D L Lacey

The University of Tokyo, 白山, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (49)385.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Administration of active vitamin D sterols to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis has been associated with elevated serum calcium and phosphorus levels, which may lead to increased risk of vascular calcification. However, calcimimetics, by binding to the parathyroid gland calcium-sensing receptors, reduce serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and the calcium-phosphorus product. Using cultured bovine aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (BASMCs), an in vitro model of vascular calcification, we compared calcification levels and gene expression profiles after exposure to the phosphate source ss-glycerolphosphate (BGP), the active vitamin D sterols calcitriol and paricalcitol, the calcimimetic R-568, or BGP with the active vitamin D sterols or R-568. Cells exposed to BGP (10 mM) alone or with calcitriol or paricalcitol showed dose-dependent BASMC calcification. No change in calcification was observed in cultures exposed to BGP with R-568, consistent with the observed lack of calcium-sensing receptor expression. Microarray analysis using total cellular RNA from cultures exposed to vehicle or BGP in the absence and presence of 10(-8) M calcitriol or paricalcitol for 7 days showed that cells exposed to BGP with calcitriol or BGP with paricalcitol had virtually identical gene expression profiles, which differed from those of cells treated with BGP or vehicle alone. Several osteoblast- and chondrocyte-associated genes were modulated by BGP and vitamin D exposure. In this study, exposure of BASMCs to phosphate and active vitamin D sterols induced calcification and changes in expression of genes associated with mineralized tissue.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Calcified Tissue International
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    ABSTRACT: Transfer of CD4+CD45RBHi T cells into semi syngeneic immunodeficient mice represents a model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As patients with IBD often suffer from osteopenia, we studied if this T cell transfer in mice results in osteopenia in addition to colitis, and if treatment with osteoprotegerin (OPG) has effects on the bone mineral density of T cell transferred mice. We also investigated whether osteopenia was due to malabsorption as a result of a dysregulated digestive tract or as a consequence of the inflammatory process. CD4+CD45RBHi or CD4+CD45RBLo T cells (4 x 10(5)) were sorted from CB6F1 and transferred into C.B.17 scid/scid mice. Recipient mice were treated with human IgG1 Fc (control) or Fc-OPG three times per week in a prophylactic regimen as well as a therapeutic regimen (after 10% body weight loss) and were evaluated for osteopenia and colitis. Mice that received CD4+CD45RBHi T cells developed osteopenia (as indicated by decreased bone density accompanied by decreased osteoblasts and increased osteoclasts) and colitis (as indicated by histological changes in the large intestine). Mice that received CD4+CD45RBLo T cells developed neither osteopenia nor colitis. All animals consumed, on average, the same amount of food and water over the course of the study. Prophylactic treatment with Fc-OPG increased bone density in mice that received either CD4+CD45RBHi or CD4+CD45RBLo T cells but had no effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Fc-OPG treatment of osteopenic mice with established IBD caused the normalisation of bone density. Osteopenia in CD4+CD45RBHi T cell recipients was accompanied by hypoparathyroidism that was partially normalised by treatment with Fc-OPG. CD4+CD45RBHi T cell recipients also had a bone marrow inflammatory cell infiltrate expressing tumour necrosis factor alpha which was unaffected by treatment with Fc-OPG. CD4+CD45RBHi T cell transfer results in osteopenia in addition to colitis. Evidence suggests that this osteopenia was induced by inflammatory cell infiltration and not by malabsorption of calcium. Recombinant human osteoprotegerin effectively treated the osteopenia. OPG may be a useful therapeutic option for treating osteopenia in patients with IBD.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Gut

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
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    ABSTRACT: The epithelium of the oral cavity and small intestine of the gastrointestinal tract have a high rate of cell renewal and as such, are sensitive to cytotoxic therapies that kill rapidly dividing cells. Mucositis is a complication of cancer therapy where impairment of the regenerative capacity of the epithelium leads to atrophy, ulceration and a loss of barrier function. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is an epithelial cell-specific growth and differentiation factor that is trophic for the mucosal epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, KGF in normal animals caused epithelial thickening in the squamous epithelium of the oral cavity and increased crypt depth and villus height of the small intestine. It also appeared to regulate gene expression in these tissues including that of some antioxidant enzymes and intestinal trefoil protein. KGF has been shown to be efficacious in several preclinical models of mucositis where KGF pretreatment reduced weight loss typically seen during and after the course of therapy and significantly improved survival. At a tissue level KGF reduced atrophy, accelerated regrowth, and decreased ulcer formation of the oral epithelium after irradiation, and improved crypt survival and prevented villus atrophy in the small intestine of irradiated or chemotherapy-treated mice. Preliminary studies suggest that its efficacy may be partly a consequence of the growth and differentiation effect, and also partly due to regulation of the expression of genes that play a role in mucosal protection. These data suggest that KGF may be useful for the prevention or treatment of mucositis in patients treated with regimens of cancer therapy that have gastrointestinal toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Cell Proliferation
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) depletion contribute to organ injury after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) ameliorates graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-associated organ injury in murine BMT models. B10.BR mice received total body irradiation (TBI; day -1) +/- cyclophosphamide (Cy; 120 mg/kg/day i.p., days -3 and -2), then were transplanted on day 0 with C57BL/6 bone marrow + spleen cells as a source of GVHD-causing T cells. KGF (5 mg/kg/day subcutaneously [s.c.]) or saline was given on days -6, -5, and -4. Lung and liver GSH and oxidized GSH disulfide (GSSG) levels were measured on days 0 and 5 and glutathione redox potential (Eh) calculated. Organ malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined on day 5 as an index of ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation. In lung, TBI+BMT oxidized GSH Eh and increased MDA. Cy further oxidized lung GSH Eh. In liver, neither BMT regimen altered GSH redox status or MDA. KGF prevented the decrease in lung GSH after TBI+Cy and decreased lung MDA after both TBI and TBI+Cy. KGF increased liver GSH levels and GSH Eh after TBI and GSH Eh after TBI+Cy. In murine allogeneic BMT, TBI oxidizes the lung GSH redox pool and Cy exacerbates this response by 5 days post-BMT. In contrast, liver GSH redox status is maintained under these experimental conditions. KGF treatment attenuates the Cy-induced decrease in lung GSH, decreases post-BMT lung lipid peroxidation, and improves liver GSH redox indices. KGF may have a therapeutic role to prevent or attenuate GSH depletion and ROS-mediated organ injury in BMT.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: PTH is a potent bone anabolic factor, and its combination with antiresorptive agents has been proposed as a therapy for osteoporosis. We tested the effects of PTH, alone and in combination with the novel antiresorptive agent OPG, in a rat model of severe osteopenia. Sprague Dawley rats were sham-operated or ovariectomized at 3 months of age. Rats were untreated for 15 months, at which time ovariectomy had caused significant decreases in bone mineral density in the lumbar vertebrae and femur. Rats were then treated for 5.5 months with vehicle (PBS), human PTH-(1-34) (80 microg/kg), rat OPG (10 mg/kg), or OPG plus PTH (all three times per wk, sc). Treatment of ovariectomized rats with OPG or PTH alone increased bone mineral density in the lumbar vertebrae and femur, whereas PTH plus OPG caused significantly greater and more rapid increases than either therapy alone (P < 0.05). OPG significantly reduced osteoclast surface in the lumbar vertebrae and femur (P < 0.05 vs. sham or ovariectomized), but had no effect on osteoblast surface at either site. Ovariectomy significantly decreased the mechanical strength of the lumbar vertebrae and femur. In the lumbar vertebrae, OPG plus PTH was significantly more effective than PTH alone at reversing ovariectomy-induced deficits in stiffness and elastic modulus. These data suggest that OPG plus PTH represent a potentially useful therapeutic option for patients with severe osteoporosis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2001 · Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: SALL1 is a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene spalt (sal); heterozygous mutations in SALL1 in humans lead to Townes-Brocks syndrome. We have isolated a mouse homolog of SALL1 (Sall1) and found that mice deficient in Sall1 die in the perinatal period and that kidney agenesis or severe dysgenesis are present. Sall1 is expressed in the metanephric mesenchyme surrounding ureteric bud; homozygous deletion of Sall1 results in an incomplete ureteric bud outgrowth, a failure of tubule formation in the mesenchyme and an apoptosis of the mesenchyme. This phenotype is likely to be primarily caused by the absence of the inductive signal from the ureter, as the Sall1-deficient mesenchyme is competent with respect to epithelial differentiation. Sall1 is therefore essential for ureteric bud invasion, the initial key step for metanephros development.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Development
