[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depending on populations, 15 to 40% of patients have a familial form of Paget's disease of bone (PDB), which is transmitted in an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. To date, only SQSTM1 gene mutations have been linked to the disease. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with PDB in patient non-carriers of a SQSTM1 mutation, but they have minor size effects. The current clinical practice guidelines still recommend to measure total serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP) for PDB screening. However, genetic or bone biomarkers alone may lack sensitivity to detect PDB. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a molecular test of PDB, combining genetic and bone biomarkers, in order to detect PDB, which is frequently asymptomatic. We genotyped 35 SNPs previously associated with PDB in 305 patients, and 292 healthy controls. In addition, serum levels of 14 bone biomarkers were assayed in 51 patients and 151 healthy controls. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models with adjustment for age and sex were fitted to search for a combination of SNPs and/or bone biomarkers that could best detect PDB in patient non-carriers of a SQSTM1 mutation. First, a combination of five genetic markers gave rise to the highest area under the ROC curve (AUC) with 95% confidence interval [95% CI] of 0.731 [0.688; 0.773], which allowed us to detect 81.5% of patients with PDB. Second, a combination of two bone biomarkers had an AUC of 0.822 [0.726; 0.918], and was present in 81.5% of patients with PDB. Then, the combination of the five genetic markers and the two bone biomarkers increased the AUC up to 0.892 [0.833; 0.951], and detected 88.5% of patients with PDB. These results suggested that an algorithm integrating first a screen for SQSTM1 gene mutations, followed by either a genetic markers combination or a combined genetic and biochemical markers test in patients non-carrier of any SQSTM1 mutation, may detect the PDB phenotype better than biomarkers already available in the clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To examine the rate of osteoporosis (OP) undertreatment and the association between gastrointestinal (GI) events and OP treatment initiation among elderly osteoporotic women with Medicare Part D drug coverage.
This retrospective cohort study utilized a 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Included were women ≥66 years old with Medicare Part D drug coverage, newly diagnosed with OP in 2007–2008 (first diagnosis date as the index date), and with no prior OP treatment. GI event was defined as a diagnosis or procedure for a GI condition between OP diagnosis and treatment initiation or at the end of a 12-month follow-up, whichever occurred first. OP treatment initiation was defined as the use of any bisphosphonate (BIS) or non-BIS within 1 year postindex. Logistic regression, adjusted for patient characteristics, was used to model the association between 1) GI events and OP treatment initiation (treated versus nontreated); and 2) GI events and type of initial therapy (BIS versus non-BIS) among treated patients only.
A total of 126,188 women met the inclusion criteria: 72.1% did not receive OP medication within 1 year of diagnosis and 27.9% had GI events. Patients with a GI event were 75.7% less likely to start OP treatment (odds ratio [OR]=0.243; P<0.001); among treated patients, patients with a GI event had 11.3% lower odds of starting with BIS versus non-BIS (OR=0.887; P<0.001).
Among elderly women newly diagnosed with OP, only 28% initiated OP treatment. GI events were associated with a higher likelihood of not being treated and, among treated patients, a lower likelihood of being treated with BIS versus non-BIS.
Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical Interventions in Aging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Preexisting gastrointestinal (GI) events may deter the use of pharmacologic treatment in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis (OP). The objective of this study was to examine the association between preexisting GI events and OP pharmacotherapy initiation among women diagnosed with OP.
The study utilized claims data from a large US managed care database to identify women aged ≥55 years with a diagnosis code for OP (index date) during 2002-2009. Patients with a claim for pharmacologic OP treatment in the 12-month pre-index period (baseline) were excluded. OP treatment initiation in the post-index period was defined as a claim for bisphosphonates (alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid), calcitonin, raloxifene, or teriparatide. During the post-index period (up to 12 months), GI events were identified before treatment initiation. A time-dependent Cox regression model was used to investigate the likelihood of initiating any OP treatment. Among patients initiating OP treatment, a discrete choice model was utilized to assess the relationship between post-index GI events and likelihood of initiating with a bisphosphonate versus a non-bisphosphonate.
In total, 65,344 patients (mean age 66 years) were included; 23.7% had a GI event post diagnosis and before treatment initiation. Post-index GI events were associated with a 75% lower likelihood of any treatment initiation (hazard ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.26). Among treated patients (n=23,311), those with post-index GI events were 39% less likely to receive a bisphosphonate versus a non-bisphosphonate (odds ratio 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.68).
