B. W. Stappers

The University of Manchester, Manchester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (369)1548.03 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, millisecond-duration radio signals originating in distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called fast radio bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity, which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. Every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, but none before now have had a redshift measurement, because of the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we report the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting ∼6 days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be z = 0.492 ± 0.008. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium of Ω IGM = 4.9 ± 1.3 per cent, in agreement with the expectation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and including all of the so-called 'missing baryons'. The ∼6-day radio transient is largely consistent with the radio afterglow of a short γ-ray burst, and its existence and timescale do not support progenitor models such as giant pulses from pulsars, and supernovae. This contrasts with the interpretation of another recently discovered fast radio burst, suggesting that there are at least two classes of bursts.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Nature
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyse the stochastic properties of the 49 pulsars that comprise the first International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) data release. We use Bayesian methodology, performing model selection to determine the optimal description of the stochastic signals present in each pulsar. In addition to spin-noise and dispersion-measure (DM) variations, these models can include timing noise unique to a single observing system, or frequency band. We show the improved radio-frequency coverage and presence of overlapping data from different observing systems in the IPTA data set enables us to separate both system and band-dependent effects with much greater efficacy than in the individual PTA data sets. For example, we show that PSR J1643−1224 has, in addition to DM variations, significant band-dependent noise that is coherent between PTAs which we interpret as coming from time-variable scattering or refraction in the ionised interstellar medium. Failing to model these different contributions appropriately can dramatically alter the astrophysical interpretation of the stochastic signals observed in the residuals. In some cases, the spectral exponent of the spin noise signal can vary from 1.6 to 4 depending upon the model, which has direct implications for the long-term sensitivity of the pulsar to a stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background. By using a more appropriate model, however, we can greatly improve a pulsar's sensitivity to GWs. For example, including system and band-dependent signals in the PSR J0437−4715 data set improves the upper limit on a fiducial GW background by ∼60% compared to a model that includes DM variations and spin-noise only.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly stable spin of neutron stars can be exploited for a variety of (astro-)physical investigations. In particular arrays of pulsars with rotational periods of the order of milliseconds can be used to detect correlated signals such as those caused by gravitational waves. Three such “Pulsar Timing Arrays” (PTAs) have been set up around the world over the past decades and collectively form the “International” PTA (IPTA). In this paper, we describe the first joint analysis of the data from the three regional PTAs, i.e. of the first IPTA data set. We describe the available PTA data, the approach presently followed for its combination and suggest improvements for future PTA research. Particular attention is paid to subtle details (such as underestimation of measurement uncertainty and long-period noise) that have often been ignored but which become important in this unprecedentedly large and inhomogeneous data set. We identify and describe in detail several factors that complicate IPTA research and provide recommendations for future pulsar timing efforts. The first IPTA data release presented here (and available online) is used to demonstrate the IPTA's potential of improving upon gravitational-wave limits placed by individual PTAs by a factor of ∼2 and provides a 2 − σ limit on the dimensionless amplitude of a stochastic GWB of 1.7 × 10−15 at a frequency of 1 yr−1. This is 1.7 times less constraining than the limit placed by (Shannon et al. 2015), due mostly to the more recent, high-quality data they used.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the results of a four-month campaign searching for low-frequency radio transients near the North Celestial Pole with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), as part of the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). The data were recorded between 2011 December and 2012 April and comprised 2149 11-min snapshots, each covering 175 deg2. We have found one convincing candidate astrophysical transient, with a duration of a few minutes and a flux density at 60 MHz of 15–25 Jy. The transient does not repeat and has no obvious optical or high-energy counterpart, as a result of which its nature is unclear. The detection of this event implies a transient rate at 60 MHz of $3.9^{+14.7}_{-3.7}\times 10^{-4}$ d−1 deg−2, and a transient surface density of 1.5 × 10−5 deg−2, at a 7.9-Jy limiting flux density and ∼10-min time-scale. The campaign data were also searched for transients at a range of other time-scales, from 0.5 to 297 min, which allowed us to place a range of limits on transient rates at 60 MHz as a function of observation duration.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The detection of five new fast radio bursts (FRBs) found in the High Time Resolution Universe high latitude survey is presented. The rate implied is 6$^{+4}_{-3}\times~10^3$ (95%) FRBs sky$^{-1}$ day$^{-1}$ above a fluence of between 0.13 and 5.9 Jy ms for FRBs between 0.128 and 262 ms in duration. One of these FRBs has a clear two-component profile, each component is similar to the known population of single component FRBs and are separated by 2.4(4) ms. All the FRB components appear to be unresolved following deconvolution with a scattering tail and accounting for intra-channel smearing. The two-component FRB also has the highest dispersion measure (1629 pc cm$^{-3}$) of any FRB to-date. Many of the proposed models to explain FRBs use a single high energy event involving compact objects (such as neutron star mergers) and therefore cannot easily explain a two-component FRB. Models that are based on extreme versions of flaring, pulsing or orbital events however could produce multiple component profiles. The compatibility of these models and the FRB rate implied by these detections is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Large European Array for Pulsars (LEAP) is an experiment that harvests the collective power of Europe's largest radio telescopes in order to increase the sensitivity of high-precision pulsar timing. As part of the ongoing effort of the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA), LEAP aims to go beyond the sensitivity threshold needed to deliver the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The five telescopes presently included in LEAP are: the Effelsberg telescope, the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank, the Nan\c cay radio telescope, the Sardinia Radio Telescope and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Dual polarization, Nyquist-sampled time-series of the incoming radio waves are recorded and processed offline to form the coherent sum, resulting in a tied-array telescope with an effective aperture equivalent to a 195-m diameter circular dish. All observations are performed using a bandwidth of 128 MHz centered at a frequency of 1396 MHz. In this paper, we present the design of the LEAP experiment, the instrumentation, the storage and transfer of data, and the processing hardware and software. In particular, we present the software pipeline that was designed to process the Nyquist-sampled time-series, measure the phase and time delays between each individual telescope and a reference telescope and apply these delays to form the tied-array coherent addition. The pipeline includes polarization calibration and interference mitigation. We also present the first results from LEAP and demonstrate the resulting increase in sensitivity, which leads to an improvement in the pulse arrival times.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present first results from a LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars. The census includes almost all such pulsars known (194 sources) at declinations Dec$> 8^\circ$ and Galactic latitudes |Gb|$> 3^\circ$, regardless of their expected flux densities and scattering times. Each pulsar was observed contiguously in the frequency range from 110$-$188 MHz and for $\geq 20$ minutes, recording full-Stokes data. We present the dispersion measures, flux densities, and calibrated total intensity profiles for the 158 pulsars detected in the sample. The median uncertainty in census dispersion measures ($1.5 \times 10^{-4}$ pc cm$^{-3}$) is ten times smaller, on average, than in the ATNF pulsar catalogue. We combined census flux densities with those in the literature and fitted the resulting broadband spectra with single or broken power-law functions. For 48 census pulsars such fits are being published for the first time. Typically, the choice between single and broken power-laws, as well as the location of the spectral break, were highly influenced by the spectral coverage of the available flux density measurements. In particular, the inclusion of measurements below 100 MHz appears essential for investigating the low-frequency turnover in the spectra for most of the census pulsars. For several pulsars, we compared the spectral indices from different works and found the typical spread of values to be within 0.5$-$1.5, suggesting a prevailing underestimation of spectral index errors in the literature. The census observations yielded some unexpected individual source results, as we describe in the paper. Lastly, we will provide this unique sample of wide-band, low-frequency pulse profiles via the European Pulsar Network Database.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on photometric and spectroscopic observations of white dwarf companions to four binary radio millisecond pulsars, leading to the discovery of companions to PSRs J0614−3329, J1231−1411 and J2017+0603. We place limits on the brightness of the companion to PSR J0613−0200. Optical spectroscopy of the companion to PSR J0614−3329 identifies it as a DA-type white dwarf with a temperature of Teff = 6460 ± 80 K, a surface gravity log g = 7.0 ± 0.2 cgs and a mass of MWD = 0.24 ± 0.04 M⊙. We find that the distance to PSR J0614−3329 is smaller than previously estimated, removing the need for the pulsar to have an unrealistically high γ-ray efficiency. Comparing the photometry with predictions from white dwarf cooling models allows us to estimate temperatures and cooling ages of the companions to PSRs J0613−0200, J1231−1411 and J2017+0603. We find that the white dwarfs in these systems are cool Teff < 4000 K and old ≳ 5 Gyr. Thin hydrogen envelopes are required for these white dwarfs to cool to the observed temperatures, and we suggest that besides hydrogen shell flashes, irradiation driven mass loss by the pulsar may have been important.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of Pulsar Timing Arrays to gravitational waves depends critically on the noise present in the individual pulsar timing data. Noise may be either intrinsic or extrinsic to the pulsar. Intrinsic sources of noise might come from rotational instabilities, for example. Extrinsic sources of noise include contributions from physical processes which are not sufficiently well modelled, for example, dispersion and scattering effects, analysis errors and instrumental instabilities. We present the results from a noise analysis for 42 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) observed with the European Pulsar Timing Array. For characterising the low-frequency, stochastic and achromatic noise component, or "timing noise", we employ two methods, based on Bayesian and frequentist statistics. For 25 MSPs, we achieve statistically significant measurements of their timing noise parameters and find that the two methods give consistent results. For the remaining 17 MSPs, we place upper limits on the timing noise amplitude at the 95% confidence level. We additionally place an upper limit on the contribution to the measured timing noise from errors in the reference terrestrial time standards (below 10%) and find evidence for a noise component which is present only in the data of one of the four used telescopes. Finally, we estimate that the timing noise of individual pulsars reduces the sensitivity of this data set to an isotropic, stochastic GW background by a factor of >12.5 and by a factor of >3.4 for continuous GWs from resolvable, inspiralling supermassive black-hole binaries with circular orbits.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the spin-down changes of PSR B1859$+$07 over a period of more than 28 years of radio observation. We identify that the time derivative of the rotational frequency ($\nu$) varies quasi-periodically with a period of $\sim$350 days, switching mainly between two spin-down states. The profile shape of the pulsar is correlated with the $\dot \nu$ variation, producing two slightly different profile shapes corresponding to high- and low-$\dot \nu$ states. In addition to these two normal emission states, we confirm the occasional flare-state of the pulsar, in which the emission appears early in spin phase compared to that of the common normal emission. The profile of the flare-state is significantly different from that of the two normal emission states. The correlation analysis further shows that the flare-state is not directly linked with the $\dot \nu$ changes. With a simple emission beam model, we estimate the emission altitude of the normal emission to be 240~km, and explain the origin of the flare-state as an emission height variation from the leading edge of the beam. We also argue that the emission of these states can be explained with a partially active beam model. In this scenario, the trailing portion of the radio beam is usually active and the normal emission is produced. The flare-state occurs when the leading edge of the beam becomes active while the trailing part is being blocked. This model estimates a fixed emission altitude of 360~km. However, the cause of the flare-state (i.e. the emission height variation, or the time-dependent activity across the radio beam) is not easily explained.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are conducting a survey for pulsars and transients using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The GMRT High Resolution Southern Sky (GHRSS) survey is an off-Galactic-plane (|b|>5) survey in the declination range -40 deg to -54 deg at 322 MHz. With the high time (up to 30.72 micro-sec) and frequency (up to 0.016275 MHz) resolution observing modes, the 5-sigma detection limit is 0.5 mJy for a 2 ms pulsar with 10% duty cycle at 322 MHz. Total GHRSS sky coverage of 2866 square-deg, will result from 1953 pointings, each covering 1.8 square-deg. The 10-sigma detection limit for a 5 ms transient burst is 1.6 Jy for the GHRSS survey. In addition, the GHRSS survey can reveal transient events like the rotating radio transients or the fast radio bursts. With 35% of the survey completed (i.e. 1000 square-deg), we report the discovery of 10 pulsars, one of which is a millisecond pulsar (MSP), this is one of the highest pulsar per square degree discovery rate for any off-Galactic plane survey. We re-detected 23 known in-beam pulsars. Utilising the imaging capability of the GMRT we also localised four of the GHRSS pulsars (including the MSP) in the gated image plane within +/- 10 arcsec. We demonstrated rapid convergence in pulsar timing with a more precise position that is possible with single dish discoveries. We also exhibited that we can localise the brightest transient sources with simultaneously obtained lower time resolution imaging data, demonstrating a technique that may have application in the SKA.