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    ABSTRACT: Certain malignancies, including breast cancer, frequently metastasize to bone, where the tumor cells induce osteoclasts to locally destroy bone. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. We tested the ability of recombinant OPG to inhibit tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis, osteolysis, and skeletal tumor burden in two animal models. In a syngeneic model, mouse colon adenocarcinoma (Colon-26) cells were injected into the left ventricle of mice. Treatment with OPG dose-dependently decreased the number and area of radiographically evident lytic bone lesions, which, at the highest dose, were undetectable. Histologically, OPG also decreased skeletal tumor burden and tumor-associated osteoclasts. In a nude mouse model, OPG treatment completely prevented radiographic osteolytic lesions caused by human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Histologically, OPG decreased skeletal tumor burden by 75% and completely eradicated MDA tumor-associated osteoclasts. In both models, OPG had no effect on metastatic tumor burden in a panel of soft tissue organs. These data indicate that OPG may be an effective therapy for preventing osteolysis and decreasing skeletal tumor burden in patients with bone metastasis.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) regulates bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast formation, function, and survival. The current studies employed a mouse ovariectomy (OVX) model of estrogen deficiency to investigate gene therapy with OPG as a means of preventing osteoporosis. Young adult females injected with a recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vector carrying cDNA of either full-length OPG or a fusion protein combining the hOPG ligand-binding domain with the human immunoglobulin constant domain (Ad-hOPG-Fc) developed serum OPG concentrations exceeding the threshold needed for efficacy. However, elevated circulating OPG levels were sustained for up to 18 months only in mice given Ad-hOPG-Fc. Administration of Ad-hOPG-Fc titers between 10(7) and 10(9) pfu yielded dose-dependent increases in serum OPG. Mice subjected to OVX or sham surgery followed by immediate treatment with Ad-hOPG-Fc had significantly more bone volume with reduced osteoclast numbers in axial and appendicular bones after 4 weeks. In contrast, animals given OVX and either a control vector or vehicle had significantly less bone than did comparably treated sham-operated mice. This study demonstrates that a single adenoviral gene transfer can produce persistent high-level OPG expression and shows that gene therapy to provide sustained delivery of OPG may prove useful in treating osteoporosis.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2001 · Molecular Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that pretreatment of mice with keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), an epithelial tissue repair factor, can ameliorate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after intensive chemoradiotherapeutic conditioning and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). To determine whether this effect was dependent on a KGF-mediated mechanism affecting repair of conditioning-induced epithelial cell injury, we studied GVHD in the absence of conditioning using BALB/c severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) recipients given C57BL/6 T cells. KGF (5 mg/kg per day, subcutaneously) given either before or after T-cell transfer enhanced body weights and extended survival. KGF-treated recipients had elevated serum levels of the Th2 cytokine interleukin 13 (IL-13) on day 6 after T-cell transfer concomitant with reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). A 3-day KGF pretreatment also depressed the secondary in vitro mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) of C57BL/6 splenocytes taken 7 days after in vivo alloimmunization with irradiated BALB/c spleen cells. To determine whether KGF would inhibit host-antidonor-mediated BM rejection, pan-T-cell-depleted BALB/c BM cells were infused into sublethally irradiated C57BL/6 mice and administered KGF either before or before and after BMT. Surprisingly, all KGF schedules tested actually resulted in enhanced alloengraftment. The presence of KGF receptor on donor antihost alloreactive T cells could not be detected by binding studies with radiolabeled KGF, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Therefore, the mechanism of action of KGF on inhibiting T-cell-mediated immune effects may not be due to a direct effect of KGF on T cells. These studies demonstrate that KGF, by mechanisms independent of repair of conditioning-induced injury, has great potential as an anti-GVHD therapeutic agent with the added benefit of inhibiting the rejection of pan-T-cell-depleted donor BM allografts. (Blood. 2000;96:4350-4356)
