D Kahn

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

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Publications (27)105.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: 99mTc-depreotide (NeoTect) is a synthetic somatostatin analogue, which binds to somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes 2, 3 and 5. Imaging patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using the somatostatin analogue In-pentetreotide (Octreoscan) has demonstrated the feasibility of identifying lymphoma sites with this class of peptide radiopharmaceutical. SSTR peptides can be labelled with beta emitters and, if sufficient tumour uptake relative to normal organs can be demonstrated, therapeutic applications can be considered. In this prospective Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study, patients with NHL and a recent computed tomography (CT) examination were eligible. Whole-body and selected single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging was performed 1 h after intravenous injection of 99mTc-depreotide. Images were compared with CT scan findings. The radioactivity concentration of 99mTc-depreotide in abdominal/pelvic tumour sites, together with normal organs, was determined and expressed as the percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue (%IA x g). Paired CT and 99mTc-depreotide images for three patients with indolent and six with aggressive NHL revealed abnormal 99mTc-depreotide uptake corresponding to the tumour seen on CT in seven of these patients. In three of the patients, all known tumour sites were detected on 99mTc-depreotide images. The mean %IA x g for nine abdominal/pelvic tumour foci from four patients was found to be 0.004% (range, 0.001-0.007%). The mean tumour to bone marrow activity concentration ratio in these four patients was found to be 0.94 (range, 0.33-1.40), whereas the tumour to kidney ratio was 0.53 (range, 0.16-0.80). Levels of 99mTc-depreotide in tumour suggest at least the possibility of potential therapy with beta emitter-labelled SSTR peptides; however, depreotide itself appears not to be a suitable candidate as a targeting agent due to the relatively high bone marrow concentration.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The findings from conventional imaging modalities, such as chest CT, are frequently unreliable in patients with lung cancer. This study was designed to compare the relative diagnostic accuracies and utility of the two most widely used functional imaging examinations, F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and (99m)Tc depreotide scintigraphy, for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Prospective, experimental investigation. Academic medical center. One hundred sixty-six subjects with suspected lung cancer were enrolled in the study. Whole-body and single-photon emission CT imaging of the chest was performed after IV administration of (99m)Tc depreotide. Attenuation-corrected FDG PET imaging was performed after IV administration of FDG. Image findings were compared with the biopsy results or clinical follow-up. Measurements and results: In 157 subjects with evaluable lung lesions, the sensitivities and specificities for detecting malignant disease (95% confidence intervals) of FDG PET are 96% (90 to 98%) and 71% (54 to 85%), and of (99m)Tc depreotide are 94% (88 to 98%) and 51% (34 to 68%). In the 139 subjects with available complete staging data, FDG PET correctly staged 76 of 139 patients (55%), and (99m)Tc depreotide correctly staged 63 of 139 patients (45%). The sensitivity for detection of lung cancer in the primary lesion is equally high for FDG PET and (99m)Tc depreotide. The specificity is superior for FDG PET. The staging accuracy of FDG PET and (99m)Tc depreotide is similar, but when read with the chest CT neither scintigraphic examination is sufficiently accurate to stage patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Chest
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    ABSTRACT: Y-90-DOTA-Phe1-Tyr3-Octreotide (90Y-SMT 487, OctreoTher) has shown potential for effectively treating patients with neuroendocrine tumors. The dose-limiting organ for this agent is the kidney. The purpose of this work is to assess the effectiveness of a commercially available amino acid solution on reducing renal uptake of 90Y-SMT 487 and determine the safety profile of this solution. Subjects with In-111 pentetreotide positive tumors and normal creatinine levels were treated with 3 cycles of 90Y-SMT 487, 120 mCi/cycle, at 6-9 week intervals. During each treatment two liters of an amino acid solution containing arginine and lysine (Aminosyn II 7%, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) were infused IV over 4 hours. Adverse events were recorded. To assess the effect of Aminosyn II on renal uptake of 90Y-SMT 487, a subgroup of subjects underwent bremsstrahlung imaging 24 hours following infusion. Kidney to liver (K/L) count density ratios were generated from the baseline In-111 pentetreotide images (performed without amino acid infusion) and the 90Y bremsstrahlung images. Follow-up creatinine levels were obtained. Thirty-seven subjects received a total of 89 90Y-SMT 487 treatments. The number of amino-acid infusions associated with one or more episodes of emesis was 53 (62%). During 13 (15%) of these infusions, the Aminosyn II rate had to be reduced because of severe nausea and vomiting. Symptomatic flushing occurred during 16 (18%) of the infusions. One subject experienced a near syncopal event shortly after completing the infusion. Creatinine levels remained normal in 34 of 36 subjects during a mean follow-up period of 9.8 months. Fourteen subjects underwent bremsstrahlung imaging following infusion of 90Y-SMT 487. Kidney uptake appeared to decrease with administration of the amino acid solution in 13 of 14 subjects. For the 28 individual kidneys, the mean percent decrease in the Kidney/Liver uptake ratio with the amino acid solution was found to be 32%. We conclude that 2 L of Aminosyn II 7% infused over 4 hours appears to notably reduce renal uptake of 90Y-SMT 487. Aminosyn is generally well tolerated, particularly at lower infusion rates with occasional moderate to severe nausea and vomiting at higher rates.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals
  • D Bushnell · M Madsen · D Kahn

    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • Yusuf Menda · Daniel Kahn
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    ABSTRACT: Several tumors overexpress somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and can thus be imaged with radiolabeled analogues of somatostatin. Tc-99m depreotide is a new radiolabeled somatostatin analogue that shows high affinity for SSTR2, SSTR3, and SSTR5 subtypes. It has been recently FDA-approved for use in the evaluation of indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules. SPECT with Tc-99m depreotide is highly accurate in this clinical setting and may be preferable to FDG-PET because of its lower cost and wider availability. Large studies are also underway to evaluate the accuracy of Tc-99m depreotide in staging of lung cancer.
    No preview · Article · May 2002 · Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Few fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) trials have had sufficient patients to adequately evaluate PET for mediastinal staging. We question whether once PET is performed, is mediastinoscopy necessary? We performed a 5-year retrospective analysis of operable patients with known or suspicious NSCLC. Standard PET techniques were used. Inclusion criteria were (1) surgical mediastinal nodal sampling by mediastinoscopy within 31 days of the PET and (2) definitive diagnosis. There were 237 patients who met the evaluation criteria; ninety-nine patients with NSCLC and 138 with suspicious lesions (137 men and 100 women; aged 20 to 88 years). The PETs were performed from 0 to 29 days before mediastinoscopy (median, 7 days). The standardized uptake value for the primary lesion was 0 to 24.6 (7.9+/-5.0). Nine primary lesions had no FDG uptake (1 benign, 8 NSCLCs). Seventy-one patients (31%) had mediastinal PET positive disease, and 44 patients (19%) had histologic positive mediastinal disease; N2 41 patients (17%) and N3 9 patients (4%). In 6 patients (3%), the initial frozen sections were negative, but PET positivity encouraged further biopsies that were positive for cancer. The PET sensitivity was 82%, specificity 82%, accuracy 82%, negative predictive value 95%, and positive predictive value was 51%. All primary lesions with a standardized uptake value less than 2.5 and a negative mediastinal PET were negative histologically (n = 29). Logistic regression analysis resulted in 100% specificity for PET in this group. In NSCLC PET may reduce the necessity for mediastinoscopy when the primary lesion standardized uptake value is less than 2.5 and the mediastinum is PET negative. Accepting this approach in our patient population, the need for mediastinoscopy would have been reduced by 12%.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Standard uptake values (SUVs) are widely used for quantifying the uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in tumours. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of SUVs for malignancy in lung nodules/masses and to analyse the effects of tumour size, blood glucose levels and different body weight corrections on SUV. One hundred and twenty-seven patients with suspicious lung lesions imaged with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) were studied retrospectively. Pathology results were used to establish lesion diagnosis in all cases. SUVs based on maximum pixel values were obtained by placing regions of interest around the focus of abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the lungs. The SUVs were calculated using the following normalizations: body weight (BW), lean body weight (LBW), scaled body surface area (BSA), blood glucose level (Glu) and tumour size (Tsize). Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to compare the accuracy of different methods of SUV calculation. The areas under the ROC curves for SUV(BW), SUV(BW+Glu), SUV(LBW), SUV(LBW+Glu), SUV(BSA), SUV(BSA+Glu) and SUV(BW+Tsize) were 0.915, 0.912, 0.911, 0.912, 0.916, 0.909 and 0.864, respectively. The accuracy of SUV analysis for malignancy in lung nodules/masses is not improved by correction for blood glucose or tumour size or by normalizing for body surface area or lean body weight instead of body weight.