C E Reeder

University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States

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Publications (40)64.22 Total impact

  • C. Eugene Reeder

    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
  • C Eugene Reeder
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    ABSTRACT: The elements and limitations of pharmacoeconomic models, types of analytic methods used in pharmacoeconomic evaluations, outcomes used in studies of anemia treatments, and comparative efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the two available erythropoietic therapies in the treatment of anemia in cancer and critical care patients are discussed. Clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes should be taken into consideration in pharmacoeconomic models. The validity of such models may be compromised by a lack of outcome data, unreasonable assumptions, the heterogeneity of the patient population, patient selection bias in comparative studies, and inconsistent use of instruments to measure outcomes. The degree of anemia in patients with cancer correlates with health-related quality of life (QOL). Erythropoietic therapy increases hemoglobin concentrations and QOL, reduces the need for blood transfusions, and is cost-effective for treating anemia in cancer and critical care patients. Epoetin alfa may provide a more rapid hemoglobin response and improvement in QOL at a lower cost than darbepoetin alfa. Front loading with weekly doses of either erythropoietic agent followed by a three-week-long dosing interval for maintenance treatment may be used to quickly correct anemia, improve convenience, and reduce costs. Erythropoietic therapy for the treatment of anemia in cancer and critical care patients is cost-effective.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic interchange (TI) interventions are commonly used to manage pharmacy benefit costs. While several studies have considered the effect that TI interventions have on drug costs, most have not considered the effect they have on medical management costs. The purpose of the present study was to assess drug cost and drug therapy management costs of a TI intervention following a change in the drug formulary for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin) drugs, including the conversion of atorvastatin from formulary to nonformulary status. A retrospective, quasi-experimental within-subjects design was used in this study. Administrative claims data were obtained from a select northeastern segment of a multistate Medicaid managed care organization (MCO). To be included in the study, patients had to meet the following criteria: (1) they must have had a minimum of 3 atorvastatin prescriptions during a 6-month enrollment phase, (2) they must have been continuously enrolled throughout the 900-day study period, and (3) they must have switched from atorvastatin to another statin between April 1, 2003, and July 31, 2003. The day of the switch from atorvastatin marked for each patient the end of the 12-month pre-TI period and the beginning of the 12-month post-TI period. Two separate dependent variables were developed: (1) statin drug costs (statin cost + dispensing fee) and (2) the costs paid by the MCO for the medical management of statin therapy, including office visit costs and the medical laboratory costs of measuring lipids and creatine kinase, and of checking liver functions. To estimate expenditures over 24 months, a panel analytic technique was used that allows each patient to serve as his or her own control. Multivariate models were used to assess the effects of the TI policy while controlling for age, gender, adjunctive dyslipidemia therapy, comorbidity, presence of a prior coronary artery event, statin compliance, cardiologist management, and disease severity. Of the 3,636 patients who met the study inclusion criteria and were converted from atorvastatin to an alternate statin drug, 129 patients (3.5%) switched back to atorvastatin following the TI. The average statin cost per claim in the 12-month post-TI period was Dollars 70.93, 9.5% less than the average cost in the 12-month pre-TI period (Dollars 78.40). The average cost per patient per year (PPPY) for statin laboratory tests (lipid panels, creatine kinase tests, and liver function tests) increased by 31.5% to Dollars 16.15 in the post-TI period compared with Dollars 12.28 PPPY in the pre-TI period, and medical office visit costs increased by 44.9% to Dollars 20.70 PPPY in the post-TI period compared with Dollars 14.29 PPPY in the preperiod. These increased costs related to the medical management of statin therapy were overwhelmed by an 11.7% reduction in statin drug costs, from Dollars 793.69 PPPY in the pre-TI period to Dollars 701.01 PPPY in the post-TI period, resulting in a net 10.0% reduction for combined statin costs and related medical costs, from Dollars 820.27 PPPY in the pre-TI period to Dollars 737.87 in the post-TI period. After limiting the analysis to patients who did not convert from atorvastatin to pravastatin (which cost more than atorvastatin before the rebate) and controlling for the influence of potential confounders, statin expenditure decreased by 33% (P < 0.001). Multivariate models indicated no statistically significant differences in the costs related to the medical management of statin therapy after the TI compared with before the TI.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP
