D. Arzoumanian

Université Paris-Sud 11, Orsay, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (64)157.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Two major features of the prestellar CMF are: 1) a broad peak below 1 Msun, presumably corresponding to a mean gravitational fragmentation scale, and 2) a characteristic power-law slope, very similar to the Salpeter slope of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) at the high-mass end. While recent Herschel observations have shown that the peak of the prestellar CMF is close to the thermal Jeans mass in marginally supercritical filaments, the origin of the power-law tail of the CMF/IMF at the high-mass end is less clear. Inutsuka (2001) proposed a theoretical scenario in which the origin of the power-law tail can be understood as resulting from the growth of an initial spectrum of density perturbations seeded along the long axis of filaments by interstellar turbulence. Here, we report the statistical properties of the line-mass fluctuations of filaments in nearby molecular clouds observed with Herschel using a 1-D power spectrum analysis. The observed filament power spectra were fitted by a power-law function $(P_{true}(s) \propto s^{\alpha})$ after removing the effect of beam convolution at small scales. A Gaussian-like distribution of power-spectrum slopes was found centered at -1.6, close to that of the one-dimensional velocity power spectrum generated by subsonic Kolomogorov turbulence (-1.67). An empirical correlation, $P^{0.5}(s_0) \propto <N_{\rm H_2}>^{1.4 \pm 0.1} $, was also found between the amplitude of each filament power spectrum $P(s_0)$ and the mean column density along the filament $<N_{\rm H_2}>$. Finally, the dispersion of line-mass fluctuations along each filament $\sigma_{\rm M_{line}}$ was found to scale with the physical length $L$ of the filament, roughly as $\sigma_{M_{line}} \propto L^{0.7}$. Overall, our results are consistent with the suggestion that the bulk of the CMF/IMF results from the gravitational fragmentation of filaments.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the novel detection of complex high-column density tails in the probability distribution functions (PDFs) for three high-mass star-forming regions (CepOB3, MonR2, NGC6334), obtained from dust emission observed with Herschel. The low column density range can be fit with a lognormal distribution. A first power-law tail starts above an extinction (Av) of ~6-14. It has a slope of alpha=1.3-2 for the rho~r^-alpha profile for an equivalent density distribution (spherical or cylindrical geometry), and is thus consistent with free-fall gravitational collapse. Above Av~40, 60, and 140, we detect an excess that can be fitted by a flatter power law tail with alpha>2. It correlates with the central regions of the cloud (ridges/hubs) of size ~1 pc and densities above 10^4 cm^-3. This excess may be caused by physical processes that slow down collapse and reduce the flow of mass towards higher densities. Possible are: 1. rotation, which introduces an angular momentum barrier, 2. increasing optical depth and weaker cooling, 3. magnetic fields, 4. geometrical effects, and 5. protostellar feedback. The excess/second power-law tail is closely linked to high-mass star-formation though it does not imply a universal column density threshold for the formation of (high-mass) stars.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the filaments extracted from the column density maps of the nearby Lupus 1, 3, and 4 molecular clouds, derived from photometric maps observed with the Herschel satellite. Filaments in the Lupus clouds have quite low column densities, with a median value of ∼1.5 × 1021 cm−2 and most have masses per unit length lower than the maximum critical value for radial gravitational collapse. Indeed, no evidence of filament contraction has been seen in the gas kinematics. We find that some filaments, that on average are thermally subcritical, contain dense cores that may eventually form stars. This is an indication that in the low column density regime, the critical condition for the formation of stars may be reached only locally and this condition is not a global property of the filament. Finally, in Lupus we find multiple observational evidences of the key role that the magnetic field plays in forming filaments, and determining their confinement and dynamical evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present and discuss the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) observations in an ∼11 deg2 area of the Aquila molecular cloud complex at d ∼ 260 pc, imaged with the SPIRE and PACS photometric cameras in parallel mode from 70 μm to 500 μm. Using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources, we identify a complete sample of starless dense cores and embedded (Class 0-I) protostars in this region, and analyze their global properties and spatial distributions. We find a total of 651 starless cores, ∼60% ± 10% of which are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, and they will likely form stars inthe future. We also detect 58 protostellar cores. The core mass function (CMF) derived for the large population of prestellar cores is very similar in shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), confirming earlier findings on a much stronger statistical basis and supporting the view that there is a close physical link between the stellar IMF and the prestellar CMF. The global shift in mass scale observed between the CMF and the IMF is consistent with a typical star formation efficiency of ∼40% at the level of an individual core. By comparing the numbers of starless cores in various density bins to the number of young stellar objects (YSOs), we estimate that the lifetime of prestellar cores