[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the increased use of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), it is increasingly important to recognise the unique challenges involved in the management of patients with CIEDs who are undergoing surgery. Practice advisories and consensus statements have been issued by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the Heart Rhythm Society, advocating a multidisciplinary approach. This review discusses and presents a practical approach to perioperative CIED management in the Singapore context.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Singapore medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are conflicting data on the relationship between the time of symptom onset during the 24-hour cycle (circadian dependence) and infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Moreover, the impact of this circadian pattern of infarct size on clinical outcomes is unknown. We sought to study the circadian dependence of infarct size and its impact on clinical outcomes in STEMI.
We studied 6,710 consecutive patients hospitalized for STEMI from 2006 to 2009 in a tropical climate with non-varying day-night cycles. We categorized the time of symptom onset into four 6-hour intervals: midnight-6:00 A.M., 6:00 A.M.-noon, noon-6:00 P.M. and 6:00 P.M.-midnight. We used peak creatine kinase as a surrogate marker of infarct size.
Midnight-6:00 A.M patients had the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.03), more commonly presented with anterior MI (P = 0.03) and received percutaneous coronary intervention less frequently, as compared with other time intervals (P = 0.03). Adjusted mean peak creatine kinase was highest among midnight-6:00 A.M. patients and lowest among 6:00 A.M.-noon patients (2,590.8±2,839.1 IU/L and 2,336.3±2,386.6 IU/L, respectively, P = 0.04). Midnight-6:00 A.M patients were at greatest risk of acute heart failure (P<0.001), 30-day mortality (P = 0.03) and 1-year mortality (P = 0.03), while the converse was observed in 6:00 A.M.-noon patients. After adjusting for diabetes, infarct location and performance of percutaneous coronary intervention, circadian variations in acute heart failure incidence remained strongly significant (P = 0.001).
We observed a circadian peak and nadir in infarct size during STEMI onset from midnight-6:00A.M and 6:00A.M.-noon respectively. The peak and nadir incidence of acute heart failure paralleled this circadian pattern. Differences in diabetes prevalence, infarct location and mechanical reperfusion may account partly for the observed circadian pattern of infarct size and acute heart failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of sex, and its joint effect with age and diabetes mellitus, on mortality subsequent to surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) beyond 30 days are unclear. The high prevalence of diabetes mellitus in an ethnically diverse Asian population motivates this study.
The study population comprised of a nationwide cohort of Asian patients with AMI, hospitalized between 2000 to 2005, who survived the first 30 days post-admission and were followed prospectively until death or 12 years.
Among the 13,389 survivors, there were fewer women (25.5%) who were older than men (median 70 vs. 58 years) and a larger proportion had diabetes mellitus at admission (51.4% vs. 31.4%). During follow-up 4,707 deaths (women 13.2%; men 22.0%) occurred, with women experiencing higher mortality than men with an averaged hazard ratio (HR): 2.08; 95% confidence interval : 1.96-2.20. However the actual adverse outcome, although always greater, reduced over time with an estimated HR: 2.23 (2.04-2.45) at 30 days to HR: 1.75; (1.47-2.09) 12 years later. The difference in mortality also declined with increasing age: HR 1.80 (1.52-2.13) for those aged 22-59, 1.26 (1.11-1.42) for 60-69, 1.06 (0.96-1.17) and 0.96 (0.85-1.09) for those 70-79 and 80-101 years. Significant two-factor interactions were observed between sex, age and diabetes (P < 0.001). Diabetic women <60 years of age had greater mortality than diabetic men of the same age (adjusted HR: 1.44; 1.14-1.84; P = 0.003), while diabetic women and men ≥60 years of age had a less pronounced mortality difference (adjusted HR: 1.12; 0.99-1.26).
One in two women hospitalized for AMI in this Asian cohort had diabetes and the sex disparity in post-MI mortality was most pronounced among these who were <60 years of age. This underscores the need for better secondary prevention in this high-risk group.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe American Heart Association recommends automated external defibrillator placement in public areas with a high probability (>1) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring in 5 years. We aimed to determine the incidence rate of OHCA for different location categories in Singapore.Methods
Cardiac arrest incidence was obtained from a national registry. Denominators for the actual number of sites per location category were obtained from public accessible sources, government officers and purchased statistics. Analysis was performed and expressed in terms of the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).ResultsFrom 1 October 2001 to 14 October 2004, 2254 non-trauma OHCA cases were included. Mean age for arrests was 62.2 years, with 67.5% men. The location category with the highest incidence of cardiac arrests per site per 5 years was Port/Airport/Immigration Checkpoints (5.24 CI [3.66–7.20]). Top individual site with high average incidence of cardiac arrests per 5 years was Changi Airport (25.0 CI [16.18–36.90]). Seventy-one per cent of arrests occurred in residential areas. The postal sector with the highest average incidence per 100 000 population was Bedok Reservoir (54.89), whereas that with the highest population density was Bukit Merah/Alexandra with 348.14 population per 100 km2.Conclusion
In this study, we found the categories and individual sites that clearly fulfilled the American Heart Association criteria of at least 1 OHCA per site per 5 years. This study provides a model of how cardiac arrest registry data can be used to guide local health policy on automated external defibrillator deployment.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Emergency medicine Australasia: EMA
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients from three major ethnicities of Asia.
