Brian Christopher Peebles

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

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Publications (4)10.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ozonation of two commercial carbon blacks (CBs), Printex 90 (P90) and Flammruss 101 (F101), was carried out and changes in their morphology, physical properties, and cytotoxicity were examined. The hypothesis examined was that different methods of manufacture of CBs influence their chemical reactivity and toxicological properties. Structural changes were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Introduction of surface oxygen functionality upon ozonation led to changes in surface charge, aggregation characteristics, and free radical content of the CBs. However, these changes in surface functionality did not alter the cytotoxicity and release of inflammation markers upon exposure of the CBs to murine macrophages. Interaction of macrophages with F101 resulted in higher levels of inflammatory markers than P90, and the only structural correlation was with the higher persistent radical concentration on the F101.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • Brian Peebles · Amber Nagy · W James Waldman · Prabir K Dutta
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    ABSTRACT: The chemical and biological properties of iron-loaded manufactured carbon nanoparticles (Flammruss 101) were contrasted with those of an iron-loaded synthetic carbon particle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the iron on the carbon particles. Production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The iron-loaded synthetic carbon particles produced a positive Fenton response, whereas the iron-loaded manufactured carbon particles did not. The source of the Fenton activity of the synthetic carbon particles is proposed to be a soluble iron compound that was formed during the synthesis of the particle. A likely candidate for the soluble iron species is Fe2F5, which was synthesized and its properties were examined. Higher toxicity of Fe2F5 toward murine macrophages compared with other simple iron salts was attributed to soluble iron that was stabilized by the fluoride ligand. The cytotoxicity of manufactured carbon particles toward murine macrophages decreased or remained unaltered upon impregnation with iron compounds.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Environmental Science & Technology
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    Brian Christopher Peebles
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    ABSTRACT: Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed that carbon blacks contain free radical and other surface functionality as manufactured, and that exposure to ozone further functionalizes the surface. Samples of carbon black that have been exposed to ozone react with their ambient environment so that acid anhydride and cyclic ether functionality hydrolyze to form carboxylic acid functionality, observable by transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Persistent free radical content, but not free radical content from ozone exposure, may mediate the toxic response of cells to carbon blacks in vitro. Results showed that macrophages exposed to carbon blacks that had been exposed to ozone were not less viable in vitro than macrophages exposed to carbon blacks as manufactured because the free radical content that resulted from ozone exposure was not persistent in an aqueous medium. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to ozonated carbon blacks and ozone was less lethal to macrophages than carbon black exposure alone, possibly because the ozone oxidatively preconditioned the macrophages to resist oxidative stress. The nature of redox-active iron species on the surface of iron-loaded synthetic carbon particles was explored. The particles had been shown in previous studies to provoke an inflammatory response involving the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, which was correlated with their production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the source of bioavailable Fenton-active iron on the surfaces of the particles was fluoride species that were byproducts of a step in the synthetic process. Fluoride ligated the iron already on the surface, forming a complex that resisted precipitation in the biological medium and thus made the iron more bioavailable. The results of this thesis aim to clarify whether the size and surface chemistry of nanoparticles should be considered more closely as criteria with which to develop better environmental controls for occupational health. Permissible exposure limits to micrometer-size particulate matter in the workplace are in place, but current limits do not specifically address the role of surface chemistry and the potentially higher toxicity of nanomaterials. The size, agglomeration characteristics, and surface chemistry of carbon nanoparticles are being studied and manipulated to explore the causes of their toxicity. Inflammatory response and cytotoxicity following exposure of human and murine macrophages to nanoparticles are being employed as indicators of the ability of particles to cause respiratory harm. The results are expected to lead to more effective standards for nanomaterial exposure in the workplace and pathways to toxicity mitigation.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010
  • Brian C. Peebles · Amber Nagy · Prabir K. Dutta · W. James Waldman
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    ABSTRACT: Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry. Permissible exposure limits to micrometer-size particulate matter in the workplace are in place, but current limits do not specifically address the role of surface chemistry and the potentially higher toxicity of nanomaterials. The size, agglomeration characteristics, and surface chemistry of several manufactured nanoparticles including carbon, titania, and aluminosilicates are being studied and manipulated to explore the causes of their toxicity. Inflammatory response and cytotoxicity following exposure of human and murine macrophages to nanoparticles are being employed as indicators of particle toxicity. The results are expected to lead to more effective standards for nanomaterial exposure in the workplace and pathways to toxicity mitigation.
    No preview · Conference Paper · May 2009