[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether regional changes in lung ventilation in a group of pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients following a course of chest physiotherapy could be detected with (3)He MRI.
The reproducibility of lung ventilation volume measurements obtained with (3)He lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was established in a group of five children with CF age 6-15 years. The same methodology was then used to evaluate whether standard chest physiotherapy (percussion and drainage) had any immediate effect on regional ventilated lung volumes in a further group of nine age-matched CF children (5-15 years).
Global lung ventilation volumes remained the same within the limits of sensitivity derived from the reproducibility study; however, regional lung ventilation was observed to change in most patients after therapy.
(3)He MRI can be successfully used in children with CF, and has the sensitivity to detect regional quantitative changes in lung ventilation following chest physiotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A subset (approximately 3%-5%) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develops severe liver disease with portal hypertension.
To assess whether any of 9 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes (alpha(1)-antitrypsin or alpha(1)-antiprotease [SERPINA1], angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE], glutathione S-transferase [GSTP1], mannose-binding lectin 2 [MBL2], and transforming growth factor beta1 [TGFB1]) are associated with severe liver disease in patients with CF.
Two-stage case-control study enrolling patients with CF and severe liver disease with portal hypertension (CFLD) from 63 CF centers in the United States as well as 32 in Canada and 18 outside of North America, with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill as the coordinating site. In the initial study, 124 patients with CFLD (enrolled January 1999-December 2004) and 843 control patients without CFLD were studied by genotyping 9 polymorphisms in 5 genes previously studied as modifiers of liver disease in CF. In the second stage, the SERPINA1 Z allele and TGFB1 codon 10 genotype were tested in an additional 136 patients with CFLD (enrolled January 2005-February 2007) and 1088 with no CFLD.
Differences in distribution of genotypes in patients with CFLD vs patients without CFLD.
The initial study showed CFLD to be associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31-9.61; P = 3.3 x 10(-6)) and with TGFB1 codon 10 CC genotype (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.03; P = 2.8 x 10(-3)). In the replication study, CFLD was associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.54-7.59; P = 1.4 x 10(-3)) but not with TGFB1 codon 10. A combined analysis of the initial and replication studies by logistic regression showed CFLD to be associated with SERPINA1 Z allele (OR, 5.04; 95% CI, 2.88-8.83; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)).
The SERPINA1 Z allele is a risk factor for liver disease in CF. Patients who carry the Z allele are at greater risk (OR, approximately 5) of developing severe liver disease with portal hypertension.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following homozygosity mapping in a single kindred, we identified nonsense and missense mutations in MYO5B, encoding type Vb myosin motor protein, in individuals with microvillus inclusion disease (MVID). MVID is characterized by lack of microvilli on the surface of enterocytes and occurrence of intracellular vacuolar structures containing microvilli. In addition, mislocalization of transferrin receptor in MVID enterocytes suggests that MYO5B deficiency causes defective trafficking of apical and basolateral proteins in MVID.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator protein (CFTR), a cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-regulated Cl(-) channel. CFTR is increasingly recognized as a component of multiprotein complexes and although several inhibitory proteins to CFTR have been identified, protein complexes that stimulate CFTR function remain less well characterized. We report that annexin 2 (anx 2)-S100A10 forms a functional cAMP/PKA/calcineurin (CaN)-dependent complex with CFTR. Cell stimulation with forskolin/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine significantly increases the amount of anx 2-S100A10 that reciprocally coimmunoprecipitates with cell surface CFTR and calyculin A. Preinhibition with PKA or CaN inhibitors attenuates the interaction. Furthermore, we find that the acetylated peptide (STVHEILCKLSLEG, Ac1-14), but not the nonacetylated equivalent N1-14, corresponding to the S100A10 binding site on anx 2, disrupts the anx 2-S100A10/CFTR complex. Analysis of 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and CFTR(inh172)-sensitive currents, taken as indication of the outwardly rectifying Cl(-) channels (ORCC) and CFTR-mediated currents, respectively, showed that Ac1-14, but not N1-14, inhibits both the cAMP/PKA-dependent ORCC and CFTR activities. CaN inhibitors (cypermethrin, cyclosporin A) discriminated between ORCC/CFTR by inhibiting the CFTR(inh172)-, but not the DIDS-sensitive currents, by >70%. Furthermore, peptide Ac1-14 inhibited acetylcholine-induced short-circuit current measured across a sheet of intact intestinal biopsy. Our data suggests that the anx 2-S100A10/CFTR complex is important for CFTR function across epithelia.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assesses the feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and correlates the findings with standard clinical parameters based on chest radiograph (CXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). An uncontrolled, observational study in eighteen children with cystic fibrosis aged 5 - 17 years (median 12.1 years), with different severity of disease was carried out. All subjects underwent routine clinical assessment including PFT and standard auxology; CXR was obtained and Shwachman and Chrispin-Norman scores calculated. Hyperpolarized 3-He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out using a spin-exchange polarizer and a whole body 1.5 T scanner. Ventilation distribution images were obtained during a 21-second breath-hold and scored according to previously defined criteria. Spearman's non-parametric correlations test was performed to assess for statistical significance at the p<0.05 level. The children tolerated the procedure well. No desaturation events were observed during 3-He MRI. A significant, albeit moderate, correlation was found between MRI score and FEV1% predicted (r=-0.41; p=0.047) and FVC% predicted (r=-0.42; p=0.04), while there were trends of correlations between Shwachman score and MRI score (r=-0.38; p=0.06) and Shwachman score and FEV1% predicted (r=0.39; p=0.055). The feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-He MRI in children with CF was demonstrated. MRI appears to be able to demonstrate functional lung changes, although correlations with routine clinical tests are only moderate to poor. This non-ionising radiation technique could be useful for monitoring lung disease and assessing therapy in this patient population.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · European Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thromboembolism is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for vascular disease and has been implicated as a mediator of thromboembolic events in adults with IBD. The authors studied the link between tHcy and IBD in children, in whom associations may be clearer, and investigated associations with plasma von Willebrand factor antigen, a marker of vascular damage.
This cross-sectional study included 43 patients with IBD (27 Crohn disease, 9 ulcerative colitis, and 7 indeterminate colitis) and 46 control subjects from a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Plasma tHcy, plasma 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate, red cell folate, plasma vitamin B12, plasma von Willebrand factor antigen, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype (for the C677T mutation) were measured.
Plasma tHcy concentrations were higher in children with IBD than in control subjects, when corrected for age (P < 0.05), and plasma tHcy was negatively correlated with plasma 5 methyl tetrahydrofolate (P < 0.0005). Plasma 5 methyl tetrahydrofolate and age were the main predictors of plasma tHcy. Neither MTHFR genotype nor von Willebrand factor showed any association with any other measure, and there were no differences between children with IBD and control subjects.
Elevated plasma tHcy is a consequence of IBD in children, probably mediated by poor folate status associated with diet or the pathophysiology of the disease.
No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of studies have suggested that the non-antimicrobial actions of macrolide antibiotics may be valuable in treating patients with cystic fibrosis. The use of long-term macrolide antibiotics for the management of CF patients colonised by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and progressive pulmonary disease was introduced into our clinic in 1997. A retrospective study was undertaken to assess of the impact of this therapy.
Twenty patients with progressive pulmonary disease (>10% fall in FEV(1) over 12 months despite optimising conventional therapy) were commenced on Azithromycin, 250 mg daily during a 21-month period. At the time of assessment they had remained on therapy for a mean of 0.9 years. Changes in lung function, weight, body mass index (BMI) and frequency of pulmonary exacerbations were assessed. A group of 20 patients with stable lung function and matched as far as possible for age and sex was identified for comparison.
Pulmonary function increased significantly in the Azithromycin group with FEV1% predicted increasing from a mean of 50.2-59.1% (P=0.001) while FVC% predicted increase from 64.5 to 76.1% (P=0.002). There was small but non-significant fall in lung function in the comparison group. Body mass index increased by a mean of 1.1 in the Azithromycin group but remained unchanged in the comparison group. The number of pulmonary exacerbations requiring intravenous antibiotics declined by 48.3% in macrolide treated subjects compared to the pre-treatment period (P<0.025); frequency of exacerbations in the control group was unchanged.
Long-term Azithromycin treatment in patients with progressive deterioration in lung function appears to have led to an improvement in pulmonary function, increased body mass index and decreased the frequency of pulmonary exacerbations requiring intravenous antibiotics.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Journal of Cystic Fibrosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes and infects human tissues, although the mechanisms by which the organism evades the normal, predominantly neutrophilic, host defenses are unclear. Phenazine products of P. aeruginosa can induce death in Caenorhabditis elegans. We hypothesized that phenazines induce death of human neutrophils, and thus impair neutrophil-mediated bacterial killing. We investigated the effects of two phenazines, pyocyanin and 1-hydroxyphenazine, upon apoptosis of neutrophils in vitro. Pyocyanin induced a concentration- and time-dependent acceleration of neutrophil apoptosis, with 50 microM pyocyanin causing a 10-fold induction of apoptosis at 5 h (p < 0.001), a concentration that has been documented in sputum from patients colonized with P. aeruginosa. 1-hydroxyphenazine was without effect. In contrast to its rapid induction of neutrophil apoptosis, pyocyanin did not induce significant apoptosis of monocyte-derived macrophages or airway epithelial cells at time points up to 24 h. Comparison of wild-type and phenazine-deleted strains of P. aeruginosa showed a highly significant reduction in neutrophil killing by the phenazine-deleted strain. In clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa pyocyanin production was associated with a proapoptotic effect upon neutrophils in culture. Pyocyanin-induced neutrophil apoptosis was not delayed either by treatment with LPS, a powerfully antiapoptotic bacterial product, or in neutrophils from cystic fibrosis patients. Pyocyanin-induced apoptosis was associated with rapid and sustained generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and subsequent reduction of intracellular cAMP. Treatment of neutrophils with either antioxidants or synthetic cAMP analogues significantly abrogated pyocyanin-induced apoptosis. We conclude that pyocyanin-induced neutrophil apoptosis may be a clinically important mechanism of persistence of P. aeruginosa in human tissue.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims To investigate the effects of age and disease states on the expression and activity of intestinal CYP3A4 in a paediatric population.
Methods Duodenal biopsies and surgical sections were collected from 104 paediatric patients (age range 2 weeks to 17 years) and from 11 foetuses. An S9 fraction was prepared in each case. CYP3A4 expression was assessed by Western blotting and by immunohistochemistry; activity was measured by the rate of formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone from testosterone. Villin expression was used as a marker of enterocyte harvest to normalize CYP3A4 expression and activity data.
Results In the 74 histologically normal paediatric biopsies there were statistically significant increases in CYP3A4 expression (r2 = 0.19, P = 0.001) and activity (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.02) with age. CYP3A4 was practically absent in fetal duodenum and was expressed at relatively low levels in neonates (P < 0.05 between neonates and children > 5 years). Active coeliac disease resulted in significant (P < 0.001) decreases in CYP3A4 expression and activity.
Conclusions Duodenal CYP3A4 is present at significantly lower levels in neonates and in patients with active coeliac disease. This may have clinical significance with respect to the oral bioavailability of CYP3A4 substrates.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2001 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology