Carol Glaser

Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California, United States

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Publications (120)933.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: -Epidemiological studies demonstrate that childhood infections, including varicella zoster virus (VZV), are associated with an increased risk of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Other herpesviruses have been linked to childhood AIS in case reports. We sought to determine whether herpesvirus infections, which are potentially treatable, increase risk of childhood AIS. Methods and results: -We enrolled 326 centrally-confirmed cases of AIS and 115 stroke-free controls with trauma (ages 29 days-18 years) with acute blood samples (≤3 weeks after stroke/trauma); cases had convalescent samples (7-28 days later) when feasible. Samples were tested by commercial ELISA kits for IgM/IgG antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). An algorithm developed a priori classified serologic evidence of past and acute herpesvirus infection as dichotomous variables. Median (quartiles) age was 7.7 (3.1-14.3) years for cases and 10.7 (6.9-13.2) for controls (p=0.03). Serologic evidence of past infection did not differ between cases and controls. However, serologic evidence of acute herpesvirus infection doubled the odds of childhood AIS, even after adjusting for age, race, and socio-economic status (OR 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.0; p=0.007). Among 187 cases with acute and convalescent blood samples, 85 (45%) showed evidence of acute herpesvirus infection, with HSV-1 found most often. Most infections were asymptomatic. Conclusions: -Herpesviruses may act as a trigger for childhood AIS, even if the infection is subclinical. Antivirals like acyclovir might have a role in the prevention of recurrent stroke if further studies confirm a causal relationship.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Circulation
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Importance There has been limited surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in North America since the regional eradication of poliovirus. In 2012, the California Department of Public Health received several reports of acute flaccid paralysis cases of unknown etiology.Objective To quantify disease incidence and identify potential etiologies of acute flaccid paralysis cases with evidence of spinal motor neuron injury.Design, Setting, and Participants Case series of acute flaccid paralysis in patients with radiological or neurophysiological findings suggestive of spinal motor neuron involvement reported to the California Department of Public Health with symptom onset between June 2012 and July 2015. Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for other acute flaccid paralysis etiologies were excluded. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum samples, nasopharyngeal swab specimens, and stool specimens were submitted to the state laboratory for infectious agent testing.Main Outcomes and Measures Case incidence and infectious agent association.Results Fifty-nine cases were identified. Median age was 9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 4-14 years; 50 of the cases were younger than 21 years). Symptoms that preceded or were concurrent included respiratory or gastrointestinal illness (n = 54), fever (n = 47), and limb myalgia (n = 41). Fifty-six patients had T2 hyperintensity of spinal gray matter on magnetic resonance imaging and 43 patients had cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. During the course of the initial hospitalization, 42 patients received intravenous steroids; 43, intravenous immunoglobulin; and 13, plasma exchange; or a combination of these treatments. Among 45 patients with follow-up data, 38 had persistent weakness at a median follow-up of 9 months (IQR, 3-12 months). Two patients, both immunocompromised adults, died within 60 days of symptom onset. Enteroviruses were the most frequently detected pathogen in either nasopharynx swab specimens, stool specimens, serum samples (15 of 45 patients tested). No pathogens were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. The incidence of reported cases was significantly higher during a national enterovirus D68 outbreak occurring from August 2014 through January 2015 (0.16 cases per 100 000 person-years) compared with other monitoring periods (0.028 cases per 100 000 person-years; P <.001).Conclusions and Relevance In this series of patients identified in California from June 2012 through July 2015, clinical manifestations indicated a rare but distinct syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis with evidence of spinal motor neuron involvement. The etiology remains undetermined, most patients were children and young adults, and motor weakness was prolonged.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare, often lethal, cause of encephalitis, for which early diagnosis and prompt initiation of combination antimicrobials may improve clinical outcomes. Methods In this study, we sequenced a full draft assembly of the Balamuthia mandrillaris genome (44.2 Mb in size) from a rare survivor of PAM, and recovered the mitochondrial genome from six additional Balamuthia strains. We also used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) and SURPI bioinformatics analysis to diagnose an ultimately fatal case of Balamuthia mandrillaris encephalitis in a 15-year-old girl. Results and Discussion Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genome and high-copy number genes from six additional Balamuthia mandrillaris strains demonstrated remarkable sequence variation, and the closest Balamuthia homologs corresponded to other amoebae, hydroids, algae, slime molds, and peat moss. Real-time NGS testing of hospital day 6 CSF and brain biopsy samples detected Balamuthia on the basis of high-quality hits to 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA sequences present in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nt