is ∼1 Myr, which is typically ∼4 times longer than the core free-fall time, and that it decreases with average core density. We find a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of prestellar cores and the densest filaments observed in the Aquila complex. About 90% of the Herschel-identified prestellar cores are located above a background column density corresponding to AV ∼ 7, and ∼75% of them lie within filamentary structures with supercritical masses per unit length ≳ 16 M⊙/pc. These findings support a picture wherein the cores making up the peak of the CMF (and probably responsible for the base of the IMF) result primarily from the gravitational fragmentation of marginally supercritical filaments. Given that filaments appear to dominate the mass budget of dense gas at AV> 7, our findings also suggest that the physics of prestellar core formation within filaments is responsible for a characteristic "efficiency" SFR/Mdense ∼ 5-2+2 × 10-8 yr-1 for the star formation process in dense gas.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present and discuss the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey observations in a ~11 deg^2 area of the Aquila molecular cloud complex at d~260 pc, imaged with the SPIRE/PACS cameras from 70 to 500 micron. We identify a complete sample of starless dense cores and embedded protostars in this region, and analyze their global properties and spatial distributions. We find a total of 651 starless cores, ~60% of which are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, and they will likely form stars in the future. We also detect 58 protostellar cores. The core mass function (CMF) derived for the prestellar cores is very similar in shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), supporting the earlier view that there is a close physical link between the IMF and the CMF. The global shift in mass scale observed between the CMF and the IMF is consistent with a typical star formation efficiency of ~40%. By comparing the numbers of starless cores to the number of young stellar objects, we estimate that the lifetime of prestellar cores is ~1 Myr. We find a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of prestellar cores and the densest filaments. About 90% of the Herschel-identified prestellar cores are located above a background column density corresponding to A_V~7, and ~75% of them lie within filamentary structures with supercritical masses per unit length >~16 M_sun/pc. These findings support a picture wherein the cores making up the peak of the CMF (and probably responsible for the base of the IMF) result primarily from the gravitational fragmentation of marginally supercritical filaments. Given that filaments appear to dominate the mass budget of dense gas at A_V>7, our findings also suggest that the physics of prestellar core formation within filaments is responsible for a characteristic "efficiency" SFR/M_dense ~5+-2 x 10^-8 yr^-1 for the star formation process in dense gas.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The surroundings of HII regions can have a profound influence on their development, morphology, and evolution. This paper explores the effect of the environment on H II regions in the MonR2 molecular cloud. We aim to investigate the density structure of envelopes surrounding HII regions and to determine their collapse and ionisation expansion ages. The Mon R2 molecular cloud is an ideal target since it hosts an H II region association. Column density and temperature images derived from Herschel data were used together to model the structure of HII bubbles and their surrounding envelopes. The resulting observational constraints were used to follow the development of the Mon R2 ionised regions with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The four hot bubbles associated with H II regions are surrounded by dense, cold, and neutral gas envelopes. The radial density profiles are reminiscent of those of low-mass protostellar envelopes. The inner parts of envelopes of all four HII regions could be free-falling because they display shallow density profiles. As for their outer parts, the two compact HII regions show a density profile, which is typical of the equilibrium structure of an isothermal sphere. In contrast, the central UCHii region shows a steeper outer profile, that could be interpreted as material being forced to collapse. The size of the heated bubbles, the spectral type of the irradiating stars, and the mean initial neutral gas density are used to estimate the ionisation expansion time, texp, 0.1Myr,for the dense UCHII and compact HII regions and 0.35 Myr for the extended HII region. The envelope transition radii between the shallow and steeper density profiles are used to estimate the time elapsed since the formation of the first proto stellar embryo, Tinf : 1Myr, for the ultra-compact, 1.5 / 3Myr for the compact, and greater than 6Myr for the extended HII regions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould Belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, $N_H$. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analyzed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool Histogram of Relative Orientations. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing $N_H$ from preferentially parallel or no preferred orientation to preferentially perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfv\'enic or sub-Alfv\'enic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Planck has mapped the polarized dust emission over the whole sky, making it possible to trace the Galactic magnetic field structure that pervades the interstellar medium (ISM). We combine polarization data from Planck with rotation measure (RM) observations towards a massive star-forming region, the Rosette Nebula in the Monoceros molecular cloud, to study its magnetic field structure and the impact of an expanding HII region on the morphology of the field. We derive an analytical solution for the magnetic field, assumed to evolve from an initially uniform configuration following the expansion of ionized gas and the formation of a shell of swept-up ISM. From the RM data we estimate a mean value of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field of about +3 microG in the Rosette nebula, for a uniform electron density of about 11cm-3. The dust shell that surrounds the Rosette HII region is clearly observed in the Planck intensity map at 353 GHz. The Planck observations constrain the plane-of-the-sky orientation of the magnetic field in the region to be mostly aligned with the large-scale field along the Galactic plane. The data are compared with the analytical model, which predicts the mean polarization properties of a spherical and uniform dust shell for a given orientation of the field. This comparison leads to an upper limit of about 45deg on the angle between the line of sight and the magnetic field in the Rosette complex, for an assumed intrinsic dust polarization fraction of 4%. This field direction can reproduce the RM values detected in the ionized region if the magnetic field strength in the Monoceros molecular cloud is in the range 9-12.5 microG. The present analytical model is able to reproduce the RM distribution across the ionized nebula, as well as the mean dust polarization properties of the swept-up shell, and can be directly applied to other similar objects.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Planck observations at 353GHz provide the first fully-sampled maps of the polarized dust emission of interstellar filaments, offering unprecedented information on the structure of the magnetic field. We present the polarization properties of three nearby filaments, Musca, B211, and L1506. These three filaments have similar total intensities (Stokes I), while the variations of the Stokes Q and U are all different: the Musca filament is visible in the Q and U maps, B211 and L1506 are seen in the Q map but are not distinguishable in the U map, and the Q increase for L1506 is not spatially coincident with that of I. They all offer 3pc segments, along which both the filament and the background Stokes parameters are almost uniform. In all three cases, the polarization fraction (p) towards the filaments is smaller than that of their background. The polarized emission results from the combination of the magnetic field (B) structure and the dust polarization properties. We model the variations of the Stokes parameters across the filaments using variations solely of the orientation of B, assuming constant dust polarization fraction (p_0). Our modelling shows that the magnetic fields in the filaments and their background have an ordered component. We find that for L1506, the depolarization arises only from the rotation by 65^\circ of the plane of the sky (POS) projection of the field in the filament with respect to that of its background. For Musca and B211, the drop in p is due mostly to different orientations of B with respect to the POS inside and outside the filaments. The magnetic fields inside Musca and B211 are nearly orthogonal to their long axes, but almost parallel in the case of L1506. In spite of the degeneracy between p_0 and the angle of B with respect to the POS, we find that for Musca and B211 the quality of the fit is better for p_0 values larger than 13% and 7%, respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The role of the magnetic field in the formation of the filamentary structures observed in the interstellar medium (ISM) is a debated topic. The Planck all-sky maps of linearly polarized emission from dust at 353GHz provide the required combination of imaging and statistics to study the correlation between the structures of the Galactic magnetic field and of interstellar matter, both in the diffuse ISM and in molecular clouds. The data reveal structures, or ridges, in the intensity map with counterparts in the Stokes Q and/or U maps. We focus on structures at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes with column density from $10^{20}$ to $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$. We measure the magnetic field orientation on the plane of the sky from the polarization data, and present an algorithm to estimate the orientation of the ridges from the dust intensity map. We use analytical models to account for projection effects. Comparing polarization angles on and off the structures, we estimate the mean ratio between the strengths of the turbulent and mean components of the magnetic field to be between 0.6 and 1.0, with a preferred value of 0.8. We find that the ridges are preferentially aligned with the magnetic field measured on the structures. This trend becomes more striking for increasing polarization fraction and decreasing column density. We interpret the increase of alignment with polarization fraction as a consequence of projections effects. The decrease of alignment for high column density is not due to a loss of correlation between the structures and the geometry of the magnetic field. In molecular complexes, we observe structures perpendicular to the magnetic field, which cannot be accounted for by projection effects. We discuss our results in the context of models and MHD simulations, which describe the formation of structures in the magnetized ISM.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the large-scale polarized sky as seen by Planck HFI at 353 GHz, which is the most sensitive Planck channel for dust polarization. We construct and analyse large-scale maps of dust polarization fraction and polarization direction, while taking account of noise bias and possible systematic effects. We find that the maximum observed dust polarization fraction is high (pmax > 18%), in particular in some of the intermediate dust column density (AV < 1mag) regions. There is a systematic decrease in the dust polarization fraction with increasing dust column density, and we interpret the features of this correlation in light of both radiative grain alignment predictions and fluctuations in the magnetic field orientation. We also characterize the spatial structure of the polarization angle using the angle dispersion function and find that, in nearby fields at intermediate latitudes, the polarization angle is ordered over extended areas that are separated by filamentary structures, which appear as interfaces where the magnetic field sky projection rotates abruptly without apparent variations in the dust column density. The polarization fraction is found to be anti-correlated with the dispersion of the polarization angle, implying that the variations are likely due to fluctuations in the 3D magnetic field orientation along the line of sight sampling the diffuse interstellar medium.We also compare the dust emission with the polarized synchrotron emission measured with the Planck LFI, with low-frequency radio data, and with Faraday rotation measurements of extragalactic sources. The two polarized components are globally similar in structure along the plane and notably in the Fan and North Polar Spur regions. A detailed comparison of these three tracers shows, however, that dust and cosmic rays generally sample different parts of the line of sight and confirms that much of the variation observed in the Planck data is due to the 3D structure of the magnetic field.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Polarized emission observed by Planck HFI at 353 GHz towards a sample of nearby fields is presented, focusing on the statistics of polarization fractions $p$ and angles $\psi$. The polarization fractions and column densities in these nearby fields are representative of the range of values obtained over the whole sky. We find that: (i) the largest polarization fractions are reached in the most diffuse fields; (ii) the maximum polarization fraction $p_\mathrm{max}$ decreases with column density $N_\mathrm{H}$ in the more opaque fields with $N_\mathrm{H} > 10^{21}\,\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$; and (iii) the polarization fraction along a given line of sight is correlated with the local spatial coherence of the polarization angle. These observations are compared to polarized emission maps computed in simulations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence in which we assume a uniform intrinsic polarization fraction of the dust grains. We find that an estimate of this parameter may be recovered from the maximum polarization fraction $p_\mathrm{max}$ in diffuse regions where the magnetic field is ordered on large scales and perpendicular to the line of sight. This emphasizes the impact of anisotropies of the magnetic field on the emerging polarization signal. The decrease of the polarization fraction with column density in nearby molecular clouds is well reproduced in the simulations, indicating that it is essentially due to the turbulent structure of the magnetic field: an accumulation of variously polarized structures along the line of sight leads to such an anti-correlation. In the simulations, polarization fractions are also found to anti-correlate with the angle dispersion function $\Delta\psi$. [abridged]
    Full-text · Article · May 2014

  • No preview · Article · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We use PACS and SPIRE continuum data at 160 um, 250 um, 350 um, and 500 um from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey to sample seven clumps in Perseus: B1, B1-E, B5, IC348, L1448, L1455, and NGC1333. Additionally, we identify and characterize the embedded Class 0 protostars using detections of compact Herschel sources at 70 um as well as archival Spitzer catalogues and SCUBA 850 um photometric data. We identify 28 candidate Class 0 protostars, four of which are newly discovered sources not identified with Spitzer. We find that the star formation efficiency of clumps, as traced by Class 0 protostars, correlates strongly with the flatness of their respective column density distributions at high values. This correlation suggests that the fraction of high column density material in a clump reflects only its youngest protostellar population rather than its entire source population. We propose that feedback from either the formation or evolution of protostars changes the local density structure of clumps.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: The Chamaeleon molecular cloud complex is one of the nearest star-forming sites encompassing three molecular clouds with a different star-formation history, from quiescent (Cha III) to actively forming stars (Cha II), and reaching the end of star-formation (Cha I). To charactize its large-scale structure, we derived column density and temperature maps using PACS and SPIRE observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey, and applied several tools, such as filament tracing, power-spectra, \Delta-variance, and probability distribution functions of column density (PDFs), to derive physical properties. The column density maps reveal a different morphological appearance for the three clouds, with a ridge-like structure for Cha I, a clump-dominated regime for Cha II, and an intricate filamentary network for Cha III. The filament width is measured to be around 0.12\pm0.04 pc in the three clouds, and the filaments found to be gravitationally unstable in Cha I and II, but mostly subcritical in Cha III. Faint filaments (striations) are prominent in Cha I showing a preferred alignment with the large-scale magnetic field. The PDFs of all regions show a lognormal distribution at low column densities. For higher densities, the PDF of Cha I shows a turnover indicative of an extended higher density component, culminating with a power-law tail. Cha II shows a power-law tail with a slope characteristic of gravity. The PDF of Cha III can be best fit by a single lognormal. The turbulence properties of the three regions are found to be similar, pointing towards a scenario where the clouds are impacted by large-scale processes. The magnetic field could possibly play an important role for the star-formation efficiency in the Chamaeleon clouds if proven that it can effectively channel material on Cha I, and possibly Cha II, but probably less efficiently on the quiescent Cha III cloud.