We studied 15,151 patients hospitalized for AMI with a median follow-up of 7.3 years (maximum 12 years) in six publicly-funded hospitals in Singapore from 2000-2005. Overall and cause-specific cardiovascular (CV) mortality until 2012 were compared among three major ethnic groups that represent large parts of Asia: Chinese, Malay and Indian. Relative survival of all three ethnic groups was compared with a contemporaneous background reference population using the relative survival ratio (RSR) method. The median global registry of acute coronary events score was highest among Chinese, followed by Malay and Indians: 144 (25th percentile 119, 75th percentile 173), 138 (115, 167), and 131 (109, 160), respectively, p<0.0001; similarly, in-hospital mortality was highest among Chinese (9.8%) followed by Malay (7.6%) and Indian (6.4%) patients. In contrast, 12-year overall and cause-specific CV mortality was highest among Malay (46.2 and 32.0%) followed by Chinese (43.0 and 27.0%) and Indian (35.9 and 25.2%) patients, p<0.0001. The five-year RSR was lowest among Malay (RSR 0.69) followed by Chinese (RSR 0.73) and Indian (RSR 0.79) patients, compared with a background reference population (RSR 1.00).
We observed strong inter-Asian ethnic disparities in long-term mortality after AMI. Malay patients had the most discordant relationship between baseline risk and long-term mortality. Intensified interventions targeting Malay patients as a high-risk group are necessary to reduce disparities in long-term outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
In Singapore, the age-standardised event rates of myocardial infarction (MI) are 2- and 3-fold higher for Malays and Indians respectively compared to the Chinese. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and non-calcified plaques across these 3 ethnic groups.
Materials and methods:
This was a retrospective descriptive study. We identified 1041 patients (810 Chinese, 139 Malays, 92 Indians) without previous history of cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac computed tomography for atypical chest pain evaluation. A cardiologist, who was blinded to the patients' clinical demographics, reviewed all scans. We retrospectively analysed all their case records.
Overall, Malays were most likely to be active smokers (P = 0.02), Indians had the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus (P = 0.01) and Chinese had the highest mean age (P <0.0001). The overall prevalence of patients with non-calcified plaques as the only manifestation of sub-clinical coronary artery disease was 2.1%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CAC, mean CAC score or prevalence of non-calcified plaques among the 3 ethnic groups. Active smoking, age and hypertension were independent predictors of CAC. Non-calcified plaques were positively associated with male gender, age, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus.
The higher MI rates in Malays and Indians in Singapore cannot be explained by any difference in CAC or non-calcified plaque. More research with prospective follow-up of larger patient populations is necessary to establish if ethnic-specific calibration of CAC measures is needed to adjust for differences among ethnic groups.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
This study aims to study how the effect of the location of patient collapses from cardiac arrest, in the residential and non-residential areas within Singapore, relates to certain survival outcomes.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective cohort study of data were done from the Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation Epidemiology (CARE) project. Out-of- hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) data from October 2001 to October 2004 (CARE) were used. All patients with OHCA as confirmed by the absence of a pulse, unresponsiveness and apnoea were included. All events had occurred in Singapore. Analysis was performed and expressed in terms of the odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).
A total of 2375 cases were used for this analysis. Outcomes for OHCA in residential areas were poorer than in non-residential areas-1638 (68.9%) patients collapsed in residential areas, and 14 (0.9%) survived to discharge. This was significantly less than the 2.7% of patients who survived after collapsing in a non-residential area (OR 0.31 [0.16 - 0.62]). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that location alone had no independent effect on survival (adjusted OR 1.13 [0.32 - 4.05]); instead, underlying factors such as bystander CPR (OR 3.67 [1.13 - 11.97]) and initial shockable rhythms (OR 6.78 [1.95 - 23.53]) gave rise to better outcomes.
Efforts to improve survival from OHCA in residential areas should include increasing CPR by family members, and reducing ambulance response times.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article aims to explore coronary care unit (CCU) extubation structures, processes and outcomes. There were 13 unplanned-extubation cases (UE) among 251 intubated patients (5.2 per cent) in a cardiologist-led CCU in 2008. Seven did not require re-intubation, implying possible earlier extubation. A quality improvement project was undertaken with a goal to eliminate CCU UE within 12 months.
Using the clinical practice improvement (CPI) method, the most significant root causes were missing sedation/analgesia protocol, no ventilator weaning protocol and absent respiratory therapist during the CCU morning rounds. Non-physician directed sedation/analgesia and ventilation weaning protocols were created and put on trial in Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles before formal implementation. Arrangements were made to allocate a respiratory therapist to the CCU daily for morning rounds.
For 12 months after fully implementing the interventions, UE incidence dropped from 5.2 per cent to 0.9 per cent (p = 0.006). There were no adverse outcomes, re-intubation and/or readmission to CCU within 48 hours.
Through a multi-disciplinary CPI approach, adopting non-physician directed protocols has successfully streamlined and improved airway management in mechanically ventilated patients in a cardiologist-led CCU.
There is little published data on improving intubated patient care in cardiologist-led CCUs. Previous studies centered on intensive care units managed by critical care specialists.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance