[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. As a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, its burden on society has yet to be fully characterized. The aim of this study is to examine its global burden through estimation of the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to it.
Global incidence and mortality estimates for esophageal cancer were obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer GLOBOCAN 2008 database. DALYs were calculated, using methodology established by the World Health Organization.
In 2008, 3,955,919 DALYs were attributed to esophageal cancer, at a global rate of 0.58 DALYs per 1000 people annually. Years of life lost (YLL) accounted for 96.8 % of DALYs, while years lived with disability (YLD) accounted for 3.2 %. 83.8 % of the global DALYs occurred in less-developed countries, with most accrued in Eastern Asia, comprising 50.9 % of the total. The highest rate of DALY accrual was in Southern Africa, at 1.62 DALYs per 1000 people annually.
A substantial number of years of life were lost or affected by esophageal cancer worldwide in 2008, with the burden resting disproportionately on less-developed countries. Geographically, the greatest burden is in Eastern Asia. The vast majority of DALYs were due to YLL, rather than YLD, indicating the need to focus resources on disease prevention and early detection. Our findings provide an additional basis upon which to formulate global priorities for interventions that affect DALY reduction in esophageal cancer.
Full-text available · Article · Dec 2015 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A reliable method to identify pathologic complete responders (pCR) or non-responders (NR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NAT) would dramatically improve therapy for esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate if a distinct profile of prognostic molecular markers can predict pCR after neoadjuvant therapy. Expression of p53, Her-2/neu, Cox-2, Beta-catenin, E-cadherin, MMP-1, NFkB, and TGF-B was measured by immunohistochemistry in pre-treatment biopsy tissue and graded by an experienced pathologist. A pCR was defined as no evidence of malignancy on final pathology. Molecular profiles comparing responders to non-responders were analyzed using classification and regression tree analysis to investigate response to NAT and overall survival. Nineteen patients were pCRs and 34 were NRs. pCRs were more likely to be alive at follow-up than NRs (p < 0.01). Thirty-seven distinct profiles were identified. Expression of molecular markers was highly heterogeneous between patients and did not correlate with a response to NAT, survival (p = 0.47) or clinical stage (p = 0.39) when evaluated either as individual markers or in combination with other expression patterns. NAT dramatically impacts survival through a mechanism independent of known molecular markers of esophageal cancer, which are expressed in a highly heterogeneous fashion and do not predict response to NAT or survival.
Full-text available · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Bile duct injury (BDI) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has significant cost impact and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. We undertook a population-based assessment of the national experience with BDI between 2001 and 2011 and compared this to our report for the prior decade.
Using the nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) for 2001-2011, we identified patients who underwent LC or partial cholecystectomy, with and without biliary reconstruction. Data were analyzed using methods that accounted for the hierarchical, stratified random sampling of the NIS. Both univariate modeling and multivariate modeling were performed.
LCs increased from 71.1 % in 2001 to 79.0 % in 2011 (p < 0.0001). Annual mortality decreased from 0.56 to 0.38 % (p = 0.002). In 2001, 0.11 % of LCs were associated with biliary reconstruction versus 0.09 % in 2011 (p = 0.15) with rates ranging from 0.08 to 0.12 %. The need for reconstruction was associated with an average in-hospital mortality rate of 4.4 %. Mortality rates from LC remained consistent across the study period (average mortality, 0.10 %, p = 0.57). Under multivariate analysis, admission to rural or urban non-teaching centers was associated with a decreased rate of injury; the majority of major BDIs were admitted from clinic or outpatient settings. These results are consistent with results from the prior decade. Neither emergent admission nor race was associated with increased odds of BDI, and this differs from our prior analysis.
LC continued to increase in utilization between 2001 and 2011. Although rates of BDI have decreased, the need for reconstruction continues to be associated with a significant mortality. In addition, mortality related to biliary reconstruction is also higher than previously published series and may reflect the complexity of managing biliary injury as well as the higher likelihood of these patients having comorbid conditions.
Full-text available · Article · Aug 2015 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant therapy on lymph node harvest (LNH), lymph node ratio (LNR), and overall survival rates after esophagectomy.
A retrospective analysis of 111 patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma from 2001 to 2010 was performed. Patients were divided into two groups: neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy prior to surgery (NEOSURG) versus surgery alone (SURG).
There were 83 patients (75 %) in the NEOSURG group and 28 (25 %) in the SURG group with a mean age of 66 and 67 years, respectively. The median LNH in the NEOSURG group and SURG group was 16.0 and 15.5, respectively (p = 0.57). Within the NEOSURG group, the median LNH was 16 for complete responders, 14 for partial responders, 16 for nonresponders, and 18 in those who were pathologically upstaged (p = 0.434). The median LNR was 0, 0, 0.1, and 0.2, respectively (p < 0.001). Complete response after neoadjuvant therapy demonstrated a trend toward improved survival (p = 0.056).