GI events after OP diagnosis were associated with a decreased likelihood of OP treatment initiation and an increased likelihood of treatment initiation with a non-bisphosphonate versus a bisphosphonate.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of gastrointestinal (GI) events, and association between GI events and compliance with osteoporosis therapy among osteoporotic women. Methods: A retrospective cohort study using a large administrative claims database in the United States from 2001 through 2010 was conducted. We studied women ≥. 55. years old who were continuously enrolled in a health plan for at least 2. years, a baseline year before and a follow-up year after the date of the first prescription of oral bisphosphonate as the first oral osteoporosis treatment. Compliance with osteoporosis therapy was measured using the medication possession ratio (MPR), with compliance defined as MPR ≥. 0.8. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between occurrence of GI events and compliance with osteoporosis therapy after controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: A sample consisting of 75,593 women taking at least one oral bisphosphonate with mean (SD) age of 64 (8) years was identified. A total of 21,142 (28%) patients experienced at least one GI event during the follow-up period. Only 31,306 (41%) patients were compliant with osteoporosis therapy. Patients who experienced GI events after initiation of oral bisphosphonates were 29% less likely to adhere to osteoporosis therapy as compared to patients who did not experience GI events (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.71 [0.69-0.74]; P<.001). Conclusions: Less than half of the patients were compliant with osteoporosis therapy within one year after initiating oral bisphosphonates, and the likelihood of compliance was significantly lower by 29% among women with GI events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An association between higher bone mineral density (BMD) and the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) has been reported. Data on the risk of osteoporotic fractures in women with BC are conflicting.Aims:The objective of this study was to assess fracture risk adjusted for BMD in women with and without BC, and to assess whether fracture risk in BC patients is attributed to BMD or BC characteristics.Methods:Using electronic medical records of patients who underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry BMD studies at Soroka University Medical Center between February 2003 and March 2011, we identified women with subsequent diagnosis of osteoporotic fractures. BC status, demographic, health characteristics, BMD, and other laboratory findings were assessed. In BC patients data on grade, stage, and treatment were collected. Primary outcome was osteoporotic fracture, analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models.Results:During a median follow-up of 4.9 years in 17,110 women with BMD testing (658 BC patients), 1,193 women experienced an osteoporotic fracture (62 in BC and 1,131 in no-BC groups). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI) and BMD, hazard ratio (HR) for any osteoporotic fracture in women with BC was 1.34 (P=0.026). BMD was similar among women with and without BC who fractured. BC patients who experienced an osteoporotic fracture had a trend for less-advanced BC, lower rates of chemotherapy treatment, and higher rates of tamoxifen treatment.Conclusions:BC survivors are at increased risk of an osteoporotic fracture, which is not explained by worse BMD. Chemotherapy or aromatase inhibitors did not contribute substantially to fracture risk among our BC survivors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The objective was to evaluate compliance with osteoporosis (OP) treatments and determine the fracture and healthcare burden associated with noncompliance. Methods: This retrospective analysis of a US claims database identified women initiating an OP medication from January 1, 2002-June 30, 2009. Patients were ≥55 years and had ≥1 pharmacy claim for a bisphosphonate or non-bisphosphonate (raloxifene, calcitonin, teriparatide); the index date was the first pharmacy claim. There were three study periods: baseline (12 months pre-index); compliance period (0-12 months post-index); and follow-up period (12-24 months post-index). Medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated during the compliance period to differentiate two cohorts: compliant (MPR ≥80%) and noncompliant (MPR <80%). Outcomes during follow-up were modeled by logistic regression (presence of fracture ), Poisson regression (healthcare utilization incidence rate) and gamma regression (healthcare costs), all adjusted for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Results: Overall, 685,505 women initiating OP therapy were identified and 57,913 (8.4%) met the inclusion criteria: only 23,430 (40.5%) were compliant and 34,483 (59.5%) were noncompliant. Mean age was 64 years. Noncompliance was associated with a 20% higher risk of any fracture (odds ratio: 1.20, 95% CI=1.07-1.35), a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR) for inpatient utilization (IRR: 1.26, 95% CI=1.19-1.34) and a lower rate of outpatient utilization (IRR: 0.97, 95% CI=0.95-0.98). Noncompliant patients had 13% higher medical costs (cost ratio: 1.13, 95% CI=1.06-1.21) than compliant patients. Limitations: Inclusion in this study required 36 months of continuous healthcare coverage. Thus, the results are primarily applicable to a stable, managed care population and may not be generalizable to other populations. Conclusion: Noncompliance with OP therapy was associated with a higher risk of fracture, higher all-cause medical costs and a higher frequency of inpatient service utilization. Additional research is needed to identify barriers to compliance with OP therapy.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Medical Research and Opinion
