P. Eisenhardt

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

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Publications (396)1176.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the WISE mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures ($T>60~\rm K$). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured AGN that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of 8 Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13-050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star-formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be $\gtrsim 1000~\rm M_{\odot}~\rm yr^{-1}$. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Observed at z = 4.601 and with L_bol = 3.5 x 10^14 Lsun, W2246-0526 is the most luminous galaxy known in the Universe, and hosts a deeply-buried active galactic nucleus (AGN)/super-massive black hole (SMBH). Discovered using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), W2246-0526 is classified as a Hot Dust Obscured Galaxy (Hot DOG), based on its luminosity and dust temperature. Here we present spatially resolved ALMA [CII]157.7um observations of W2246-0526, providing unique insight into the kinematics of its interstellar medium (ISM). The measured [CII]-to-far-infrared ratio is ~2 x 10^-4, implying ISM conditions that compare only with the most obscured, compact starbursts and AGN in the local Universe today. The spatially resolved [CII] line is strikingly uniform and very broad, 500-600 km/s wide, extending throughout the entire galaxy over about 2.5 kpc, with modest shear. Such a large, homogeneous velocity dispersion indicates a highly turbulent medium. W2246-0526 is unstable in terms of the energy and momentum that are being injected into the ISM, strongly suggesting that the gas is being blown away from the system isotropically, likely reflecting a cathartic state on its road to becoming an un-obscured quasar. W2246-0526 provides an extraordinary laboratory to study and model the properties and kinematics of gas in an extreme environment under strong feedback, at a time when the Universe was 1/10 of its current age: a system pushing the limits that can be reached during galaxy formation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Decadal IRAC Bootes Survey (DIBS) is a mid-IR variability survey of the ~9 sq. deg. of the NDWFS Bootes Field and extends the time baseline of its predecessor, the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS), from 4 to 10 years. The Spitzer Space Telescope visited the field five times between 2004 and 2014 at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We provide the difference image analysis photometry for a half a million mostly extragalactic sources. In the mid-IR color-color plane, sources with quasar colors constitute the largest variability class (75%), 16% of the variable objects have stellar colors and the remaining 9% have the colors of galaxies. Adding the fifth epoch doubles the number of variable AGNs for the same false positive rates as in SDWFS, or increases the number of sources by 20% while decreasing the false positive rates by factors of 2-3 for the same variability amplitude. We quantify the ensemble mid-IR variability of ~1500 spectroscopically confirmed AGNs using single power-law structure functions, which we find to be steeper (index $\gamma=0.45$) than in the optical ($\gamma=0.3$), leading to much lower amplitudes at short time-lags. This provides evidence for large emission regions, smoothing out any fast UV/optical variations, as the origin of infrared quasar variability. The mid-IR AGN structure function slope $\gamma$ seems to be uncorrelated with both the luminosity and rest-frame wavelength, while the amplitude shows an anti-correlation with the luminosity and a correlation with the rest-frame wavelength.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present confirmation of the cluster MOO J1142+1527, a massive galaxy cluster discovered as part of the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey. The cluster is confirmed to lie at $z=1.19$, and using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy we robustly detect the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement at 13.2$\sigma$. The SZ data imply a mass of $\mathrm{M}_{200m}=(1.1\pm0.2)\times10^{15}$ $\mathrm{M}_\odot$, making MOO J1142+1527 the most massive galaxy cluster known at $z>1.15$ and the second most massive cluster known at $z>1$. For a standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmology it is further expected to be one of the $\sim 5$ most massive clusters expected to exist at $z\ge1.19$ over the entire sky. Our ongoing Spitzer program targeting $\sim1750$ additional candidate clusters will identify comparably rich galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA 870 micron (345 GHz) data for 49 high redshift (0.47<z<2.85), luminous (11.7 < log L(bol) (Lsun) < 14.2) radio-powerful AGN, obtained to constrain cool dust emission from starbursts concurrent with highly obscured radiative-mode black hole (BH) accretion in massive galaxies which possess a small radio jet. The sample was selected from WISE with extremely steep (red) mid-infrared (MIR) colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 microns, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7 < log P3.0 GHz (W/Hz) < 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 < log M(BH) (Msun) < 10.2. The rest frame 1-5 um SEDs are very similar to the "Hot DOGs" (Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estimated for the ALMA detected sources are 9.9 < log M(ISM) (Msun) < 11.75 assuming a dust temperature of 30K. The cool dust emission is consistent with star formation rates (SFRs) reaching several thousand Msun/yr, depending on the assumed dust temperature, however we cannot rule out the alternative that the AGN powers all the emission in some cases. Our best constrained source has radiative transfer solutions with ~ equal contributions from an obscured AGN and a young (10-15 Myr) compact starburst.