Damiano Remorini

Università di Pisa, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (55)99.75 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Plant Physiology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Plant Physiology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an automated approach for peach fruit maturity grading that, by exploiting fiber-optic spectroscopy- based sensors and multivariate processing techniques, minimizes the operator intervention while reducing discharge and waste. The use of a spectroscopic sensor complies with the socalled non-destructive measurement method, which enables fast repeated measurements to be performed at the single fruit level while avoiding fruit damage and loss. Maturity grading is accomplished by retrieving estimates of the fruit flesh firmness by means of multivariate retrieval techniques applied to the reflectance spectra acquired with the spectrometer and by processing the retrieved values within the framework of a maturity fuzzy classifier. A decision support system is developed to provide the user with maturity category decision and associated reliability. Experimental results show that the approach is effective for automated maturity grading of peach fruits affected by a high degree of variability. This work lays the foundations for the realization of easy-to-use sustainable automated maturity grading systems.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · IEEE Sensors Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we tested the hypothesis that ascorbic acid (AA) reduces browning of fresh-cut apples (Red Delicious, RD, and Granny Smith, GS), and we investigated the impact of AA on phenylpropanoid metabolism of RD and GS. Apple slices were dipped in a solution of 100 mg/L of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ClO2 + 3% AA and stored at 4C for 96 h. Flesh firmness, solid soluble content and browning index, total phenols and flavonoids, and the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were monitored upon storage (0, 48 and 96 h). Our results demonstrated that GS is less sensitive to browning and thus more suitable for minimally processed produce. Ascorbate reduces the browning index also in RD, a cultivar largely appreciated by consumers but more prone to browning. AA likely contrasts browning appearance by interacting with peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase and/or promoting the regeneration of phenols and flavonoids.Practical ApplicationsBrowning of fresh-cut apple is one of the main problems that limit the shelf life of this type of produce. Given that this produce is highly appreciated by consumers, different antibrowning treatments have been tested to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apple. We found that treatment with 100 mg/L of ClO2 + 3% of ascorbic acid significantly reduces the browning appearance in apple slices. Browning was also reduced in Red Delicious cultivar that is more prone than Granny Smith to this phenomenon, but that is highly appreciated by consumers.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
  • D. Remorini · C. Fei · F. Loreti · R. Massai
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    ABSTRACT: 'Flavorcrest' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees grafted onto nine rootstocks (four hybrids of peach, almond and P. davidiana: Barrier 1, Cadaman, GF 677, and Sirio; five plum clones: Ishtara, Julior, Mr.S.2/5, Penta and Puebla) were grown in a replant soil in the Pisa Province (Italy). Trees were planted on January 1998 at 4.5 × 2.0 m spacing and trained to a free spindle ('fusetto'). Measurements of the vegetative growth, yield, phenology and fruit quality of each tree were recorded annually. Results of trunk cross-sectional area, size and volume of the canopy, summer and winter pruning weights showed that Barrier 1, GF 677 and Cadaman were the most vigorous rootstocks followed by plum clones and then Sirio. Sirio and plum clones had earlier harvest times compared to the other rootstocks; whereas fruit ripening on GF 677 and Barrier 1 was delayed. Cumulative yield was highest on Cadaman and GF 677 and lowest on Penta, Sirio and Mr.S. 2/5, while yield efficiency was highest on Sirio, Julior, Puebla, Cadaman and Ishtara. Fruit size was highest on Barrier 1, GF 677 and Ishtara and lowest on Julior and Sirio. Flesh firmness was highest on vigorous rootstocks (Barrier 1, Cadaman and GF 677) while a lower soluble solids content was found only on Barrier 1 rootstock. Finally, there was a higher mortality rate, for Ishtara, Julior and Sirio, due to replant disease.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Acta horticulturae
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to monitor peach ripeness of 'Chimarrita' and 'Maciel' cultivars, grafted on different rootstocks, using the flesh-flesh firmness parameter, as an indicator of harvest time through equipment based on Vis/Nir spectroscopy. The orchard was installed in 2005, was "V" system trained with spacing of 5.0 x 1.5 m, and the cultivars were grafted on seven rootstocks: 'Capdeboscq', 'Flordaguard', 'Nemaguard', 'Okinawa', 'Tsukuba', 'Umezeiro' and 'Viamão'. After harvesting, the fruits were evaluated by the NIR CASE spectrophotometer, establishing categories of flesh-flesh firmness, between 40N and 60N for fruits consumed in a long term and <40N for immediate consumption. The analyzed rootstocks alter the peach ripeness of the 'Chimarrita' and 'Maciel' cultivars. The 'Umezeiro' rootstock induced early harvest for the 'Chimarrita' cultivar. The 'Nemaguard'/'Maciel' combination provides fruits with a superior harvest period than the other ones evaluated. The Vis/Nir spectroscopy is a useful tool to monitor the harvest of 'Chimarrita' and 'Maciel' cultivars.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Acta horticulturae