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context. Several fracture prediction models that combine fractures at different sites into a composite outcome are in current use. However, to the extent individual fracture sites have differing risk factor profiles, model discrimination is impaired. Objective. To improve model discrimination by developing a 5-yr composite fracture prediction model for fracture sites that display similar risk profiles. Design. Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting. Primary care practices in 10 countries. Patients. Women aged ≥55 years. Intervention. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on patient characteristics, fracture risk factors and previous fractures. Main Outcome Measure. Main outcome is time to first clinical fracture of hip, pelvis, upper leg, clavicle, or spine, each of which exhibits a strong association with advanced age. Results. Of four composite fracture models considered, model discrimination (c index) is highest for an age-related fracture model (c index 0.75, 47,066 women), and lowest for FRAX major fracture and a 10-site model (c indices 0.67 and 0.65). The unadjusted increase in fracture risk for an additional 10 yr of age ranges from 80% to 180% for the individual bones in the age-associated model. Five other fracture sites not considered for the age-associated model (upper arm/shoulder, rib, wrist, lower leg, and ankle) have age associations for an additional 10 yr of age from a 10% decrease to a 60% increase. Conclusions. After examining results for 10 different bone fracture sites, advanced age appeared the single best possibility for uniting several different sites, resulting in an empirically based composite fracture risk model.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this guideline was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Paget's disease of the bone. Participants: The guideline was developed by an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Consensus Process: One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Two systematic reviews were conducted to summarize supporting evidence. Conclusions: We recommend that plain radiographs be obtained of the pertinent regions of the skeleton in patients with suspected Paget's disease. If the diagnosis is confirmed, we suggest that a radionucleotide bone scan be done to determine the extent of the disease. After diagnosis of Paget's disease, we recommend measurement of serum total alkaline phosphatase or, when warranted, a more specific marker of bone formation or bone resorption to assess the response to treatment or evolution of the disease in untreated patients. We suggest treatment with a bisphosphonate for most patients with active Paget's disease who are at risk for future complications. We suggest a single 5-mg dose of iv zoledronate as the treatment of choice in patients who have no contraindication. In patients with monostotic disease who have a normal serum total alkaline phosphatase, we suggest that a specific marker of bone formation and bone resorption be measured, although these may still be normal. Serial radionuclide bone scans may determine the response to treatment if the markers are normal. We suggest that bisphosphonate treatment may be effective in preventing or slowing the progress of hearing loss and osteoarthritis in joints adjacent to Paget's disease and may reverse paraplegia associated with spinal Paget's disease. We suggest treatment with a bisphosphonate before surgery on pagetic bone.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paget’s disease of bone (PDB) is transmitted, in one-third of cases, in an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. The SQSTM1/P392L germinal mutation is the most common mutation associated with PDB. Given the focal nature of PDB, one team of investigators showed that SQSTM1/P392L somatic mutations could occur in pagetic bone lesions in the absence of germinal mutations detectable in the peripheral blood. The objectives of this study were to develop a reliable method to detect SQSTM1/P392L post-zygotic mutations, by optimizing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-clamping method reported to be effective in detecting post-zygotic mutations in peripheral blood from patients with fibrous dysplasia; and to evaluate the frequency of this post-zygotic mutation in PDB patients. We used a locked nucleic acid (LNA) specifically designed for the SQSTM1/P392L mutation, which blocks the wild-type allele amplification during the PCR. DNA from 376 pagetic patients and 297 controls, all without any SQSTM1/P392L germinal mutation, was analyzed. We found that 4.8 % of PDB patients and 1.4 % of controls were carriers of this post-zygotic mutation [p = 0.013, OR 3.68 (1.23; 11.00)]. PDB patient carriers of a post-zygotic mutation had a lower number of affected bones and Renier’s index than patients carrying a germinal mutation, suggesting a lower disease extension. We also demonstrated that this post-zygotic mutation was restricted to the monocytic lineage. These results confirmed that LNA PCR clamping is effective for the detection of SQSTM1/P392L post-zygotic mutations, which may occur in patients with PDB.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-014-1488-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine persistence with subcutaneous denosumab every 6 months in women being treated for osteoporosis, we conducted a single-arm prospective, observational study in the United States and Canada. Among 935 patients enrolled, 12-month persistence was 82 %, with 66 patients (7 %) reporting serious adverse events and 19 patients (2 %) reporting fractures.
Increased persistence with osteoporosis therapy is associated with reduced fracture risk. Denosumab reduced fracture risk in clinical trials; persistence in community settings is undetermined. This study evaluates persistence with denosumab in community practice in the United States (US) and Canada.
In a 24-month multicenter, prospective, single-arm, observational study, women being treated for osteoporosis were enrolled ≤4 weeks after the first subcutaneous injection of denosumab. For this 12-month prespecified interim analysis, endpoints include persistence (one injection at study entry and another within 6 months + 8 weeks), attributes associated with persistence (univariate analysis), and serious adverse events (SAEs).