  • C E Reeder
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the quality gap in health care as it was referred to in the Institute of Medicine's reports, to try to harness pharmacy's potential to improve the quality of drug therapy, and to provide insight into the elusive leadership, management, and dynamics of change. Current health care is nowhere near ideal. Successful quality initiatives have included establishing a "culture of quality" (promoting a learning organization), having good leadership, and developing strong management. Ideally, all of these concepts must be applied concurrently for the best results because using only one will not spirit medicine across the gap. To close the gap, pharmacists need to understand various types of change and select a change mechanism that will continuously improve care. Optimizing drug therapy is both a great challenge and a great opportunity for pharmacy. AMCP's Framework for Quality Drug Therapy is a continuous quality improvement model that gives us the tools to plan, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of patient care and cross the "quality chasm."
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP
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    Paul Williams · C E Reeder
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    ABSTRACT: To use a composite efficacy/tolerability end point to compare the cost-effectiveness, from the perspective of a U.S. health care payer, of almotriptan and sumatriptan in the treatment of an acute migraine attack. The composite end point. Sustained pain free and No Adverse Events. (SNAE) was created from the sustained pain free and adverse event rates obtained in a meta-analysis of 53 placebo-controlled trials of oral triptans. The total direct cost of treating a single migraine attack was calculated from published sources. In the base-case analysis, the average cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) were 82 US dollars , 133 US dollars , and 138 US dollars (per attack at which SNAE is achieved, 2004 prices) for almotriptan 12.5 mg, sumatriptan 50 mg, and sumatriptan 100 mg, respectively; the incremental CERs for almotriptan 12.5 mg were 12 US dollars and 16 US dollars (compared with sumatriptan 50 mg and sumatriptan 100 mg, respectively) per incremental attack at which SNAE is achieved. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the impact of (1) relaxing the base-case assumptions (independence of efficacy and tolerability, uniform apportionment of health service use costs across attacks, number of tablets used to treat 1 attack); (2) varying input costs; and (3) uncertainty in the efficacy and tolerability estimates from the meta-analysis. In all of these sensitivity analyses, almotriptan 12.5 mg remained cost effective compared with sumatriptan 50 mg and 100 mg. Almotriptan was economically superior to sumatriptan in the treatment of a migraine attack.
    Preview · Article · May 2004 · Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP
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    ABSTRACT: Health plans are using 3-tier copayment designs and other methods to control utilization that shifts drug costs to plan members. There is a need to determine the effects of increased member cost sharing on drug utilization and drug costs. To assess the impact of a 10 US dollars increase in prescription copayment in a public employer health plan for 2 classes of drugs used for allergic rhinitis. Changes in the number of prescriptions dispensed for 2 therapeutic classes.low-sedating antihistamines (LSAs) and nasal steroids (NSs).were examined 1 year prior to and 1 year after copayment increase. Relative price effects were measured as arc price elasticity, the ratio of the percent change in prescription utilization over the percent change in price, an indicator of how responsive patients are to the copayment increase. Of 8,643 continuously enrolled health plan beneficiaries, 2,150 patients (24.8%) received at least 1 NS or LSA during the 2-year period of the study, from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1999. An average 10 US dollars increase in copayment per prescription was associated with no statistically significant change in utilization of combined LSA and NS prescriptions, 2.89 per patient in 1998 and 2.94 in 1999 (P = 0.597). Health plan costs for study drugs, unadjusted for inflation, decreased by 16.3% from 86.86 US dollars per patient in 1998 to 72.68 US dollars in 1999 (P = 0.004). Health plan costs per patient per month (PPPM) for all drugs for the 2,150 allergic rhinitis patients decreased by 13% from 41.33 US dollars PPPM in 1998 to 35.93 US dollars in 1999 (P<0.001), and health plan drug costs for all 8,643 members decreased by 13% from 14.93 US dollars per member per month (PMPM) in 1998 to 12.99 US dollars in 1999 (P<0.001). The actual average copayment increase was 7.23 US dollars (a 41% increase) for LSAs, which was associated with a 14.8% increase in utilization of LSAs and an 11.8% increase in the number of patients using LSAs; the