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LOFAR offers the unique capability of observing pulsars across the 10-240 MHz frequency range with a fractional bandwidth of roughly 50%. This spectral range is well-suited for studying the frequency evolution of pulse profile morphology caused by both intrinsic and extrinsic effects: such as changing emission altitude in the pulsar magnetosphere or scatter broadening by the interstellar medium, respectively. The magnitude of most of these effects increases rapidly towards low frequencies. LOFAR can thus address a number of open questions about the nature of radio pulsar emission and its propagation through the interstellar medium. We present the average pulse profiles of 100 pulsars observed in the two LOFAR frequency bands: High Band (120-167 MHz, 100 profiles) and Low Band (15-62 MHz, 26 profiles). We compare them with Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and Lovell Telescope observations at higher frequencies (350 and1400 MHz) in order to study the profile evolution. The profiles are aligned in absolute phase by folding with a new set of timing solutions from the Lovell Telescope, which we present along with precise dispersion measures obtained with LOFAR. We find that the profile evolution with decreasing radio frequency does not follow a specific trend but, depending on the geometry of the pulsar, new components can enter into, or be hidden from, view. Nonetheless, in general our observations confirm the widening of pulsar profiles at low frequencies, as expected from radius-to-frequency mapping or birefringence theories. We offer this catalog of low-frequency pulsar profiles in a user friendly way via the EPN Database of Pulsar Profiles (http://www.epta.eu.org/epndb/).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dense, continuous pulsar timing observations over a 24-hr period provide a method for probing intermediate gravitational wave (GW) frequencies from 10 microhertz to 20 millihertz. The European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA), the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav), the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), and the combined International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) all use millisecond pulsar observations to detect or constrain GWs typically at nanohertz frequencies. In the case of the IPTA's nine-telescope 24-Hour Global Campaign on millisecond pulsar J1713+0747, GW limits in the intermediate frequency regime can be produced. The negligible change in dispersion measure during the observation minimizes red noise in the timing residuals, constraining any contributions from GWs due to individual sources. At 10$^{-5}$Hz, the 95% upper limit on strain is 10$^{-11}$ for GW sources in the pulsar's direction.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky LOFAR imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multifrequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the detected sources over more than two octaves (from 30 to 160 MHz). The broadband frequency coverage, together with the fast survey speed generated by LOFAR's multibeaming capabilities, make MSSS the first survey of the sort anticipated to be carried out with the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Two of the sixteen frequency bands included in the survey were chosen to exactly overlap the frequency coverage of large-area Very Large Array (VLA) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) surveys at 74 MHz and 151 MHz respectively. The survey performance is illustrated within the "MSSS Verification Field" (MVF), a region of 100 square degrees centered at J2000 (RA,Dec)=(15h,69deg). The MSSS results from the MVF are compared with previous radio survey catalogs. We assess the flux and astrometric uncertainties in the catalog, as well as the completeness and reliability considering our source finding strategy. We determine the 90% completeness levels within the MVF to be 100 mJy at 135 MHz with 108" resolution, and 550 mJy at 50 MHz with 166" resolution. Images and catalogs for the full survey, expected to contain 150,000-200,000 sources, will be released to a public web server. We outline the plans for the ongoing production of the final survey products, and the ultimate public release of images and source catalogs.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several theories exist to explain the source of the bright, millisecond duration pulses known as fast radio bursts (FRBs). If the progenitors of FRBs are non-cataclysmic, such as giant pulses from pulsars, pulsar–planet binaries, or magnetar flares, FRB emission may be seen to repeat. We have undertaken a survey of the fields of eight known FRBs from the High Time Resolution Universe survey to search for repeating pulses. Although no repeat pulses were detected the survey yielded the detection of a new FRB, described in Petroff et al. (2015a). From our observations we rule out periodic repeating sources with periods P ≤ 8.6 h and rule out sources with periods 8.6 < P < 21 h at the 90 per cent confidence level. At P ≥ 21 h our limits fall off as ∼1/P. Dedicated and persistent observations of FRB source fields are needed to rule out repetition on longer time-scales, a task well-suited to next generation wide-field transient detectors.