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Following androgen ablation therapy, skeletal metastases from prostate cancer appear in some instances to show an increase in 99Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99Tcm-MDP) uptake. Such a phenomenon could represent a mechanism to increase delivery of bone-seeking therapeutic agents to skeletal metastatic sites. The aim of this study was to characterize more precisely the potential increase in 99Tcm-MDP in skeletal metastases from prostate cancer following initiation of hormone therapy. Baseline bone scans were performed within 1 week of onset of hormone therapy in patients with stage D2 prostate cancer followed by multiple repeat bone scans for up to 4-6 weeks. The count density within metastatic lesions was divided by the average count density from several areas of normal bone to obtain a lesion to normal bone uptake ratio (L/N) for each lesion in each scan. Altogether, 61 skeletal metastases were identified on bone scans from five subjects. Eighty-four percent (51/61) of these lesions showed an increase in 99Tcm-MDP activity relative to normal bone following initiation of hormone therapy with a mean peak increase of 39%. Thirty-nine of these 51 metastatic lesions showed maximum uptake at 3 weeks post-onset of hormone treatment. From our findings, it appears that approximately 3 weeks following initiation of hormone blockade, most skeletal metastases from prostate cancer will demonstrate significantly enhanced 99Tcm uptake relative to normal bone. Consequently, it may be possible to improve the uptake and effectiveness of therapeutic bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals by administering these agents following hormone therapy in patients with prostate cancer metastases.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently no curative therapy for men who have disseminated prostate cancer following failed radical prostatectomy. The purpose of this trial was to investigate systemic radioimmunotherapy in these men. Eight patients with occult metastatic prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy as evidenced solely by a rising serum PSA and evidence of soft tissue lesions outside the prostatic fossa detected by an [111I]indiumcapromab pendetide scan received an infusion of 10 mg of capromab pendetide labeled with 9 mCi/m2 of [90Y]yttrium. Serum PSA was used to measure response rate. There were no complete or partial responses by PSA criteria. Significant unexpected bone marrow toxicity developed in the first 6 of 8 patients treated. The last two patients received co-infusion of edetate calcium disodium in an effort to decrease marrow suppression. In these two patients less marrow toxicity was seen. Repeat 111In-capromab pendetide scans were uninterpretable due to grossly altered whole-body biodistribution of the radioimmunoconjugate. Retrospective analysis of serial PSA values after closure of the study showed a decrease in the log slope PSA for seven of eight patients following radioimmunotherapy, with a statistically significant change in the mean log slope (p = 0.01). The clinical significance of this small but measurable change is uncertain. We conclude that radioimmunotherapy for occult metastatic prostate cancer using 90Y-capromab-pendetide at the dose described does not lower serum PSA, is associated with significant hematologic toxicity, and leads to complexation of the immunoconjugate following subsequent capromab pendetide infusion.
    No preview · Article · May 1999 · Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals

  • No preview · Article · Apr 1999 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Optimum therapy for prostate carcinoma patients requires accurate staging, but computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have limitations as methods for detecting soft tissue metastases. In this study, radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) was evaluated for its ability to identify sites of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. RIS was evaluated in 51 prostate carcinoma patients at high risk for metastatic disease. An intravenous infusion of indium-111 capromab pendetide was given, followed by nuclear medicine imaging on two separate dates. Bilateral, open pelvic lymph node dissection was performed with additional exploration and biopsy of scan positive extraprostatic regions. Histologic evaluation of removed tissue confirmed the accuracy of RIS. In addition, results were compared with other standard methods for diagnosing patients prior to surgery. Nineteen patients (37%) had evidence of lymph node involvement with RIS. Fifteen of the 19 positive patients had pathologic evidence of cancer in the biopsied lymph nodes. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and the positive predictive value for detection of extraprostatic disease were 75%, 86%, 81%, and 79%, respectively. CT, MRI, and ultrasound of the pelvis demonstrated a combined accuracy of only 48% in detecting lymph node disease. Twenty-five previously undetected sites were deemed positive with RIS. Fourteen of these were biopsy-proven tumor sites, seven were probable tumor sites, and four were assumed to be false-positive. RIS had an impact on patient management through its detection of occult disease in more than 50% of prostate carcinoma patients studied, and it provided information concerning the likelihood that lymph node metastases would be found during surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 1998 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Standard diagnostic methods are limited for detecting distant metastases in patients with prostate cancer in whom the only evidence of disease after radical prostatectomy is a detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. We evaluated the role of immunoscintigraphy with the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, 111indium ((111)In)-capromab pendetide, to differentiate between local and distant recurrence in this patient population. We enrolled 183 men who had undergone radical prostatectomy in whom PSA later increased. Gamma camera images were acquired twice after infusion of a single dose of (111)In-capromab pendetide. Immunoscintigraphy revealed disease in 108 of 181 patients (60%) with interpretable scans. The antibody was localized most frequently to the prostatic fossa (34% of the cases), abdominal lymph nodes (23%) and pelvic lymph nodes (22%). Of the 181 men the scan localized the antibody outside the prostatic fossa in 42%. Half of the positive localizations in the fossa were confirmed by biopsy. These findings suggest that immunoscintigraphy with (111)In-capromab pendetide can assist in determining the extent of disease in patients who have increasing PSA after prostatectomy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Standard diagnostic methods are limited for detecting distant metastases in patients with prostate cancer in whom the only evidence of disease after radical prostatectomy is a detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. We evaluated the role of immunoscintigraphy with the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, (111)indium (In-111)-capromab pendetide, to differentiate between local and distant recurrence in this patient population. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 183 men who had undergone radical prostatectomy in whom PSA later increased. Gamma camera images were acquired twice after infusion of a single dose of In-111-capromab pendetide. Results: Immunoscintigraphy revealed disease in 108 of 181 patients (60%) with interpretable scans. The antibody was localized most frequently to the prostatic fossa (34% of the cases), abdominal lymph nodes (23%) and pelvic lymph nodes (22%). Of the 181 men the scan localized the antibody outside the prostatic fossa in 42%. Half of the positive localizations in the fossa were confirmed by biopsy. Conclusions: These findings suggest that immunoscintigraphy with In-111-capromab pendetide can assist in determining the extent of disease in patients who have increasing PSA after prostatectomy.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the ability of In-111-capromab pendetide to separate patients who have failed radical prostatectomy into categories of those who would versus those who would not respond to salvage radiotherapy. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in 32 men with prostate cancer who had failed radical prostatectomy and had undergone a whole-body In-111-capromab pendetide scan were followed-up for 13 months (median) after salvage radiotherapy to the pelvis. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether the scan findings, as well as other clinical variables, were associated with a durable complete response (DCR), a nondurable response (NDR), or no response (NR). Sixteen of 23 (70%) men with a normal scan outside the prostatic fossa achieved a DCR after salvage radiotherapy versus two of nine (22%) who had a positive scan outside the prostate fossa and pelvis (P = .0225, Fisher's exact test). Predicted probability (95% confidence interval [CI]) that a DCR would be obtained with a normal scan was 0.88 (0.55 to 0.98); for men with a positive scan limited to the prostatic fossa it was 0.62 (0.42 to 0.79); and for men with a positive scan outside the pelvis it was 0.27 (0.09 to 0.58). No other variables before radiotherapy showed a significant association with the DCR rate. Salvage radiotherapy is statistically more likely to lead to a durable complete PSA response in men with prostate cancer who have failed radical prostatectomy and have a negative In-111-capromab pendetide scan outside the pelvis as compared with those who have a positive scan.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) neuroimaging with both technetium-99m (99mTc) hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and iodine-123 (123I) N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine is a recently introduced method with potential for assessing activation phenomena in the brain. However, there is limited information on the accuracy of the technique for detecting focal cortical sites of neuroactivation. We determined, in vitro, what levels of activation could be detected as a function of the size of the activated region. A Lucite brain phantom was filled with both 123I and 99mTc so as to simulate both a nonactivated state (123I) along with focal sites of activation (99mTc). Simulated activations ranged from 0 to 18% in volumes of 7, 14, 20, and 27 cm3. Imaging was performed with a triple-detector gamma camera using a 10% symmetric window at 140 keV and 10% asymmetric window around 159 keV. No correction was made for gamma cross-talk. To determine whether a simulated activation was "detected," the 99mTc: 123I count ratios in the activated regions were compared by t test with ratios in nonactivated regions of similar volume. Detection sensitivities also were calculated as the fraction of the activated 99mTc: 123I ratios that were greater than the mean + 2 standard deviations of the corresponding nonactivated ratios. All sites of simulated activations of 10% or greater were detected. The detection sensitivity was 100% (95% confidence interval, 90-100%) for the two largest chambers with simulated activations of 13-18%. Activations in the 3-6% range, in the same-sized chambers, were detected with a limited sensitivity (67% with a confidence interval of 45-84%). In the 14-cm3 chamber, simulated activations in the 13-18% range were detected with 90% sensitivity (confidence interval, 74-98%). In general, the detection sensitivity was greater for larger chambers and higher levels of simulated activation. We conclude that the dual-radioisotope technique using triple-detector SPECT systems and low-energy all-purpose (LEAP) collimators should be highly reliable for identifying focal brain activations above 13% that cover at least 14 cm3 of brain cortex. Smaller, less intense sites of activation will be detected with reduced frequency. These conclusions are based on our assessment of only the physical parameters involved in this methodology and other factors (e.g., the possibility that the relation between cerebral radiotracer concentration and regional cerebral blood flow) may affect the results obtained with patients.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Academic Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the etiology of a focal lesion seen on bone scan in patients with primary tumors usually requires the use of other imaging procedures or biopsy. Single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) with high resolution multidetector systems can localize the specific site of a vertebral lesion and in this way potentially differentiate between benign and metastatic disease. SPECT images of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine were reviewed for lesion location and intensity by two experienced interpreters. Follow-up data were adequate to ascertain the cause of 71 lesions seen on SPECT in 29 patients. Twenty-six of these lesions were not seen on planar images. Of the 71 lesions, 44 were benign and 27 metastatic. Of the 15 lesions where the pedicle was involved, 11 were found to metastatic. There were a total of 14 facet lesions, 9 of which were present in vertebra with no lesions at sites other than the facets. All 9 of these isolated facet lesions turned out to be benign. Lesion intensity did not distinguish benign from malignant disease. We conclude that SPECT imaging is useful in determining the etiology of focal lesions seen on bone scan in patients with a known primary tumor referred for evaluation of metastatic disease.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Skeletal Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective study was designed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of a relatively simple examination, 201Tl chloride single-photon emission CT (SPECT), with a more complex examination, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), in patients thought to have recurrent brain tumor. Because both agents have been shown to be markers of viable tumor, we hypothesized that their sensitivity and specificity should be the same. Nineteen patients with evidence of recurrent tumor on CT or MR images were studied with both 201Tl SPECT and FDG PET imaging. Two patients were examined twice, so a total of 21 studies were evaluated. The 201Tl SPECT and FDG PET examinations were performed on the same day in 17 patients, and the remaining four examinations were done within 1 week of one another. Three reviewers independently interpreted each Tl SPECT and PET scan. Inappropriate regional increases in 201Tl or FDG activity were considered indicative of tumor recurrence. Sensitivity and specificity values were based on biopsy results and clinical follow-up. The final diagnosis was tumor recurrence in 16 cases and radiation necrosis in 5 cases. The relationship of scan results to survival was analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the 201Tl examination for detecting tumor recurrence were 11 (69%) of 16 and two (40%) of five, respectively; values for the FDG PET examination were 13 (81%) of 16 and 2 (40%) of 5, respectively. In patients with recurrent tumors less than 1.6 cm in size, results were false-negative in four 201Tl SPECT examinations and three FDG PET studies. All tumor lesions 1.6 cm or larger (n = 8) were detected. Agreement among the three nuclear medicine specialists was complete for each of the 201Tl SPECT scans. There was disagreement on the interpretation of five (24%) of the 21 FDG PET scans, which was resolved by consensus. Scintigraphic findings did not correlate with patients' survival times. We were unable to detect a statistically significant difference in sensitivity or specificity between the 201Tl SPECT and FDG PET scans. Both techniques were sensitive for tumor recurrence with lesions less than 1.6 cm or larger. However, given the greater availability, simplicity, and ease of interpretation and the lower cost of the 201Tl SPECT studies, this technique should be considered for detection of tumor recurrence with lesions that are demonstrated to be 1.6 cm or larger on CT or MR examinations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 1995 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the safety and ability of the 111indium labeled immunoconjugate 7E11-C5.3-glycyl-tyrosyl-(N,e-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-lysine (CYT-356) to detect sites of occult prostate cancer in 27 subjects who had undergone radical prostatectomy and whose only evidence of recurrent disease was an increasing (0.8 ng./ml. or greater) serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). All subjects underwent whole body scintigraphy between 2 and 4 days following the radiopharmaceutical injection. Routine blood work and human anti-mouse antibody titers were monitored. Scintigraphic findings were compared with clinical parameters, prostatic fossa biopsy results and conventional imaging techniques. Except for transient hypotension in 1 subject following the second infusion, no side effects or human anti-mouse antibody titers were detected. In 22 subjects 1 or more lesions were detected, of which 11 (50%) were confirmed by biopsy, computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of 14 subjects with lesions in the prostatic fossa 13 had biopsies performed, 8 (62%) of which were positive. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed tumor in the spine and chest computerized tomography findings were compatible with lesions seen in the mediastinum in 1 subject each. There was a statistically significant relationship between detecting a scan abnormality and the initial pathological stage of disease but not with the serum PSA. These data provide preliminary evidence that 111indium labeled CYT-356 can be safely administered and readministered, and it detects sites of occult prostate cancer recurrence in subjects whose PSA is increasing following radical prostatectomy.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1994 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: 99Tcm-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcm-HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) brain imaging performed in conjunction with balloon test occlusion of the carotid artery has been used to assess risk of neurologic sequelae that might follow permanent surgical ligation of the artery. The predictive value of cortical hypoperfusion during temporary carotid occlusion for adverse neurologic events has been debated in previous publications. We believe that the risk of an adverse event is greater when a reduction in cortical perfusion during balloon test occlusion is associated with crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). To test our hypothesis we evaluated the results of 27 99Tcm-HMPAO SPECT brain studies obtained in association with balloon test occlusions of the carotid artery. In each case we correlated clinical outcome with the presence or absence of regional decreases in cerebral perfusion and CCD. All of the 27 patients were free of neurologic symptoms during the balloon test occlusion. Seventeen of the 27 scintigraphic studies were felt to be abnormal, showing cortical perfusion defects all on the side of the occlusion. Among these 17 patients, five demonstrated CCD. Four of these five CCD patients showed evidence for cerebral cortical ischaemia on the side of the temporary carotid occlusion either shortly after the procedure or following carotid artery sacrifice. Of the remaining 12 patients with regionally reduced cerebral perfusion and no CCD, none showed evidence for cortical ischaemia in association with balloon test occlusion, and five of these 12 patients had carotid ligation without subsequent neurologic sequelae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    No preview · Article · Jul 1994 · Nuclear Medicine Communications
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    ABSTRACT: This pilot study was undertaken to generate preliminary data on the accuracy of captopril-enhanced renal scintigraphy with a relatively new radiopharmaceutical, 99Tcm-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99Tcm-MAG3) for detecting significant renal artery stenosis. Truth data was based either on arteriographic or outcome criteria (blood pressure response to therapy). Twenty-seven subjects with suspected renovascular hypertension were studied with baseline and captopril-enhanced 99Tcm-MAG3 renal scintigraphy and renal arteriography. Scan interpretations were expressed as a probability of a significant renal artery stenosis. Scan interpretations were compared with renal arteriographic results, renal vein renin levels, blood pressure values after renal artery repair, and blood pressure control after 4-26 months of clinical follow-up. Using > or = 50% luminal obstruction on arteriography as the reference standard for renal artery stenosis and a high probability scan representing a positive test, the test sensitivity and specificity were 33 and 97%, respectively (using high or indeterminate probability to represent a positive scan, the test sensitivity and specificity were 67 and 83%, respectively). The negative predictive value of a low probability scan for renal artery stenosis was 80%. However, including a measure of renovascular hypertension (blood pressure response to renal artery repair) as the reference standard, the accuracy of the scan improves, with the negative predictive value of a low probability scan for renovascular hypertension increasing to 97%. Scintigraphic results were also positively correlated with renal vein renin values in a statistically significant fashion (two-tailed Fisher exact test statistic = 6.43, P = 0.0219). Captopril-enhanced 99Tcm-MAG3 renal scintigraphy is a moderately accurate technique for detecting renal artery stenosis. More importantly, our preliminary findings suggest that the scintigraphic technique using 99Tcm-MAG3 appears to predict the blood pressure response to renal artery repair in subjects with suspected renovascular hypertension, thereby separating subjects with haemodynamically insignificant renal artery stenosis from those with renovascular hypertension.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1994 · Nuclear Medicine Communications