Among 935 patients (mean age 71 years), mean baseline T-scores were −2.18 (femoral neck) and −2.00 (lumbar spine); 50 % of patients had experienced osteoporotic fracture(s). At 12 months, 82 % of patients were persistent with denosumab. Baseline factors significantly (p 5 years previously, lumbar spine T-score > −2.5, and treatment by female physicians (US). Lower persistence was associated (p
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus are chronic diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased fracture risk. Fracture as a complication of diabetes must be considered when evaluating and treating patients with diabetes.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis causes an elevated fracture risk. We propose the continued use of T-scores as one means for diagnosis but recommend that, alternatively, hip fracture; osteopenia-associated vertebral, proximal humerus, pelvis, or some wrist fractures; or FRAX scores with ≥3 % (hip) or 20 % (major) 10-year fracture risk also confer an osteoporosis diagnosis.
Osteoporosis is a common disorder of reduced bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk for fractures in older individuals. In the USA, the standard criterion for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and older men is a T-score of ≤ -2.5 at the lumbar spine, femur neck, or total hip by bone mineral density testing.
Under the direction of the National Bone Health Alliance, 17 clinicians and clinical scientists were appointed to a working group charged to determine the appropriate expansion of the criteria by which osteoporosis can be diagnosed.
The group recommends that postmenopausal women and men aged 50 years should be diagnosed with osteoporosis if they have a demonstrable elevated risk for future fractures. This includes having a T-score of less than or equal to -2.5 at the spine or hip as one method for diagnosis but also permits a diagnosis for individuals in this population who have experienced a hip fracture with or without bone mineral density (BMD) testing and for those who have osteopenia by BMD who sustain a vertebral, proximal humeral, pelvic, or, in some cases, distal forearm fracture. Finally, the term osteoporosis should be used to diagnose individuals with an elevated fracture risk based on the World Health Organization Fracture Risk Algorithm, FRAX.
As new ICD-10 codes become available, it is our hope that this new understanding of what osteoporosis represents will allow for an appropriate diagnosis when older individuals are recognized as being at an elevated risk for fracture.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Osteoporosis International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, rib, upper arm/shoulder, clavicle, ankle, lower leg, and upper leg fractures, we modeled the time to incident self-reported fracture over a 3-year period using the Cox proportional hazards model and fitted the best linear or nonlinear models containing height, weight, and BMI. Of 52,939 women, 3628 (6.9%) reported an incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. Linear BMI showed a significant inverse association with hip, clinical spine, and wrist fractures: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per increase of 5 kg/m(2) were 0.80 (0.71-0.90), 0.83 (0.76-0.92), and 0.88 (0.83-0.94), respectively (all p < 0.001). For ankle fractures, linear weight showed a significant positive association: adjusted HR per 5-kg increase 1.05 (1.02-1.07) (p < 0.001). For upper arm/shoulder and clavicle fractures, only linear height was significantly associated: adjusted HRs per 10-cm increase were 0.85 (0.75-0.97) (p = 0.02) and 0.73 (0.57-0.92) (p = 0.009), respectively. For pelvic and rib fractures, the best models were for nonlinear BMI or weight (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively), with inverse associations at low BMI/body weight and positive associations at high values. These data demonstrate that the relationships between fracture and weight, BMI, and height are site-specific. The different associations may be mediated, at least in part, by effects on bone mineral density, bone structure and geometry, and patterns of falling.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-osteoporosis medication (AOM) does not abolish fracture risk, and some individuals experience multiple fractures while on treatment. Therefore, criteria for treatment failure have recently been defined. Using data from the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed risk factors for treatment failure, defined as sustaining ≥2 fractures while on AOM. GLOW is a prospective, observational cohort study of women aged ≥55 years sampled from primary care practices in 10 countries. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on patient characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, AOM use, and health status. Data were analyzed from women who used the same class of AOM continuously over 3 survey-years and had data available on fracture occurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of treatment failure. Data from 26,918 women were available, of whom 5550 were on AOM. During follow-up, 73/5550 women in the AOM group (1.3%) and 123/21,368 in the non-AOM group (0.6%) reported occurrence of ≥2 fractures. The following variables were associated with treatment failure: lower SF-36 score (physical function and vitality) at baseline, higher FRAX score, falls in the past 12 months, selected comorbid conditions, prior fracture, current use of glucocorticoids, need of arms to assist to standing, and unexplained weight loss ≥10 lb (≥4.5 kg). Three variables remained predictive of treatment failure after multivariable analysis: worse SF-36 vitality score (odds ratio [OR] per 10-point increase 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.95; p = 0.004), ≥2 falls in the past year (OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.34-4.29; p = 0.011), and prior fracture (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.81-4.75; p < 0.0001). The C statistic for the model was 0.712. Specific strategies for fracture prevention should therefore be developed for this subgroup of patients.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research