number of LSA prescriptions per patient per year was unchanged at 2.68 in 1999 versus 2.61 in 1998 (P = 0.429). The actual average copayment increase was 10.98 US dollars (71%) for NSs, which was associated with an 11.3% decrease in utilization of NSs and a 10.2% decrease in the number of users of nasals steroids in 1999; the number of nasal steroid prescriptions per patient per year was unchanged at 2.05 in 1999 versus 2.07 in 1998 (P =.842). The combined utilization of LSA and NS prescriptions increased by 8.9% following the increase in copayments for these 2 therapeutically interchangeable drugs for allergic rhinitis. LSA prescriptions were less elastic, with an unadjusted arc elasticity of 0.39, while nasal steroid prescriptions were more responsive to the copayment change, with an unadjusted arc elasticity of.0.22. An average 10 US dollars increase in patient cost sharing per prescription (46.9% copayment increase) was associated with an increase in combined utilization of 2 drug classes used for allergic rhinitis (LSAs and NSs) but no change in the number of prescriptions per patient. Health plan costs decreased significantly for allergic rhinitis drugs, all drugs used by allergic rhinitis patients, and all drugs used by continuously enrolled health plan members. NSs exhibited a greater arc price elasticity compared with low-sedating oral antihistamines.
    Preview · Article · May 2004 · Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP
  • Paul Williams · C.E. Reeder
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    ABSTRACT: Migraine is a common disorder that costs US employers billions of dollars each year in missed workdays and reduced productivity. Seven triptans, including almotriptan and rizatriptan, are recommended as first-line therapy for acute migraine. The aim of this study was to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of almotriptan and rizatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine. A model was built to compare almotriptan 12.5 mg and rizatriptan 10 mg for the treatment of a single, acute migraine attack. Cost-effectiveness (in year-1999 US dollars) was evaluated from the perspective of a US health care payer. Mean and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) were calculated. The effectiveness measure was the proportion of patients who achieved sustained freedom from pain with no adverse events (SNAE). Data on sustained pain-free outcomes and adverse-event rates were obtained from a meta-analysis of oral triptan trials. Efficacy and tolerability were assumed to be independent in the base-case scenario, so the total direct cost of treating a single migraine attack was calculated, adding drug costs to health service costs per attack. In the base-case analysis, the mean CERs for almotriptan 12.5 mg and rizatriptan 10 mg were 91.12 dollars and 131.26 dollars, respectively, per attack at which SNAE was achieved after treatment. The incremental CER for almotriptan (compared with rizatriptan 10 mg) was 6.94 dollars per additional SNAE achieved. The economic benefit of almotriptan 12.5 mg was robust in a range of sensitivity analyses. Almotriptan 12.5 mg was more cost-effective than rizatriptan 10 mg for the treatment of acute migraine in this analysis based on published data.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Clinical Therapeutics
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    C.E. Reeder Ph.D · W. Michael Dickson Ph.D
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter explores the potential economic effects of pharmacogenomics at the individual, health care provider, and producer levels. To assess the value of pharmacogenomic-based drugs, one must evaluate not only the clinical but also the economic and humanistic cost and consequences of treatment. Pharmacogenomics has the potential to change the outcomes of many highly morbid or even fatal conditions; conditions that generate enormous economic costs not only in terms of actual expenditure, but also in human suffering and lost productivity. Issues of access, cost and quality will emerge as these new regimens become available.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2003
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    ABSTRACT: Three years of data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were analyzed to assess resource utilization for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), asthma, and migraine. Adjusted for prevalence, IBS-related physician visits occurred at approximately the same rate as those for asthma and 2.6 times the rate of visits for migraine. Specialist consultations for IBS were of similar frequency to those for migraine and more frequent than those for asthma. Diagnostic and screening tests were ordered more often during IBS-related visits than during migraine- or asthma-related visits. Prescription rates were similar for all three conditions. In terms of resource consumption, this chronic disorder places a burden on patients that is comparable with that of such costly conditions as asthma and migraine.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Managed care interface
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    BL Meissner · WM Moore · JA Shinogle · CE Reeder · JM Little

    Preview · Article · May 2002 · Value in Health
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    C E Reeder · Sharm Steadman · Scott D Goldfarb
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    ABSTRACT: Sound, informed decision making regarding which drugs to include on a formulary should be based on the best available evidence of their clinical efficacy and incidence of adverse events. Comparative drug costs and clinical effectiveness should also be considered during the formulary development process. Clinical trials traditionally evaluate efficacy and adverse events independently, whereas effectiveness in real-life conditions is defined as some combination of efficacy and side effects. When evaluating similar medications, head-to-head efficacy and effectiveness studies are preferred. For oral triptans (serotonin 5-HT(1B,1D) receptor agonists), there are many placebo-controlled trials and several active trials that compare newer oral triptans with sumatriptan; however, there have been few comparisons of triptans in head-to-head trials. Meta-analysis is an appropriate method to evaluate multiple clinical trials critically and combine the results. A recently published meta-analysis used patient-level data to assess efficacy and adverse events across multiple triptan clinical trials. In this analysis, we combined those results with medication costs to assess the overall value among oral triptans. Using this combined approach, almotriptan was found to have the greatest economic value. It delivers comparable efficacy, placebo-like tolerability, and the highest value when compared with other triptans currently marketed in the United States.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2002 · The American journal of managed care

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2001

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2001
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether the increased acquisition costs associated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone are offset by reductions in other mental health care utilisation and expenditure. Design and setting: The study was population-based and used South Carolina Medicaid claims data to determine changes in mental healthcare utilisation and expenditures related to schizophrenia. Changes in mental health—related utilisation and expenditures over time were calculated; total mental health—related expenditures and utilisation were disaggregated into pharmaceuticals, inpatient hospitalisations, and ambulatory and inpatient physician services [Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) 1500 claims]. Groups of patients were compared for two 6-month periods preceding the initial prescription (pre1 and pre2), and two 6-month periods following the initial prescription (post1 and post2). Costs were discounted to the index date. Perspective: Payor (South Carolina Medicaid). Patients: Those patients with schizophrenia who received initial prescriptions for risperidone (n = 862), haloperidol (n = 325) or clozapine (n = 66) between February 1994 and June 1995 (index date). Main outcome measures and results: The mean increase in level of expenditure per person for pharmaceuticals from the pre- to the post-treatment period was significantly greater in the risperidone [751 US dollars ($US)] and clozapine ($US1423) groups than in the haloperidol group ($US6). However, the change in mean level of total mental healthcare expenditure per person was not significantly different for the risperidone group ($US832) compared with the haloperidol group ($US540) over the same time period, but the increase in the clozapine group was significantly higher ($US2500.23; p < 0.0001 for clozapinevsrisperidone and clozapine vs haloperidol). As the difference between the risperidone and haloperidol groups in pharmaceutical expenditures was not reflected in total mental healthcare expenditures, the remaining component costs were investigated to identify where the difference was offset. Compared with haloperidol, risperidone had a significantly smaller change in per person mean level of ambulatory and inpatient physician services claims for expenditure ($US692 vs $US269, p = 0.01) and utilisation (+1.70 vs −0.21, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Based on these findings, we conclude that, in this population of patients with schizophrenia increased costs associated with risperidone were offset by decreases in other mental healthcare utilization. Risperidone is a technical substitute for ambulatory healthcare services.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Disease Management and Health Outcomes
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    C E Reeder · G A Gourley · J D Wurtzbacher · P Reed
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    ABSTRACT: This article examines evidence of the improved clinical, economic, and humanistic outcomes associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in clinical practice, in particular in the areas of hypertension, diabetic nephropathies, post-myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences may exist among this class, however, these may not be clinically relevant when the drugs are given in equivalent doses. Although additional studies are necessary before a class effect can be assumed for each of these outcomes, it is important for clinicians to consider all of these outcomes when using ACEIs.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2000 · The American journal of managed care
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    WM Dickson · CE Reeder

    Preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Value in Health
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    ABSTRACT: Structured diagnostic interviews indicate that the rate of depression among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is nearly 3 times that observed in the general population in the United States. Prevalence studies have reported a significant underdiagnosis of depression and a significant underutilization of antidepressant pharmacotherapy among patients with DM. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of antidepressant utilization within the first year after diagnosis of type 1 (insulin-dependent) or type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) DM. This retrospective cohort study used adjudicated, patient-level, paid-claims data from the state of South Carolina's Medicaid program for the period January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1994. The study population comprised a statewide cohort of 3445 Medicaid beneficiaries diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 DM; aged 18 to 64 years; initiating pharmacotherapy with either insulin or a second-generation sulfonylurea (glipizide or glyburide); and without a prescription for antidepressant pharmacotherapy, insulin or an oral sulfonylurea (first- or second-generation) in the year before initiating a regimen to manage DM. Overall, 6.5% of patients (6.9% of patients with type 1 and 5.5% with type 2 DM) were prescribed antidepressant pharmacotherapy within the first year after beginning treatment with insulin or a second-generation sulfonylurea. Among patients with type 1 DM, 37.3% were prescribed a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor compared with 50.9% of patients with type 2 DM. White patients were significantly more likely (P < 0.05) to have been prescribed antidepressant pharmacotherapy compared with black patients. Under the conservative assumption that the tricyclic antidepressants were prescribed only for complications arising from DM (eg, retinopathy and neuropathy) only 2.6% of patients with DM received antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Further research is required to discern the reasons for the low incidence of antidepressant utilization in patients with DM and for observed differences in prescription rates by race. In addition, initiatives are required to foster the development of educational programs designed to enhance the rate of screening for depression and receipt of pharmacotherapeutic and/or psychotherapeutic intervention among patients with DM.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1999 · Current Therapeutic Research

  • No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · The Diabetes Educator
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This paper reports results stemming from a retrospective inquiry designed to determine the prescribing pattern of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) relative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the subsequent effect on regimen adherence among African American (Black) and White beneficiaries enrolled in the state of South Carolina Medicaid programme. Patients and Methods: Adjudicated patient-level paid-claims data for the time-frame 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1994 were abstracted resulting in a statewide cohort of 8596 ambulatory beneficiaries, 18 to 64 years of age, without receipt of antidepressant pharmacotherapy in the 1-year time-frame prior to initiating a regimen of either a TCA or SSRI, and remaining Medicaid-eligible for 1 year thereafter. Results: Black race [odds ratio (OR) = 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43 to 1.70], age 40 to 64 years (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.26), and male gender (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.41) were significant predictors of initiating antidepressant pharmacotherapy with a TCA. Relative to Whites, Blacks were found to be less likely to have obtained at least a 3-month (≥90 days) supply of a TCA (22.1 vs 31.7%) or an SSRI (30.7 vs 36.1%), or to have obtained a 6-month (≥180 days) supply of a TCA (6.4 vs 10.9%) or an SSRI (8.1 vs 13.2%). Conclusion: Further prospective research is required to discern the reasons for observed differences in prescribing and adherence patterns for antidepressant pharmacotherapy by age, gender and race, and to foster the development of educational programming designed to ensure clinically rational and equitable access to pharmacotherapeutic innovation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 1998 · Clinical Drug Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This paper reports results stemming from a retrospective inquiry designed to determine the prescribing pattern of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) relative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the subsequent effect on regimen adherence among African American (Black) and White beneficiaries enrolled in the state of South Carolina Medicaid programme.Patients and Methods: Adjudicated patient-level paid-claims data for the time-frame 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1994 were abstracted resulting in a statewide cohort of 8596 ambulatory beneficiaries, 18 to 64 years of age, without receipt of antidepressant pharmacotherapy in the 1-year time-frame prior to initiating a regimen of either a TCA or SSRI, and remaining Medicaid-eligible for 1 year thereafter.Results: Black race [odds ratio (OR) = 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43 to 1.70], age 40 to 64 years (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.26), and male gender (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.41) were significant predictors of initiating antidepressant pharmacotherapy with a TCA. Relative to Whites, Blacks were found to be less likely to have obtained at least a 3-month (90 days) supply of a TCA (22.1 vs 31.7%) or an SSRI (30.7 vs 36.1%), or to have obtained a 6-month (180 days) supply of a TCA (6.4 vs 10.9%) or an SSRI (8.1 vs 13.2%). Conclusion: Further prospective research is required to discern the reasons for observed differences in prescribing and adherence patterns for antidepressant pharmacotherapy by age, gender and race, and to foster the development of educational programming designed to ensure clinically rational and equitable access to pharmacotherapeutic innovation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Clinical Drug Investigation