The LNH was not significantly influenced by neoadjuvant treatment or pathologic response. The LNR was inversely related to pathologic response after neoadjuvant therapy. Complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant therapy trends to improve survival rates.
Full-text available · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To quantify myocardial blood flow in infants and children with mild or moderate aortic stenosis using adenosine-infusion cardiac magnetic resonance.
It is unclear whether asymptomatic children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis have myocardial abnormalities. In addition, cardiac magnetic resonance-determined normative myocardial blood flow data in children have not been reported.
We studied 31 infants and children with either haemodynamically normal hearts (n=20, controls) or mild/moderate aortic stenosis (n=11). The left ventricular myocardium was divided into six segments, and the change in average segmental signal intensity during contrast transit was used to quantify absolute flow (ml/g/minute) at rest and during adenosine infusion by deconvolution of the tissue curves with the arterial input of contrast.
In all the cases, adenosine was well tolerated without complications. The mean pressure gradient between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta was higher in the aortic stenosis group compared with controls (24 versus 3 mmHg, p<0.001). Left ventricular wall mass was slightly higher in the aortic stenosis group compared with controls (65 versus 50 g/m2, p<0.05). After adenosine treatment, both the absolute increase in myocardial blood flow (p<0.0001) and the hyperaemic flow significantly decreased (p<0.001) in children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis compared with controls.
Abnormal myocardial blood flow in children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis may be an important therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The initial minimum operation for ulcerative colitis is a total abdominal colectomy. Healthy patients may undergo proctectomy at the same time; however, for ill patients, proctectomy is delayed. Since the introduction of biologic medications in 2005, ulcerative colitis medical management has changed dramatically.
Full-text available · Article · Dec 2014 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background & aims:
Transoral esophagogastric fundoplication (TF) can decrease or eliminate features of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in some patients whose symptoms persist despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. We performed a prospective, sham-controlled trial to determine if TF reduced troublesome regurgitation to a greater extent than PPIs in patients with GERD.
We screened 696 patients with troublesome regurgitation despite daily PPI use with 3 validated GERD-specific symptom scales, on and off PPIs. Those with at least troublesome regurgitation (based on the Montreal definition) on PPIs underwent barium swallow, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 48-hour esophageal pH monitoring (off PPIs), and high-resolution esophageal manometry analyses. Patients with GERD and hiatal hernias ≤2 cm were randomly assigned to groups that underwent TF and then received 6 months of placebo (n = 87), or sham surgery and 6 months of once- or twice-daily omeprazole (controls, n = 42). Patients were blinded to therapy during follow-up period and reassessed at 2, 12, and 26 weeks. At 6 months, patients underwent 48-hour esophageal pH monitoring and esophagogastroduodenoscopy.
By intention-to-treat analysis, TF eliminated troublesome regurgitation in a larger proportion of patients (67%) than PPIs (45%) (P = .023). A larger proportion of controls had no response at 3 months (36%) than subjects that received TF (11%; P = .004). Control of esophageal pH improved after TF (mean 9.3% before and 6.3% after; P < .001), but not after sham surgery (mean 8.6% before and 8.9% after). Subjects from both groups who completed the protocol had similar reductions in GERD symptom scores. Severe complications were rare (3 subjects receiving TF and 1 receiving the sham surgery).
TF was an effective treatment for patients with GERD symptoms, particularly in those with persistent regurgitation despite PPI therapy, based on evaluation 6 months after the procedure. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT01136980.
Full-text available · Article · Oct 2014 · Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective: Cranial vault remodeling for repair of craniosynostosis is associated with significant blood loss and need for blood transfusion. To reduce these events, our institution began using Tranexamic Acid (TXA) peri-operatively in 2012. We sought to quantify the impact TXA has had on reducing blood loss and the transfusion of all blood product components.
Methods: With institutional review board approval, a retrospective study from 2006 to 2013 was performed for all patients undergoing surgical correction of craniosynostosis at our institution. All available records were reviewed, and patient data were collected from the time of preoperative evaluation until discharge. We focused our review on patients with non-syndromic single-suture synostosis, before and after the implementation of TXA into our program.
Results: We identified a total of 220 patients with craniosynostosis, of which 176 had non-syndromic single-suture disease. Of these 176, a total of 48 received TXA. A single surgical team performed all operations. Median age at time of surgery was 9.1 months (IQR of 5.9-10.4 months). The TXA group had a significant reduction in estimated blood loss (29 vs. 37 ml/kg p<0.01), cell saver volume (46 vs. 83 ml p<0.01), red cell transfusion (33 vs. 42 ml/kg p<0.01), and exposure to plasma/cryoprecipitate transfusion (2% vs. 31% p<0.01). Reduction in platelet transfusion did not reach significance (2% vs. 9% p=0.18). Even with reduced red cell transfusion, the TXA-treated patients exhibited similar post-operative hematocrits to those not treated with TXA(30.1 vs. 30.9% p=0.508). We found that length of stay was reduced with the use of TXA (4 days IQR 3-4 vs. 4 days IQR 4-5, p<0.01), as was output from surgically placed drains (177 vs. 328 ml p<0.01). We found no difference in mortality or post-operative complications between groups.