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    ABSTRACT: Fresh-cut products (FCP) business has globally grown rapidly in the last decades. The success of FCP is mainly due to their practicality. Being them ready to eat, they perfectly meet the needed of people living industrialized countries, where the frenetic rhythms of their life reduce the time devote to food preparation. FCP also maintain high nutraceutic values, not too far from those of fresh fruits and vegetables. Cutting process negatively influences the shelf life of FCP and many efforts concentrated to counteract the losses of produce. Here, we summarize the strength and weakness of FCP and some new strategies to preserve them. Finally, some achievement of our research team are described, especially those focused on the strategy to preserve the nutraceutic value of some FCP and others intended to control the browning phenomenon with particular attention to the role of endogenous ascorbate as browning-preventing compound
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Agrochimica -Pisa-
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    M Landi · R Massai · D Remorini
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    ABSTRACT: Rootstock selection and thinning treatment have long been shown to positively affect quality parameters of fruits. However, rootstock selection for high content of phytochemical in sweet cherry is in its infancy and no data are available about the effect of manual thinning on these compounds. In Experiment 1, fruit of 'Lapins' grafted onto MaxMa Delbard ® 60 Broksec * showed the highest ripening index among the 11 rootstocks evaluated, associated with high anthocyanin, flavonoid content, and total antioxidant ability. In Experiment 2, MaxMa Delbard ® 60 Broksec * was selected as rootstock for 25% and 50% of manual bud thinning treatment. Thinning increased significantly fruit size (+9.5% and +19%, respectively), solid soluble and anthocyanin content, and total antioxidant ability of drupes. Chroma and L* values decreased along with the increment of anthocyanin content. Beside the classic rootstock selection, thinning is a promising approach to further increase both organoleptic and nutraceutical properties of sweet cherry.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Agrochimica -Pisa-
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Fresh-cut produce represents a good method to save about the 25% of kiwifruit not useful to meet the fresh fruit-marketing standard due to improper size and shape. For that reason, fresh-cut kiwifruit has been extensively studied. However, the comprehension of the influence of some aspect of cultivation might further increase the shelf life as well as the nutritional values of that fruit. Here, we explored the hypothesis that fully-exposed or partially-shaded grown kiwifruit differently perform upon storage as whole fruit and as minimally-processed produce. Flesh firmness (FF), total solids soluble (SSC), ascorbate (AAT), flavonoids (TFO) and phenols (TF) content were evaluated in sliced and whole fruit upon 3 d of storage at 4° C after 75 d of cold chamber storage at 0° C. The activity of two enzymes related to the softening process, polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylesterase (PME), was evaluated as well. FF and SSC were constitutively higher in sun-exposed fruit and those characteristics remained higher during the storage as whole fruit. Greater constitutive content of AAT, TFO and TP was found in sun-exposed whole fruit although after cutting the reduction on their content was significantly lower in shade fruits. PME and PG activity were higher only in whole shade fruits while no relevant differences occurred after cutting. In few words, sun-exposed fruits resulted better suitable for fresh-fruit market, while the shade counterpart denoted a good predisposition to be used as fresh-cut produce, maintaining similar fruit maturity properties, but higher nutraceutical values when sliced than fruit grown under full sun.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The putative photoprotective role of foliar anthocyanins continues to attract heated debate. Strikingly different experimental set-ups coupled with a poor knowledge of anthocyanin identity have likely contributed to such disparate opinions. Here, the photosynthetic responses to 30% or 100% solar irradiance were compared in two cultivars of basil, the green-leafed Tigullio (TG) and the purple-leafed Red Rubin (RR). Coumaroyl anthocyanins in RR leaf epidermis significantly mitigated the effects of high light stress. In full sunlight, RR leaves displayed several shade-plant traits; they transferred less energy than did TG to PSII, and non-photochemical quenching was lower. The higher xanthophyll cycle activity in TG was insufficient to prevent inactivation of PSII in full sunlight. However, TG was the more efficient in the shade; RR was far less able to accommodate a large change in irradiance. Investment of carbon to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was more in RR than in TG in the shade, and was either greatly enhanced in TG or varied little in RR because of high sunlight. The metabolic cost of photoprotection was lower whereas light-induced increase in biomass production was higher in RR than in TG, thus making purple basil the more light tolerant. Purple basil appears indeed to display the conservative resource-use strategy usually observed in highly stress tolerant species. We conclude that the presence of epidermal coumaroyl anthocyanins confers protective benefits under high light, but it is associated with a reduced plasticity to accommodate changing light fluxes as compared with green leaves.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Physiologia Plantarum