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the detection of 48 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) out of 75 observed thus far using the LOFAR in the frequency range 110-188 MHz. We have also detected three MSPs out of nine observed in the frequency range 38-77 MHz. This is the largest sample of MSPs ever observed at these low frequencies, and half of the detected MSPs were observed for the first time at frequencies below 200 MHz. We present the average pulse profiles of the detected MSPs, their effective pulse widths and flux densities, and compare these with higher observing frequencies. The LOFAR pulse profiles will be publicly available via the EPN Database of Pulsar Profiles. We also present average values of dispersion measures (DM) and discuss DM and profile variations. About 35% of the MSPs show strong narrow profiles, another 25% exhibit scattered profiles, and the rest are only weakly detected. A qualitative comparison of the LOFAR MSP profiles with those at higher radio frequencies shows constant separation between profile components. Similarly, the profile widths are consistent with those observed at higher frequencies, unless scattering dominates at the lowest frequencies. This is very different from what is observed for normal pulsars and suggests a compact emission region in the MSP magnetosphere. The amplitude ratio of the profile components, on the other hand, can dramatically change towards low frequencies, often with the trailing component becoming dominant. As demonstrated by Dyks et al. (2010) this can be caused by aberration and retardation. This data set enables high-precision studies of pulse profile evolution with frequency, dispersion, Faraday rotation, and scattering in the interstellar medium. Characterizing and correcting these systematic effects may improve pulsar-timing precision at higher observing frequencies, where pulsar timing array projects aim to directly detect gravitational waves.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paucity of observed supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) may imply that the gravitational wave background (GWB) from this population is anisotropic, rendering existing analyses sub-optimal. We present the first constraints on the angular distribution of a nanohertz stochastic GWB from circular, inspiral-driven SMBHBs using the $2015$ European Pulsar Timing Array data [Desvignes et al. (in prep.)]. Our analysis of the GWB in the $\sim 2 - 90$ nHz band shows consistency with isotropy, with the strain amplitude in $l>0$ spherical harmonic multipoles $\lesssim 40\%$ of the monopole value. We expect that these more general techniques will become standard tools to probe the angular distribution of source populations.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Physical Review Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond radio signals that exhibit dispersion larger than what the Galactic electron density can account for. We have conducted a 1446 h survey for FRBs at 145 MHz, covering a total of 4193 deg2 on the sky. We used the UK station of the low frequency array (LOFAR) radio telescope – the Rawlings Array – accompanied for a majority of the time by the LOFAR station at Nançay, observing the same fields at the same frequency. Our real-time search backend, Advanced Radio Transient Event Monitor and Identification System – artemis, utilizes graphics processing units to search for pulses with dispersion measures up to 320 cm−3 pc. Previous derived FRB rates from surveys around 1.4 GHz, and favoured FRB interpretations, motivated this survey, despite all previous detections occurring at higher dispersion measures. We detected no new FRBs above a signal-to-noise threshold of 10, leading to the most stringent upper limit yet on the FRB event rate at these frequencies: 29 sky−1 d−1 for five ms-duration pulses above 62 Jy. The non-detection could be due to scatter-broadening, limitations on the volume and time searched, or the shape of FRB flux density spectra. Assuming the latter and that FRBs are standard candles, the non-detection is compatible with the published FRB sky rate, if their spectra follow a power law with frequency (∝ να), with α ≳ +0.1, demonstrating a marked difference from pulsar spectra. Our results suggest that surveys at higher frequencies, including the low frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array, will have better chances to detect, estimate rates and understand the origin and properties of FRBs.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,548.03 Total Impact Points


  • 2010-2015
    • The University of Manchester
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
    • Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute)
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2010-2014
    • Swinburne University of Technology
      • Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2012-2013
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1999-2012
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Physics
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1995-2009
    • Australian National University
      • Mount Stromlo Observatory
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2007
    • University of Melbourne
      • School of Physics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • University of Groningen
      • Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI)
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Physics
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2003-2006
    • Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Dwingelo, Drenthe, Netherlands
  • 2004
    • National University of Ireland, Galway
      Gaillimh, Connaught, Ireland
  • 2002
    • Utrecht University
      • Astronomical Institute
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2000
    • ANU College
      Slacks Creek, Queensland, Australia