of immune responses, and the expression of these molecules in virus-infected cells has been associated with subversion of the immune response.
In this study, we performed a cross-sectional study, systematically comparing the expression of the HLA-G in benign, premalignant, and malignant oral lesions and correlating it with the presence of high-risk and low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. SPECIMENS AND METHODS: Oral biopsies were collected from 51 patients and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-HLA-G antibody. Human papillomavirus detection and typing from oral biopsies were obtained by polymerase chain reaction using GP5+/GP6+ and specific primers.
The 51 biopsies were stratified into 3 groups according to lesion grade: oral benign lesions (oral hyperplasia and papilloma, n = 16), oral premalignant lesions (oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and lichen planus, n = 17), and malignant lesions (oral squamous cell carcinoma, n = 18). Human leukocyte antigen-G overexpression was mainly observed in benign and premalignant oral lesions but was not related to HPV infection (P > .05). On the other hand, HPV DNA was detected in 24 (47%) oral lesions, mainly in benign and premalignant lesions, with the most frequent type detected being high-risk HPV type.
The HLA-G molecule was expressed in a significant number of benign oral lesions and was not correlated with HPV infection or oral cancer.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · American journal of otolaryngology