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    Marco Landi · Damiano Remorini · Alberto Pardossi · Lucia Guidi
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to investigate how different cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) responded to boron (B) excess. Two purple-leafed and eight green-leafed cultivars were hydroponically grown for 20 days with 0.2 or 20 mg L-1 B in the nutrient solution. Leaf B content, gas exchanges, chlorophyll a fluorescence and oxidative stress were determined at the end of the treatment along with the severity of leaf necrosis. A range of tolerance to B toxicity was found: the green cultivars were more susceptible than the purple-leaved ones characterized by a higher constitutive anthocyanin content. In all the genotypes B excess resulted in oxidative stress as determined by accumulation of malondialdehyde by-products (MDA), reduced photosynthesis and the occurrence of leaf burn. A close correlation was found between leaf B accumulation and oxidative stress, as well as between oxidative stress and the severity of leaf burn. Net photosynthesis (Pn) was reduced due to both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations in the green cultivars whereas the reduction of Pn in the purple leaves was only attributable to stomatal factors. Chlorophyll a fluorescence revealed a decrease in the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and in the electron transport rate (ETR) in plants grown with B excess although less reduction was observed in the purple genotypes. The quantum yield of PSII decreased as a result of B toxicity only the green cultivars. It is concluded that anthocyanins were likely involved in attenuation of the negative effects of B toxicity.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science
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    ABSTRACT: A non-destructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex ®) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g/kg fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a non-destructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    Marco Landi · Alberto Pardossi · Damiano Remorini · Lucia Guidi

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Kiwifruit contains high amounts of anti-oxidants beneficial to health. Its quality is influenced by ripening time, genotype, cultivation techniques, climate and storage conditions after harvest. The aim of the present study was to characterise the phenolic content by HPLC methods and to evaluate the performance of a portable optical sensor (Multiplex 3), for in vivo non-destructive phenolic compound assessment in kiwifruits. Kiwifruits peel extracts were characterised by reverse-phase (RP) HPLC with diode-array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionisation (ESI) with MS using the Zorbax SB-Aq. column from Agilent. The fluorimetric sensor method is based on the screening of fruit chlorophyll fluorescence excitation and allows the UV absorbance of intact fruit skin to be measured. The flavonol index, FLAV, was calculated as log(FRFR/FRFUV), where FRFR and FRFUV are the chlorophyll fluorescence excited with red and UV light. Hydroxycinnamic acids, procyanidins, and quercetin glycosides were the main polyphenol classes detected by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS in the kiwifruit skin. A good linear regression (R2 = 0.88) was found between the fluorimetric sensor FLAV index and flavonol chromatographic analysis of the fruits. The FLAV index was able to detect the higher content of flavonols in sun-exposed fruits with respect to mid-shaded and shaded ones in accordance with the destructive analysis. The fluorimetric sensor represents a rapid and non-invasive tool to: (i) monitor the flavonol accumulation in kiwifruit and to assess its quality concerning the healthy anti-oxidant properties; (ii) evaluate the effect of environmental and agronomical factors related to the fruit quality; and (iii) select fruits with the largest flavonol content, and consequently less susceptible to pathogen attack, in order to improve their storage durability. Copyright
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Phytochemical Analysis
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    Marco Landi · Damiano Remorini · Alberto Pardossi · Lucia Guidi
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Plant Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Concerns about global warming led to the calculation of the carbon footprint (CF) left by human activities. The agricultural sector is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, though cropland soils can also act as sinks. So far, most LCA studies on agricultural products have not considered changes in soil organic matter (SOM). This paper aimed to: (1) integrate the Hénin–Dupuis SOM model into the CF study and (2) outline the impacts of different vineyard soil management scenarios on the overall CF. Methods A representative wine chain in the Maremma Rural District, Tuscany (Italy), made up of a cooperative winery and nine of its associated farms, was selected to investigate the production of a non-aged, high-quality red wine. The system boundary was established