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoclast precursors (OCPs) circulate in the mononuclear fraction of peripheral blood (PB), but their abundance and surface characteristics are unknown. Previous studies suggest that the receptor activator for NF-kappaB (RANK) on cytokine-treated OCPs in mouse bone marrow interacts with osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL/TRANCE/RANKL/ODF) to initiate osteoclast differentiation. Hence, we used a fluorescent form of human OPGL (Hu-OPGL-F) to identify possible RANK-expressing OCPs in untreated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Monocytes [CD14-phycoerythrin (PE) antibody (Ab) positive (+) cells, 10-15% of PBMCs] all (98-100%) co-labelled with Hu-OPGL-F (n > 18). T lymphocytes (CD3-PE Ab+ cells, 66% of PBMCs) did not bind Hu-OPGL-F; however, B cells (CD19-PE Ab+ cells, 9% of PBMCs) were also positive for Hu-OPGL-F. All Hu-OPGL-F+ monocytes also co-labelled with CD33, CD61, CD11b, CD38, CD45 and CD54 Abs, but not CD34 or CD56 Abs. Hu-OPGL-F binding was dose dependent and competed with excess Hu-OPGL. When Hu-OPGL-F+, CD14-PE Ab+, CD33-PE Ab+, Hu-OPGL-F+/CD14-PE Ab+ or Hu-OPGL-F+/CD33-PE Ab+ cells were cultured with OPGL (20 ng/ml) and colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 (25 ng/ml), OC-like cells readily developed. Thus, all freshly isolated monocytes demonstrate displaceable Hu-OPGL-F binding, suggesting the presence of RANK on OCPs in PB; also, OCPs within a purified PB monocyte population form osteoclast-like cells in the complete absence of other cell types in OPGL and CSF-1 containing medium.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · British Journal of Haematology
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a significant complication following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We have developed a murine model in which severe IPS is induced by pre-BMT conditioning and allogeneic T cells and is characterized by the recruitment of host monocytes and donor T cells into the lung by day 7 post-BMT. Chemokines regulate cellular recruitment and the migration of cells into inflammatory lesions. In this study, we examined the profiles of chemokines produced locally in the lung (parenchyma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) and systemically (serum) during the generation of IPS in the peri-BMT period. Protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CC chemokines (monocyte/lymphocyte attractants), especially monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted), and C10, were preferentially induced in the lung by day 7 postallogeneic BMT. In addition, there was an increase in mRNA for IP-10 (a monocyte and Th1-cell chemoattractant). The CXC chemokines MIP-2 and KC, known neutrophil attractants, were moderately elevated. For the most part, these increases in chemokines were dependent on the coinfusion of allogeneic T cells with the BM inoculum. Ribonuclease protection assay and in situ hybridization analyses post-BMT showed that the lung was a major producer of MCP-1, a potent inducer of monocyte chemotaxis. Increases in MCP-1 levels in the lung preceded host APC influx whereas MIP-1alpha levels accompanied donor T-cell infiltration. In summary, we have shown that monocyte- and T-cell-attracting chemokines are associated with monocyte and T-cell recruitment during IPS.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2000 · Blood
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) as a pretreatment therapy for idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) generated as a result of lung damage and allogeneic T cell-dependent inflammatory events occurring in the early peri-bone marrow (BM) transplant (BMT) period. B10.BR (H2(k)) recipient mice were transplanted with C57BL/6 (H2(b)) BM with spleen cells after lethal irradiation with and without cyclophosphamide conditioning with and without subcutaneous KGF pretreatment. KGF-pretreated mice had fewer injured alveolar type II (ATII) cells at the time of BMT and exhibited ATII cell hyperplasia at day 3 post-BMT. The composition of infiltrating cells on day 7 post-BMT was not altered by KGF pretreatment, but the frequencies of cells expressing the T-cell costimulatory molecules B7.1 and B7.2 and mRNA for the cytolysin granzyme B (usually increased in IPS) were decreased by KGF. Sera from KGF-treated mice had increases in the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-13 4 days after cessation of KGF administration (i.e., at the time of BMT). These data suggest that KGF hinders IPS by two modes: 1) stimulation of alveolar epithelialization and 2) attenuation of immune-mediated injury as a consequence of failure to upregulate cytolytic molecules and B7 ligand expression and the induction of anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines in situ.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2000 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a recently discovered protein related to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. It has been shown to inhibit ovariectomy (ovx)-induced resorption in rats and increase bone mineral density in young mice. Tail suspension is a procedure that inhibits bone formation in maturing rodents. This study was designed to quantify OPG's effect on cortical bone formation. Fifty-four mice were assigned to one of five groups (n = 10-11/group). A baseline control group was killed on day 0 of the 10 day study. The remaining groups were: vivarium housed (nonsuspended) control mice receiving 0.3 mg/kg per day OPG; vivarium control mice receiving daily placebo injections; tail-suspended mice receiving 0. 3 mg/kg per day OPG; and tail-suspended mice receiving placebo injections. Tetracycline was administered on days 0 and 8. OPG treatment of tail-suspended mice produced mechanical properties similar to those of placebo-treated, vivarium-housed mice: structural stiffness (8.5%, 20.7%) and elastic (13.9%, 10.1%) and maximum (4.7%, 8.1%) force were increased compared with placebo controls (vivarium, suspended groups). Percent mineral composition was highly significantly greater (p < 0.001 for all comparisons) for OPG-treated mice in the femur, tibia, and humerus, relative to placebo treatment. Matrix mass was also significantly increased in the femur, although not to the same degree as mineral mass. OPG decreased the amount of femoral endocortical resorption compared with the placebo-treated groups for both vivarium (27%) and suspended (24%) mice. Administration of OPG significantly decreased endocortical formation of the tibia. Periosteal bone formation rates were not altered by OPG. OPG-mitigated tail suspension induced osteopenia not by returning bone formation to normal levels, but by inhibiting resorption and increasing percent mineral composition.
    Full-text · Article · May 2000 · Bone
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a novel, secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that inhibits osteoclast formation and activity was examined for its activity in a syngeneic tumor model of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Normal mice bearing Colon-26 tumors develop increases in both parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) expression and plasma PTHrP, marked hypercalcemia, and increased bone resorption. OPG, given either at the onset of hypercalcemia or after it had occurred, blocked tumor-induced increases in bone resorption and hypercalcemia and rapidly normalized blood ionized calcium. In tumor-bearing mice, OPG treatments reduced osteoclast activity from approximately 2-fold above normal into the subphysiological range but had no effects on tumor size, tumor-induced cachexia, or PTHrP levels. The potent effects of OPG in this humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy model suggest a potential therapeutic role for OPG in the prevention and treatment of this disorder.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Although multiple hormones and cytokines regulate various aspects of osteoclast formation, the final two effectors are osteoprotegerin ligand (OPG-L)/osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), a recently cloned member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. OPG-L/ODF is produced by osteoblast lineage cells and exerts its biological effects through binding to its receptor, osteoclast differentiation and activation receptor (ODAR)/receptor activator of NF-kappa B (RANK), on osteoclast lineage cells, in either a soluble or a membrane-bound form, the latter of which requires cell-to-cell contact. Binding results in rapid differentiation of osteoclast precursors in bone marrow to mature osteoclasts and, at higher concentrations, in increased functional activity and reduced apoptosis of mature osteoclasts. The biological activity of OPG-L/ODF is neutralized by binding to osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF), a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily that also is secreted by osteoblast lineage cells. The biological importance of this system is underscored by the induction in mice of severe osteoporosis by targeted ablation of OPG/OCIF and by the induction of osteopetrosis by targeted ablation of OPG-L/ODF or overexpression of OPG/OCIF. Thus, osteoclast formation may be determined principally by the relative ratio of OPG-L/ODF to OPG/OCIF in the bone marrow microenvironment, and alterations in this ratio may be a major cause of bone loss in many metabolic disorders, including estrogen deficiency and glucocorticoid excess. That changes in but two downstream cytokines mediate the effects of large numbers of upstream hormones and cytokines suggests a regulatory mechanism for osteoclastogenesis of great efficiency and elegance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have identified osteoprotegerin ligand (OPG-L) as the essential factor required for osteoclastogenesis, and that the effects are prevented by its soluble receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG). However, there are limited data at present on the regulation of OPG-L expression in human osteoblastic cells by other cytokines. Because interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6 all increase osteoclastogenesis, we assessed whether OPG-L mRNA steady-state levels were regulated by these cytokines in human osteoblastic cells. By northern analysis, IL-1beta (5 nmol/L) and TNF-alpha (9 nmol/L) increased OPG-L mRNA steady-state levels by up to two- to three-fold in normal marrow stromal cells (MS), an immortalized marrow stromal cell line (hMS), and the osteosarcoma cell line, MG-63, whereas IL-6 (2 nmol/L, with or without its soluble receptor) had no effect on OPG-L mRNA levels in any of these cells. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha increased OPG-L mRNA steady-state levels in the normal MS cells and the hMS cell line in a time- and dose-dependent fashion by up to 4.1-fold and up to 2.6-fold, respectively. Our data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that the proinflammatory and bone-resorbing cytokines, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, but not IL-6, may stimulate osteoclastogenesis by inducing the expression of OPG-L.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · Bone
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    ABSTRACT: We reported that allogeneic T cells given to irradiated mice at the time of marrow transplantation stimulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and nitric oxide (. NO) production in the lung, and the addition of cyclophosphamide (known to stimulate superoxide production) favored the generation of a nitrating species. Although keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) prevents experimental lung injury by promoting epithelial repair, its effects on the production of inflammatory mediators has not been studied. KGF given before transplantation inhibited the T cell-induced increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and nitrite levels measured on day 7 after transplantation without modifying cellular infiltration or proinflammatory cytokines and inducible. NO synthase mRNA. KGF also suppressed. NO production by alveolar macrophages obtained from mice injected with T cells. In contrast, the same schedule of KGF failed to prevent permeability edema or suppress TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and. NO production in mice injected with both T cells and cyclophosphamide. Because only epithelial cells respond to KGF, these data are consistent with the production of an epithelial cell-derived mediator capable of downregulating macrophage function. However, the presence of a nitrating agent impairs KGF-derived responses.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · The American journal of physiology
  • X Q Yan · D L Lacey · C Saris · S Mu · D Hill · R G Hawley · F A Fletcher
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    ABSTRACT: In this report, we tested whether ectopic overexpression of a cell surface receptor cDNA could be used to explore the physiological roles of that receptor. We generated c-mpl overexpressing animals by reconstituting mice with retroviral vector-transduced bone marrow (BM) cells. We observed that platelet counts in the c-mpl overexpressing mice failed to recover to normal levels and remained at <200 x 10(6)/mL post-transplantation, while platelet numbers in the control mice returned to > 800 x 10(6)/mL by 4 weeks post-transplantation. However, platelet counts in the c-mpl overexpressing mice could be stimulated to normal levels after administration of rhMGDF. No significant changes in peripheral leukocyte counts were observed, although the number of CFU-E, GM-CFC, and CFC-multi were reduced two- to threefold in the BM of the c-mpl overexpressing mice. In addition, enhanced erythropoiesis was observed in the c-mpl overexpressing mice. The mpl receptors on erythroid cells were functional as demonstrated by tyrosine-phosphorylation of mpl receptor on RBC and by in vitro erythroid colony-formation in response to MGDF stimulation, respectively. These results suggested that ectopically expressed mpl receptors competed for ligand in vivo leading to an insufficient amount of circulating thrombopoietin (Tpo) for the development of megakaryocytic lineage. These results further suggest that, in addition to sequestering circulating Tpo, overexpression of the mpl receptor on erythroid progenitors may directly contribute to enhanced erythropoiesis in vivo. Our studies demonstrate that ectopic overexpression of a receptor by retroviral-mediated gene transfer provides an approach to explore the biological roles of novel receptors.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Experimental Hematology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

Publication Stats

16k Citations
385.31 Total Impact Points


  • 2001
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute of Medical Science
      白山, Tōkyō, Japan
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 1999
    • Amgen
      • Department of Pathology
      Thousand Oaks, CA, United States
  • 1996
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1994
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1987-1994
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1993
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 1990-1992
    • Barnes Jewish Hospital
      San Luis, Missouri, United States