reference database. The presumptive diagnosis of PAM by visualization of amoebae on brain biopsy histopathology and NGS analysis was subsequently confirmed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) using a Balamuthia-specific PCR assay. Retrospective analysis of a day 1 CSF sample revealed that more timely identification of Balamuthia by metagenomic NGS, potentially resulting in a better clinical outcome, would have required availability of the complete genome sequence. Conclusions These results underscore the diverse evolutionary origins of Balamuthia mandrillaris, provide new targets for diagnostic assay development, and will facilitate further investigations of the biology and pathogenesis of this eukaryotic pathogen. The failure to identify PAM from a day 1 sample without a fully sequenced Balamuthia genome in the database highlights the critical importance of whole-genome reference sequences for microbial detection by metagenomic NGS. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13073-015-0235-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Genome Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Minor infection can trigger adult arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and is common in childhood. We tested the hypotheses that infection transiently increases risk of AIS in children, regardless of stroke subtype, while vaccination against infection is protective. Methods: The Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke study is an international case-control study that prospectively enrolled 355 centrally confirmed cases of AIS (29 days-18 years old) and 354 stroke-free controls. To determine prior exposure to infections and vaccines, we conducted parental interviews and chart review. Results: Median (interquartile range) age was 7.6 years for cases and 9.3 for controls (p = 0.44). Infection in the week prior to stroke, or interview date for controls, was reported in 18% of cases, vs 3% of controls, conferring a 6.3-fold increased risk of AIS (p < 0.0001); upper respiratory infections were most common. Prevalence of preceding infection was similar across stroke subtypes: arteriopathic, cardioembolic, and idiopathic. Use of vasoactive cold medications was similarly low in both groups. Children with some/few/no routine vaccinations were at higher stroke risk than those receiving all or most (odds ratio [OR] 7.3, p = 0.0002). In an age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, independent risk factors for AIS included infection in the prior week (OR 6.3, p < 0.0001), undervaccination (OR 8.2, p = 0.0004), black race (compared to white; OR 1.9, p = 0.009), and rural residence (compared to urban; OR 3.0, p = 0.0003). Conclusions: Infection may act as a trigger for childhood AIS, while routine vaccinations appear protective. Hence, efforts to reduce the spread of common infections might help prevent stroke in children.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Since Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first emerged, the California Department of Public Health has coordinated efforts to identify possible cases in travelers to California, USA, from affected areas. During 2013-2014, the department investigated 54 travelers for MERS-CoV; none tested positive, but 32 (62%) of 52 travelers with suspected MERS-CoV had other respiratory viruses.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Emerging infectious diseases
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    Karen C Bloch · Carol A Glaser
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    ABSTRACT: Encephalitis is a devastating illness that commonly causes neurologic disability and has a case fatality rate >5% in the United States. An etiologic agent is identified in <50% of cases, making diagnosis challenging. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Encephalitis Project established syndromic surveillance for encephalitis in New York, California, and Tennessee, with the primary goal of increased identification of causative agents and secondary goals of improvements in treatment and outcome. The project represents the largest cohort of patients with encephalitis studied to date and has influenced case definition and diagnostic evaluation of this condition. Results of this project have provided insight into well-established causal pathogens and identified newer causes of infectious and autoimmune encephalitis. The recognition of a possible relationship between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid paralysis with myelitis underscores the need for ongoing vigilance for emerging causes of neurologic disease.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Emerging Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate factors during acute presumed childhood encephalitis that are associated with development of long-term neurological sequelae. A total of 217 patients from Rady Children's Hospital San Diego with suspected encephalitis who met criteria for the California Encephalitis Project were identified. A cohort of 99 patients (40 females, 59 males, age 2 months-17 years) without preexisting neurological conditions, including prior seizures or abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging scans was studied. Mean duration of follow-up was 29 months. Factors that had a relationship with the development of neurological sequelae (defined as developmental delay, learning difficulties, behavioral problems, or focal neurological findings) after acute encephalitis were identified. Neurological sequelae at follow-up was associated with younger age (6.56 versus 9.22 years) at presentation (P = 0.04) as well as an initial presenting sign of seizure (P = 0.03). Duration of hospital stay (median of 7 versus 15.5 days; P = 0.02) was associated with neurological sequelae. Of the patients with neurological sequelae, a longer hospital stay was associated with patients of an older age (P = 0.04). Abnormalities on neuroimaging (P = 1.00) or spinal fluid analysis (P = 1.00) were not uniquely associated with neurological sequelae. Children who were readmitted after their acute illness (P = 0.04) were more likely to develop neurological sequelae. There was a strong relationship between the patients who later developed epilepsy and those who developed neurological sequelae (P = 0.02). Limited data are available on the long-term neurological outcomes of childhood encephalitis. Almost half of our patients were found to have neurological sequelae at follow-up, indicating the importance of earlier therapies to improve neurological outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Neurology
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus D68 was implicated in a widespread outbreak of severe respiratory illness across the USA in 2014 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with acute flaccid myelitis. We aimed to investigate the association between enterovirus D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis during the 2014 enterovirus D68 respiratory outbreak in the USA. Patients with acute flaccid myelitis who presented to two hospitals in Colorado and California, USA, between Nov 24, 2013, and Oct 11, 2014, were included in the study. Additional cases identified from Jan 1, 2012, to Oct 4, 2014, via statewide surveillance were provided by the California Department of Public Health. We investigated the cause of these cases by metagenomic next-generation sequencing, viral genome recovery, and enterovirus D68 phylogenetic analysis. We compared patients with acute flaccid myelitis who were positive for enterovirus D68 with those with acute flaccid myelitis but negative for enterovirus D68 using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test, two-sample unpaired t test, and Mann-Whitney U test. 48 patients were included: 25 with acute flaccid myelitis, two with enterovirus-associated encephalitis, five with enterovirus-D68-associated upper respiratory illness, and 16 with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis who tested positive for enterovirus. Enterovirus D68 was detected in respiratory secretions from seven (64%) of 11 patients comprising two temporally and geographically linked acute flaccid myelitis clusters at the height of the 2014 outbreak, and from 12 (48%) of 25 patients with acute flaccid myelitis overall. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all enterovirus D68 sequences associated with acute flaccid myelitis grouped into a clade B1 strain that emerged in 2010. Of six coding polymorphisms in the clade B1 enterovirus D68 polyprotein, five were present in neuropathogenic poliovirus or enterovirus D70, or both. One child with acute flaccid myelitis and a sibling with only upper respiratory illness were both infected by identical enterovirus D68 strains. Enterovirus D68 viraemia was identified in a child experiencing acute neurological progression of his paralytic illness. Deep metagenomic sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid from 14 patients with acute flaccid myelitis did not reveal evidence of an alternative infectious cause to enterovirus D68. These findings strengthen the putative association between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid myelitis and the contention that acute flaccid myelitis is a rare yet severe clinical manifestation of enterovirus D68 infection in susceptible hosts. National Institutes of Health, University of California, Abbott Laboratories, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Lancet Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate factors associated with the development of epilepsy after resolution of presumed childhood encephalitis. A total of 217 patients with suspected encephalitis who met criteria for the California Encephalitis Project were identified. Evaluable outcome information was available for 99 patients (40 girls, 59 boys, ages 2 months to 17 years) without preexisting neurological conditions, including prior seizures or abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. We identified factors correlated with the development of epilepsy after resolution of the acute illness. Development of epilepsy was correlated with the initial presenting sign of seizure (P < 0.001). With each additional antiepileptic drug used to control seizures, the odds ratio of developing epilepsy was increased twofold (P < 0.001). An abnormal electroencephalograph (P < 0.05) and longer hospital duration (median of 8 versus 21 days) also correlated with development of epilepsy (P < 0.01). The need for medically induced coma was associated with epilepsy (P < 0.001). Seizures in those patients were particularly refractory, often requiring longer than 24 hours to obtain seizure control. Individuals who required antiepileptic drugs at discharge (P < 0.001) or were readmitted after their acute illness (P < 0.001) were more likely to develop epilepsy. Of our patients who were able to wean antiepileptic drugs after being started during hospitalization, 42% were successfully tapered off within 6 months. Limited data are available on the risk of developing epilepsy after childhood encephalitis. This is the first study that not only identifies risk factors for the development of epilepsy, but also provides data regarding the success rate of discontinuing antiepileptic medication after resolution of encephalitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Pediatric Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosing pediatric encephalitis is challenging because of varied clinical presentation, nonspecific neuroimaging features, and rare confirmation of causality. We reviewed acute neuroimaging of children with clinically suspected encephalitis to identify findings that may correlate with etiology and length of stay. Imaging of 141 children with clinically suspected encephalitis as part of The California Encephalitis Project from 2005 to 2012 at a single institution was reviewed to compare the extent of neuroimaging abnormalities to patient age, gender, length of stay, and unknown, possible, or confirmed pathogen. Scan review was blinded and categorized by extent and distribution of abnormal findings. Abnormal findings were evident on 23% (22/94) of computed tomography and 50% (67/134) of magnetic resonance imaging studies in the acute setting. Twenty children with normal admission computed tomography had abnormal findings on magnetic resonance imaging performed within 2 days. Length of stay was significantly longer among children with abnormal acute magnetic resonance imaging (P < 0.001) and correlated with increased complexity (Spearman rho = 0.4, P < 0.001) categorized as: no imaging abnormality, meningeal enhancement and/or focal nonenhancing lesion, multifocal lesions, confluent lesions, and lesions plus diffusion restriction, hemorrhage, or hydrocephalus. There was no correlation between neuroimaging findings and an identifiable pathogen (P = 0.8). Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings are more common than abnormal computed tomography findings in pediatric encephalitis. Increasing complexity of magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated with disease severity as evidenced by longer length of stay, but were not specific for an identifiable pathogen using a standardized diagnostic encephalitis panel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Pediatric Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We describe the spectrum of etiologies associated with temporal lobe (TL) encephalitis and identify clinical and radiologic features that distinguish herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) from its mimics. Methods: We reviewed all adult cases of encephalitis with TL abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the California Encephalitis Project. We evaluated the association between specific clinical and MRI characteristics and HSE compared with other causes of TL encephalitis and used multivariate logistic modeling to identify radiologic predictors of HSE. Results: Of 251 cases of TL encephalitis, 43% had an infectious etiology compared with 16% with a noninfectious etiology. Of infectious etiologies, herpes simplex virus was the most commonly identified agent (n = 60), followed by tuberculosis (n = 8) and varicella zoster virus (n = 7). Of noninfectious etiologies, more than half (n = 21) were due to autoimmune disease. Patients with HSE were older (56.8 vs 50.2 years; P = .012), more likely to be white (53% vs 35%; P = .013), more likely to present acutely (88% vs 64%; P = .001) and with a fever (80% vs 49%; P < .001), and less likely to present with a rash (2% vs 15%; P = .010). In a multivariate model, bilateral TL involvement (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], .18-.79; P = .010) and lesions outside the TL, insula, or cingulate (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, .18-.74; P = .005) were associated with lower odds of HSE. Conclusions: In addition to HSE, other infectious and noninfectious etiologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis for TL encephalitis, depending on the presentation. Specific clinical and imaging features may aid in distinguishing HSE from non-HSE causes of TL encephalitis.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: On June 13, 2014, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) declared that a pertussis epidemic was occurring in the state when reported incidence was more than five times greater than baseline levels. The incidence of pertussis in the United States is cyclical, with peaks every 3-5 years, as the number of susceptible persons in the population increases. The last pertussis epidemic in California occurred in 2010, when approximately 9,000 cases were reported, including 808 hospitalizations and 10 infant deaths, for a statewide incidence of 24.6 cases per 100,000 population. During January 1-November 26, 2014, a total of 9,935 cases of pertussis with onset in 2014 were reported to CDPH, for a statewide incidence of 26.0 cases per 100,000. CDPH is working closely with local health departments to prioritize public health activities, with the primary goal of preventing severe cases of pertussis, which typically occurs in infants. All prenatal care providers are being encouraged to provide tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) to pregnant women during each pregnancy, ideally at 27-36 weeks' gestation, as is recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), or refer patients to an alternative provider, such as a pharmacy or local public health department, to receive Tdap.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
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    ABSTRACT: In August 2012, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) was contacted by a San Francisco Bay area clinician who requested poliovirus testing for an unvaccinated man aged 29 years with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with anterior myelitis (i.e., evidence of inflammation of the spinal cord involving the grey matter including anterior horn cell bodies) and no history of international travel during the month before symptom onset. Within 2 weeks, CDPH had received reports of two additional cases of AFP with anterior myelitis of unknown etiology. Testing at CDPH's Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory for stool, nasopharyngeal swab, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) did not detect the presence of an enterovirus (EV), the genus of the family Picornaviridae that includes poliovirus. Additional laboratory testing for infectious diseases conducted at the CDPH Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory did not identify a causative agent to explain the observed clinical syndrome reported among the patients. To identify other cases of AFP with anterior myelitis and elucidate possible common etiologies, CDPH posted alerts in official communications for California local health departments during December 2012, July 2013, and February 2014. Reports of cases of neurologic illness received by CDPH were investigated throughout this period, and clinicians were encouraged to submit clinical samples for testing. A total of 23 cases of AFP with anterior myelitis of unknown etiology were identified. Epidemiologic and laboratory investigation did not identify poliovirus infection as a possible cause for the observed cases. No common etiology was identified to explain the reported cases, although EV-D68 was identified in upper respiratory tract specimens of two patients. EV infection, including poliovirus infection, should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of AFP with anterior myelitis and testing performed per CDC guidelines.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
  • Felicia C Chow · Carol A Glaser
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    ABSTRACT: The list of emerging and reemerging pathogens that cause neurologic disease is expanding. Various factors, including population growth and a rise in international travel, have contributed to the spread of pathogens to previously nonendemic regions. Recent advances in diagnostic methods have led to the identification of novel pathogens responsible for infections of the central nervous system. Furthermore, new issues have arisen surrounding established infections, particularly in an increasingly immunocompromised population due to advances in the treatment of rheumatologic disease and in transplant medicine.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-one children with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were identified in the California Encephalitis Project. Noteworthy features included six (29%) patients with an initial negative herpes simplex virus CSF PCR test and 13 (59%) patients with extra-temporal lobe involvement identified by neuroimaging. Eleven cases were <4 years of age, but all four fatal cases occurred in adolescents.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
  • Arun Venkatesan · Carol Ann Glaser

    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) conducts surveillance on severe influenza illness among California residents aged <65 years. Severe cases are defined as those resulting in admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) or death; reporting of ICU cases is voluntary, and reporting of fatal cases is mandatory. This report describes the epidemiologic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of ICU and fatal influenza cases with symptom onset on or after September 29, 2013, and reported by January 18, 2014 of the 2013-14 influenza season. At the time of this report, local health jurisdictions (LHJs) in California had reported 94 deaths and 311 ICU admissions of patients with a positive influenza test result. The 405 reports of severe cases (i.e., fatal and ICU cases combined) were more than in any season since the 2009 pandemic caused by the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus. The pH1N1 virus is the predominant circulating influenza virus this season. Of 405 ICU and fatal influenza cases, 266 (66%) occurred among patients aged 41-64 years; 39 (10%) severe influenza illnesses occurred among children aged <18 years. Only six (21%) of 28 patients with fatal illness whose vaccination status was known had received 2013-14 seasonal influenza vaccine ≥2 weeks before symptom onset. Of 80 patients who died for whom sufficient information was available, 74 (93%) had underlying medical conditions known to increase the risk for severe influenza, as defined by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Of 47 hospitalized patients with fatal illness and known symptom onset and antiviral therapy dates, only eight (17%) received neuraminidase inhibitors within 48 hours of symptom onset. This report supports previous recommendations that vaccination is important to prevent influenza virus infections that can result in ICU admission or death, particularly in high-risk populations, and that empiric antiviral treatment should be promptly initiated when influenza virus infection is suspected in hospitalized patients, despite negative results from rapid diagnostic tests.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
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    ABSTRACT: In five prospectively diagnosed patients with relapsing post-herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), NMDAR-antibodies were identified. Antibody synthesis started 1-4 weeks post-HSE, preceding the neurological relapse. Three of five patients improved post-immunotherapy, one spontaneously, and one has started to improve. Two additional patients with NMDAR-antibodies, 9 with unknown neuronal surface-antibodies, and one with NMDAR and unknown antibodies were identified during retrospective assessment of 34 HSE-patients; the frequency of autoantibodies increased over time (serum p=0.004, CSF p=0.04). The three retrospectively identified NMDAR-antibody positive patients also had evidence of relapsing post-HSE. Overall, these findings indicate that HSE triggers NMDAR-antibodies and potentially other brain autoimmunity. ANN NEUROL 2013. © 2013 American Neurological Association.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Annals of Neurology

Publication Stats

5k Citations
933.33 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Kaiser Permanente
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 2007-2015
    • California Department of Public Health
      Richmond, California, United States
    • Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 2003-2015
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2013
    • North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2009
    • Stanford Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
    • Center for Infectious Disease Research
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2004-2008
    • California Department of Health Care Services
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 2002
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 1999
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States