Conclusions: The introduction of TXA for non-syndromic single-suture synostosis repair at our institution resulted in significant reductions in blood loss and use of blood products. Postoperative hematocrits remained the same even with less red cell transfusion. TXA use nearly eliminated the need for plasma transfusion, and is associated with a shorter hospital stay. No difference in postoperative complications was observed. Our data provides further support for the continued use of TXA in our program and its wider acceptance for pediatric cranial vault remodeling.
Full-text available · Article · Oct 2014 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Trauma transfer patients routinely undergo repeat imaging because of inefficiencies within the radiology system. In 2009, the virtual private network (VPN) telemedicine system was adopted throughout Oregon allowing virtual image transfer between hospitals. The startup cost was a nominal $3,000 per hospital.
A retrospective review from 2007 to 2012 included 400 randomly selected adult trauma transfer patients based on a power analysis (200 pre/200 post). The primary outcome evaluated was reduction in repeat computed tomography (CT) scans. Secondary outcomes included cost savings, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and spared radiation. All data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. P less than .05 indicated significance. Spared radiation was calculated as a weighted average per body region, and savings was calculated using charges obtained from Oregon Health and Science University radiology current procedural terminology codes.
Four-hundred patients were included. Injury Severity Score, age, ED and overall LOS, mortality, trauma type, and gender were not statistically different between groups. The percentage of patients with repeat CT scans decreased after VPN implementation: CT abdomen (13.2% vs 2.8%, P < .01) and cervical spine (34.4% vs 18.2%, P < .01). Post-VPN, the total charges saved in 2012 for trauma transfer patients was $333,500, whereas the average radiation dose spared per person was 1.8 mSV. Length of stay in the ED for patients with Injury Severity Score less than 15 transferring to the ICU was decreased (P < .05).
Implementation of a statewide teleradiology network resulted in fewer total repeat CT scans, significant savings, decrease in radiation exposure, and decreased LOS in the ED for patients with less complex injuries. The potential for health care savings by widespread adoption of a VPN is significant.
Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Coagulopathy following trauma is associated with poor outcomes. Traumatic brain injury has been associated with coagulopathy out of proportion to other body regions. We hypothesized that injury severity and shock determine coagulopathy independent of body region injured.
Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Introduction
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor that may spread via lymphatics and can therefore be staged with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). MCC is radio- and chemo-sensitive, although the role of adjuvant therapy is still unclear. We examined the impact of different treatments on the outcome of MCC.
We performed a retrospective review of state cancer registry data from California, Oregon and Washington of patients diagnosed with primary skin MCC between 1988 and 2012 (n = 4,038). Data was analyzed using Cox-regression and Kaplan-Meier methods to examine disease-specific survival.
Patients with positive nodes or no documented nodal evaluation had worse survival compared to node negative patients. No nodal evaluation had decreased survival compared to lymph node evaluation by SLNB. Completion lymph node dissection conferred improved survival in patients with a positive SLNB. In clinically node negative patients who had a positive SLNB, radiation and chemotherapy did not affect survival.
Lymph node evaluation is an important component to MCC treatment. The role of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy needs further evaluation.
Article · Jul 2014 · The American Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Strictureplasty is an alternative to resection for treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) strictures. It preserves bowel length, and specialized centers report favorable outcomes. Strictureplasty rates, however, are thought to be low, and it was recently removed from required cases for colon and rectal surgery residents. We examined operative characteristics, and trends in its use using a large national database.
We examined the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database from 2005 to 2012, identifying patients with CD who underwent strictureplasty. We identified patient characteristics, outcome variables, and trends in utilization of strictureplasty.
A total of 9172 patients underwent surgery for CD. Two hundred fifty-six (2.8 %) underwent strictureplasty. Median preoperative albumin was 3.6. Preoperative steroid use and weight loss rates were 39 and 8 %. Rates of wound infection and organ space infection were 11 and 4 %. Rate of reoperation was 6 %. Outcomes did not change significantly over time (all p = NS). The proportion of CD operations that included a strictureplasty decreased from 5.1 to 1.7 % (OR 0.902 with each additional year, 95 % CI (0.852, 0.960), p < 0.001).
Strictureplasty as treatment for CD is decreasing in the ACS-NSQIP database. Infectious complications and reoperation rates following strictureplasty are low and have not changed over time.
Full-text available · Article · May 2014 · Gastroenterology