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Ionization feedback should impact the probability distribution function (PDF) of the column density around the ionized gas. We aim to quantify this effect and discuss its potential link to the Core and Initial Mass Function (CMF/IMF). We used in a systematic way Herschel column density maps of several regions observed within the HOBYS key program: M16, the Rosette and Vela C molecular cloud, and the RCW 120 H ii region. We fitted the column density PDFs of all clouds with two lognormal distributions, since they present a double-peak or enlarged shape in the PDF. Our interpretation is that the lowest part of the column density distribution describes the turbulent molecular gas while the second peak corresponds to a compression zone induced by the expansion of the ionized gas into the turbulent molecular cloud. The condensations at the edge of the ionized gas have a steep compressed radial profile, sometimes recognizable in the flattening of the power-law tail. This could lead to an unambiguous criterion able to disentangle triggered from pre-existing star formation. In the context of the gravo-turbulent scenario for the origin of the CMF/IMF, the double peaked/enlarged shape of the PDF may impact the formation of objects at both the low-mass and the high-mass end of the CMF/IMF. In particular a broader PDF is required by the gravo-turbulent scenario to fit properly the IMF with a reasonable initial Mach number for the molecular cloud. Since other physical processes (e.g. the equation of state and the variations among the core properties) have already been suggested to broaden the PDF, the relative importance of the different effects remains an open question.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
  • Philippe André · Vera Könyves · Doris Arzoumanian · Pedro Palmeirim
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies of nearby interstellar clouds with the Herschel Space Observatory have provided us with unprecedented images of the initial conditions and early phases of the star formation process. The Herschel images point to the central role of filaments in star formation and to their likely connection to interstellar turbulence. Overall, the Herschel results suggest that it may be possible to understand both the IMF and the global rate of star formation in galaxies by studying the physics of how dense structures (e.g. filaments, cores) form and grow in the ISM of our own Galaxy. Despite an apparent complexity, global star formation may be governed by relatively simple universal laws from filament to galactic scales.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013
  • Doris Arzoumanian · Philippe André · Nicolas Peretto · Vera Könyves
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    ABSTRACT: We present a scenario for filament formation and evolution motivated by recent observational results of nearby molecular clouds. The analysis of more than 250 filaments observed in 7 regions by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey show that the filaments are characterized by a narrow distribution of central width sharply peaked at ̃ 0.1 pc. This typical filament width corresponds, within a factor of ̃ 2 to the sonic scale below which interstellar turbulence becomes subsonic in diffuse gas, which may suggest that the filaments form as a result of the dissipation of large-scale turbulence. The analysis of IRAM 30 m molecular line observations of a sample of these filaments show evidence of an increase in non-thermal velocity dispersion with column density which suggest an evolution of the supercritical filaments in mass per unit length while accreting surrounding material.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: As a preliminary result of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (André et al. 2010) in the Orion B cloud complex we find a clear connection between the locations of the detected prestellar cores and the column density values. We find that the vast majority of the gravitationally bound prestellar cores are detected above a high column density of about 6-7 × 1021 cm-2 (A V ̃ 6-7). This is in very good agreement with dense core formation thresholds found in other regions. For Orion B, a similar limit appears both in the distribution of background column density values of the prestellar cores, and in the column density PDF of the region. Within our core formation scenario, the found threshold can be translated as the column density above which the filaments become gravitationally unstable and fragment into cores.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013

Publication Stats

1k Citations
157.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010-2015
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010-2011
    • University of St Andrews
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Saint Andrews, SCT, United Kingdom