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We use a sample of 37 of the densest clusters and protoclusters across 1.3 ≤ z ≤ 3.2 from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) survey to study the formation of massive cluster galaxies. We use optical i′-band and infrared 3.6 and 4.5 μm images to statistically select sources within these protoclusters and measure their median observed colours; 〈i′ − [3.6]〉. We find the abundance of massive galaxies within the protoclusters increases with decreasing redshift, suggesting these objects may form an evolutionary sequence, with the lower redshift clusters in the sample having similar properties to the descendants of the high-redshift protoclusters. We find that the protocluster galaxies have an approximately unevolving observed-frame i′ − [3.6] colour across the examined redshift range. We compare the evolution of the 〈i′ − [3.6]〉 colour of massive cluster galaxies with simplistic galaxy formation models. Taking the full cluster population into account, we show that the formation of stars within the majority of massive cluster galaxies occurs over at least 2 Gyr, and peaks at z ∼ 2–3. From the median i′ − [3.6] colours, we cannot determine the star formation histories of individual galaxies, but their star formation must have been rapidly terminated to produce the observed red colours. Finally, we show that massive galaxies at z > 2 must have assembled within 0.5 Gyr of them forming a significant fraction of their stars. This means that few massive galaxies in z > 2 protoclusters could have formed via dry mergers.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Dataset: 1505.01923

    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: During the "WISE at 5: Legacy and Prospects" conference in Pasadena, CA -- which ran from February 10 - 12, 2015 -- attendees were invited to engage in an interactive session exploring the future uses of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. The 65 participants -- many of whom are extensive users of the data -- brainstormed the top questions still to be answered by the mission, as well as the complementary current and future datasets and additional processing of WISE/NEOWISE data that would aid in addressing these most important scientific questions. The results were mainly bifurcated between topics related to extragalactic studies (e.g. AGN, QSOs) and substellar mass objects. In summary, participants found that complementing WISE/NEOWISE data with cross-correlated multiwavelength surveys (e.g. SDSS, Pan-STARRS, LSST, Gaia, Euclid, etc.) would be highly beneficial for all future mission goals. Moreover, developing or implementing machine-learning tools to comb through and understand cross-correlated data was often mentioned for future uses. Finally, attendees agreed that additional processing of the data such as co-adding WISE and NEOWISE and extracting a multi-epoch photometric database and parallax and proper motion catalog would greatly improve the scientific results of the most important projects identified. In that respect, a project such as MaxWISE which would execute the most important additional processing and extraction as well as make the data and catalogs easily accessible via a public portal was deemed extremely important.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a deep (100 ks) Chandra observation of IDCS J1426.5+3508, a spectroscopically confirmed, infrared-selected galaxy cluster at $z = 1.75$. This cluster is the most massive galaxy cluster currently known at $z > 1.5$, based on existing Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and gravitational lensing detections. We confirm this high mass via a variety of X-ray scaling relations, including $T_X$-M, $f_g$-M, $Y_X$-M and $L_X$-M, finding a tight distribution of masses from these different methods, spanning M$_{500}$ = 2.3-3.3 $\times 10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$, with the low-scatter $Y_X$-based mass $M_{500,Y_X} = 2.6^{+1.5}_{-0.5} \times 10^{14}$ M$_\odot$. IDCS J1426.5+3508 is currently the only cluster at $z > 1.5$ for which X-ray, SZ and gravitational lensing mass estimates exist, and these are in remarkably good agreement. We find a relatively tight distribution of the gas-to-total mass ratio, employing total masses from all of the aforementioned indicators, with values ranging from $f_{gas,500}$ = 0.087-0.12. We do not detect metals in the intracluster medium (ICM) of this system, placing a 2$\sigma$ upper limit of $Z(r < R_{500}) < 0.18 Z_{\odot}$. This upper limit on the metallicity suggests that this system may still be in the process of enriching its ICM. The cluster has a dense, low-entropy core, offset by $\sim$30 kpc from the X-ray centroid, which makes it one of the few "cool core" clusters discovered at $z > 1$, and the first known cool core cluster at $z > 1.2$. The offset of this core from the large-scale centroid suggests that this cluster has had a relatively recent ($\lesssim$500 Myr) merger/interaction with another massive system.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm (345 GHz) data for 49 high-redshift (0.47 < z < 2.85), luminous (11.7 < log(L[subscript bol]/L[subscript ⊙] < 14.2) radio-powerful active galactic nuclei (AGNs), obtained to constrain cool dust emission from starbursts concurrent with highly obscured radiative-mode black hole (BH) accretion in massive galaxies that possess a small radio jet. The sample was selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with extremely steep (red) mid-infrared colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 μm, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios, consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7 < log(P[subscript 3.0 GHz]/W Hz[superscript -1]) < 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 < log(M[subscript BH]/M[subscript ⊙]) < 10.2. The rest-frame 1–5 μm spectral energy distributions are very similar to the "Hot DOGs" (hot dust-obscured galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estimated for the ALMA-detected sources are 9.9 < log (M[subscript ISM]/M[subscript ⊙]) < 11.75 assuming a dust temperature of 30 K. The cool dust emission is consistent with star formation rates reaching several thousand M[subscript ⊙] yr[superscript −1], depending on the assumed dust temperature, but we cannot rule out the alternative that the AGN powers all the emission in some cases. Our best constrained source has radiative transfer solutions with approximately equal contributions from an obscured AGN and a young (10–15 Myr) compact starburst.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850microns submillimetre (submm) observations of 30 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous AGN, detected jointly by the WISE all-sky IR survey and the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and compact radio counterparts. Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. These galaxies appear to be consistent with an AGN-dominated galaxy, and could be a transient phase of merging galaxies. When comparing the number of submm galaxies (SMGs) detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5-arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE/radio-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments, that could be forming in pre-viralised clusters of galaxies. WISE/radio-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850microns observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets are not detected, only four targets are detected at SCUBA-2 850microns, and have total IR luminosities >= 10^13 L_solar, if their redshifts are consistent with the subset of the 10 SCUBA-2 undetected targets with known redshifts, z ~ 0.44 - 2.86.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the {\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} (WISE) for which we have obtained {\it Hubble Space Telescope} ({\it HST}) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (twenty-two in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10$-$1.70 $\mu$m, while fifteen were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90$-$1.10 $\mu$m. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to 1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.\ ammonia bands) and 2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35$+$280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38$+$840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77$+$024015.0 (Y1) are the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present {\it HST} grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M ≥ 1014 M ☉) at 1 < z < 1.5 selected from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey, as well as the field fraction in the immediate vicinity of these clusters, and combine these data with measurements from the literature to quantify the relative evolution of cluster and field AGN from the present to z ~ 3. We estimate that the cluster AGN fraction at 1 < z < 1.5 is f[subscript A] = 3.0[+2.4 over -1.4] % for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L X, H ≥ 10[superscript 44] erg s[superscript –1]. This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M[* over 3.6] (z) +1, where M[* over 3.6] is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 μm bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3σ upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z ~ 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z ~ 0.75. AGNs with L X, H ≥ 10[superscript 43] erg s[superscript –1] exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z ~ 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest all-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data-sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing > 103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the Y5R500 estimates are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires. the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical and X-ray data-sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under- luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS) is a comprehensive program to detect and characterize the most massive galaxy clusters in the universe at z~1, and is the only all-sky survey sensitive to galaxy clusters at this epoch. We propose a large snapshot program to obtain photometry for clusters drawn from the 2000 highest significance detections in the MaDCoWS catalog. From a previous pilot program and CARMA Sunyaev-Zel'dovich imaging, we have calibrated a low-scatter mass-richness relation. The proposed observations will yield photometric redshifts and richness estimates for the full snapshot sample. The requested observations are designed to be optimal for (1) investigation of the evolution of massive galaxies in the most overdense environments, (2) unbiased calibration of scaling relations for cluster mass observables, and (3) identification of extremely massive clusters that can be used for the fgas cosmological test and as constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. These observations also have substantial legacy value, providing a fiducial reference sample for the next generation of wide-area cluster surveys. We intend for this survey to be a community resource for years to come.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Powerful AGN are known to be found in overdense environments at high-redshifts. A joint selection using WISE mid-IR and NVSS radio detections of galaxies over most of the sky has highlighted a new very luminous population of about 150 powerful, physically-compact AGN, which might involve the most powerful feedback processes taking place at any epoch. We propose to probe the environments the 33 examples which have spectroscopically confirmed redshifts z>1.3, to allow Spitzer-based color selection of companions over the 5.2-arcmin wide IRAC field. All have new JVLA radio imaging, all but three have ALMA photometry, 25 have VLBA resolution radio images. From SCUBA2 submillimeter imaging observations of about 50 of these galaxies, including 3 in this proposal, we know that the density of ultraluminous dusty companions in 3-arcmin fields around these AGN is unprecedentedly large: up to a factor of 6 in excess of field surveys, the largest overdensity seen for any population of high-redshift galaxies. We propose to exploit the same techniques pioneered by the CARLA program to probe the spatial distribution and stellar populations of high-redshift galaxies in the environments of our AGN. We will determine whether the dramatic overdensity of ultraluminous galaxies around these AGN is matched in more normal sub-L* objects probed by Spitzer, determine the relationship between the modelled stellar populations in our targets and companions, and the AGN/ environmental properties, and provide accurate positions for spectroscopic investigation using new multi-object spectrographs. The 2.5-Mpc regions probed by Spitzer at z>1.3 are ideal to encompass the protocluster in which the AGNs reside, and to understand their evolution and the relationship with their environments.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present CARMA 30 GHz Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations of five high-redshift ($z \gtrsim 1$), infrared-selected galaxy clusters discovered as part of the all-sky Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The SZ decrements measured toward these clusters demonstrate that the MaDCoWS selection is discovering evolved, massive galaxy clusters with hot intracluster gas. Using the SZ scaling relation calibrated with South Pole Telescope clusters at similar masses and redshifts, we find these MaDCoWS clusters have masses in the range $M_{200} \approx 2-6 \times 10^{14}$ $M_\odot$. Three of these are among the most massive clusters found to date at $z\gtrsim 1$, demonstrating that MaDCoWS is sensitive to the most massive clusters to at least $z = 1.3$. The added depth of the AllWISE data release will allow all-sky infrared cluster detection to $z \approx 1.5$ and beyond.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present 20 WISE-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L_bol > 10^14 L_sun, including five with infrared luminosities L_IR = L(rest 8-1000 micron) > 10^14 L_sun. These "extremely luminous infrared galaxies," or ELIRGs, were discovered using the "W1W2-dropout" selection criteria (Eisenhardt et al. 2012) which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 micron (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 micron in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4-10 micron, suggesting that hot dust with T_d ~ 450K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured AGNs, and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L_bol level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 micron luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%-80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. Assuming Eddington-limited accretion, the existence of AGNs with L_bol > 10^14 L_sun at z > 3 places strong constraints on the supermassive black hole growth history, suggesting that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly, possibly by chaotic accretion.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The WISE mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift ($z=1-4.6$), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities $L_{\rm IR} > 10^{13}~L_{\odot}$, and sometimes exceeding $10^{14}~L_{\odot}$. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-IR SEDs are significantly hotter than expected for star-formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-IR SEDs for a large sample of these so-called "Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies" (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured AGN that dominates the rest-frame emission at $\lambda > 1\mu\rm m$ and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as $10^{11}-10^{12}~M_{\odot}$, the AGN emission, with luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either Hot DOGs have black hole masses significantly in excess of the local relations, or that they radiate significantly above the Eddington limit. We show that, while rare, the number density of Hot DOGs is comparable to that of equally luminous but unobscured (i.e., Type 1) QSOs. This is inconsistent with the trend of a diminishing fraction of obscured objects with increasing luminosity found for less luminous QSOs, possibly indicating a reversal in this relation at high luminosity, and that Hot DOGs are not the torus-obscured counterparts of the known optically selected, largely unobscured Hyper-Luminous QSOs. Hot DOGs may represent a different type of galaxy and thus a new component of the galaxy evolution paradigm. Finally, we discuss the environments of Hot DOGs and show that these objects are in regions as dense as those of known high-redshift proto-clusters.(Abridged)
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

14k Citations
1,176.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1925-2015
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      • • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Planetary Science Institute
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2012-2014
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Astronomy
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011-2014
    • NASA
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
    • Hamilton College
      Клинтон, New York, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • Dartmouth College
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2012-2013
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      • Department of Physics
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 1999-2013
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2007-2012
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Monash Centre for Astrophysics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2003-2012
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2008
    • University of California, Merced
      Merced, California, United States
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States