from vineyard planting to waste management after use. The functional unit (FU) chosen for this study was a 0.75-L bottle of wine, and all data refer to the year 2009. The SOM balance, based on Hénin–Dupuis’ equation, was integrated and run using GaBi4 software. A sensitivity analysis was performed, and four scenarios were developed to assess the impact of vineyard soil management types with decreasing levels of organic matter inputs. Results and discussion SOM accounting reduced the overall CF of one wine bottle from 0.663 to 0.531 kg CO2-eq/FU. The vineyard planting sub-phase produced a loss of SOM while, in the pre-production and production sub-phases, the loss/accumulation of SOM was related to the soil management practices. On average, soil management in the production sub-phase led to a net accumulation of SOM, and the overall vineyard phase was a sink of CO2. Residue incorporation and grassing were identified as the main factors affecting changes in SOM in vineyard soils. Conclusions Our results showed that incorporating SOM accounting into the wine chain’s CF analysis changed the vineyard phase from a GHG source to a modest net GHG sink. These results highlighted the need to include soil C dynamics in the CF of the agricultural product. Here, the SOM balance method proposed was sensitive to changes in management practices and was site specific. Moreover, we were also able to define a minimum data set for SOM accounting. The EU recognises soil carbon sequestration as one of the major European strategies for mitigation. However, specific measures have yet to be included in the CAP 2020. It would be desirable to include soil in the new ISO 14067—Carbon Footprint of Products.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
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    F Martinelli · D Remorini · S Saia · R Massai · P Tonutti
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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of different metabolites in olive (Olea europaea (L.)) fruit at harvest can be affected by water availability, with significant consequences on the composition and the quality of the resulting oil. The aim of the present study was to profile the metabolic composition of ripe olives (cv. Cipressino) grown under water-stress and irrigated conditions applied during the last part of the fruit developmental cycle (from pit hardening to commercial harvest). The imposed conditions resulted in a moderate water stress (−3.5 MPa) at the end of the experimental period. Samples (pulp + skin) of fruit collected at the stage of complete epicarp pigmentation were analyzed by means of GC–MS. In total, 176 metabolites were detected, of which 57 were identified. Principal component analysis (PCA) of stress and non-stress treatments resulted in clearly separated profiles with the first principal component (PC1) mostly corre-lated with the organic acid content. Of the 57 compounds identified, 19 metabolites (organic acids, fatty acids, soluble sugars, and terpens) accumulated differently in the two sets of samples. A reduction in soluble sugars and unsaturated fatty acids was detected in water stressed samples, suggesting an accel-eration of the ripening process. These results highlighted the validity of metabolic profiling to study the effects of water stress in terms of both fruit composition and physiology.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Scientia Horticulturae
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    Marco Landi · Pardossi A · Remorini D · Guidi L
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    ABSTRACT: Boron (B) toxicity induces oxidative stress and alterations in the photosynthetic process. The occurrence of visible symptoms depends on plant species and even on cultivar. However, limited information is available concerning antioxidant responses to B toxicity; therefore a study was carried out to assess the role of antioxidants in hydroponically grown sweet basil submitted to B excess. Two cultivars were compared: the purple-leaved ‘Red Rubin’ that shown scarce symptoms of B-induced toxicity and the green-leaved ‘Tigullio’ in which they were evident.Sweet basil plants were grown in “floating raft system” for 20 days with 0.2 (control), 2 and 20 mg L−1 of B in the nutrient solution. At the end of treatments visible symptoms of damage were evaluated and some parameters were measured: growth, leaf B accumulation, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment, phenols and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, total non-enzymatic antioxidant ability, antioxidant molecules and enzymes.B excess negatively affected growth and photosynthesis in both cultivars but differential mechanisms were recorded. ‘Tigullio’ exhibited a larger B accumulation in leaves as compared to ‘Red Rubin’. Moreover, in ‘Red Rubin’ plants a greater constitutive content of ascorbic acid, glutathione, anthocyanins and, consequently, a stronger antioxidant ability than ‘Tigullio’ were recorded. MDA test confirmed that the extent of oxidative stress was larger in ‘Tigullio’ than in ‘Red Rubin’. A general stimulation of antioxidant enzymes occurred by increasing B concentration in the growth medium. Notable, anthocyanins were likely involved in the B tolerance shown by ‘Red Rubin’ in consideration of their antioxidant properties and because of the role of these compounds in photoprotection. This paper represents a contribution to understanding the role of antioxidant compounds in plant tolerance to B toxicity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Environmental and Experimental Botany