[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1.5 Gbp/2C genome of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) has been sequenced. A strategy was established for dealing with the challenges imposed by the sequencing of such a large, complex and highly heterozygous genome by a whole-genome shotgun (WGS) approach, without the use of costly and time-consuming methods, such as fosmid or BAC clone-based hierarchical sequencing methods. The sequencing strategy combined short and long reads. Over 49 million reads provided by Roche 454 GS-FLX technology were assembled into contigs and combined with shorter Illumina sequence reads from paired-end and mate-pair libraries of different insert sizes, to build scaffolds. Errors were corrected and gaps filled with Illumina paired-end reads and contaminants detected, resulting in a total of 17,910 scaffolds (> 2 kb) corresponding to 1.34 Gb. Fifty percent of the assembly was accounted for by 1,468 scaffolds (N50 of 260 kb). Initial comparison with the phylogenetically related Prunus persica gene model indicated that genes for 84.6% of the proteins present in peach (mean protein coverage of 90.5%) were present in our assembly. The second and third steps in this project are genome annotation and the assignment of scaffolds to the oak genetic linkage map. In accordance with the Bermuda and Fort Lauderdale agreements and the more recent Toronto Statement, the oak genome data have been released into public sequence repositories in advance of publication. In this presubmission paper, the oak genome consortium describes its principal lines of work and future directions for analyses of the nature, function and evolution of the oak genome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Molecular Ecology Resources
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred
an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges.
Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These
processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the context of the sequencing project for the grapevine reference genome sequence, two genetic maps were completed with SSR markers in order to align the sequence contigs of the Vv12X.0 version of the genome assembly along the chromosomes. For this purpose, two full-sib families, 'Syrah' × 'Grenache' (S×G, 192 individuals) and 'Chardonnay' × 'Bianca' (C×B, 358 individuals) were respectively scored with 223 and 401 SSR. These two maps, supplemented with former data, allowed anchoring over 90% of the reference genome sequence. SNP markers were then defined from 37 anchored but not oriented and 44 not oriented and not anchored scaffolds of sequence. So far 110 new markers have been mapped, allowing anchoring 31 not yet anchored scaffolds (∼9 Mb) and orienting 35 scaffolds (∼15.5 Mb). In parallel, the recombination rate along the chromosomes is under study, in relation with sequence features (gene/repeat density, %GC, distance to the centromere/ telomere). Finally, we are developing a cytogenetic map in Vitis vinifera using BACFISH. All these approaches will be combined to study the structure of the Vitis vinifera genome, including the factors affecting recombination rates and the dynamics of the genome evolution.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Acta horticulturae
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proanthocyanidins (PAs), or condensed tannins, are flavonoid polymers, widespread throughout the plant kingdom, which provide protection against herbivores while conferring organoleptic and nutritive values to plant-derived foods, such as wine. However, the genetic basis of qualitative and quantitative PA composition variation is still poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic architecture of the complex grape PA composition, we first carried out quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on a 191-individual pseudo-F1 progeny. Three categories of PA variables were assessed: total content, percentages of constitutive subunits and composite ratio variables. For nine functional candidate genes, among which eight co-located with QTLs, we performed association analyses using a diversity panel of 141 grapevine cultivars in order to identify causal SNPs.
Multiple QTL analysis revealed a total of 103 and 43 QTLs, respectively for seed and skin PA variables. Loci were mainly of additive effect while some loci were primarily of dominant effect. Results also showed a large involvement of pairwise epistatic interactions in shaping PA composition. QTLs for PA variables in skin and seeds differed in number, position, involvement of epistatic interaction and allelic effect, thus revealing different genetic determinisms for grape PA composition in seeds and skin. Association results were consistent with QTL analyses in most cases: four out of nine tested candidate genes (VvLAR1, VvMYBPA2, VvCHI1, VvMYBPA1) showed at least one significant association with PA variables, especially VvLAR1 revealed as of great interest for further functional investigation. Some SNP-phenotype associations were observed only in the diversity panel.
This study presents the first QTL analysis on grape berry PA composition with a comparison between skin and seeds, together with an association study. Our results suggest a complex genetic control for PA traits and different genetic architectures for grape PA composition between berry skin and seeds. This work also uncovers novel genomic regions for further investigation in order to increase our knowledge of the genetic basis of PA composition.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · BMC Plant Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we developed a nuclear DNA extraction protocol for Next Generation Sequencers (NGS).
We applied this extraction method to grapevines and coffee trees, which are known to contain many secondary metabolites. The nuclear DNA obtained was sequenced by the 454/GS-FLX method. We obtained excellent results, with less than 4% cytoplasmic DNA, in a similar way to a BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome)-building protocol. We also compared our protocol with a classic DNA extraction using specific cytoplasmic DNA amplification. Results showed a lower cytoplasmic DNA contamination with the new protocol.
The method presented here is fast and economical. The DNA obtained is of high quality, with a low level of cytoplasmic DNA contamination, and very efficient for the construction of sequencing libraries.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · American Journal of Botany
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlike in tomato, little is known about the genetic and molecular control of fleshy fruit development of perennial fruit trees like grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Here we present the study of the sequence polymorphism in a 1 Mb grapevine genome region at the top of chromosome 18 carrying the fleshless berry mutation (flb) in order, first to identify SNP markers closely linked to the gene and second to search for possible signatures of domestication.
In total, 62 regions (17 SSR, 3 SNP, 1 CAPS and 41 re-sequenced gene fragments) were scanned for polymorphism along a 3.4 Mb interval (85,127-3,506,060 bp) at the top of the chromosome 18, in both V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay and a genotype carrying the flb mutation, V. vinifera cv. Ugni Blanc mutant. A nearly complete homozygosity in Ugni Blanc (wild and mutant forms) and an expected high level of heterozygosity in Chardonnay were revealed. Experiments using qPCR and BAC FISH confirmed the observed homozygosity. Under the assumption that flb could be one of the genes involved into the domestication syndrome of grapevine, we sequenced 69 gene fragments, spread over the flb region, representing 48,874 bp in a highly diverse set of cultivated and wild V. vinifera genotypes, to identify possible signatures of domestication in the cultivated V. vinifera compartment. We identified eight gene fragments presenting a significant deviation from neutrality of the Tajima's D parameter in the cultivated pool. One of these also showed higher nucleotide diversity in the wild compartments than in the cultivated compartments. In addition, SNPs significantly associated to berry weight variation were identified in the flb region.
We observed the occurrence of a large homozygous region in a non-repetitive region of the grapevine otherwise highly-heterozygous genome and propose a hypothesis for its formation. We demonstrated the feasibility to apply BAC FISH on the very small grapevine chromosomes and provided a specific probe for the identification of chromosome 18 on a cytogenetic map. We evidenced genes showing putative signatures of selection and SNPs significantly associated with berry weight variation in the flb region. In addition, we provided to the community 554 SNPs at the top of chromosome 18 for the development of a genotyping chip for future fine mapping of the flb gene in a F2 population when available.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · BMC Plant Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutral invertases (NIs, EC 188.8.131.52) cleave sucrose to glucose and fructose. They are encoded by a small gene family of 9 members in the Arabidopsis genome, 8 in rice, 16 in poplar and 9 in Vitis vinifera (L.). The grapevine NIs were identified in the 8.4X genome assembly of the quasi-homozygous line PN40024. In addition, alleles of three NIs were sequenced in the heterozygous cultivar ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’. Analyses of sequence variation between alleles, homoeologous and paralogous copies in grapevine and their orthologues in Arabidopsis, poplar and rice are provided. In grapevine, NIs were classified into four α NIs and five β NIs and subsequently grouped into hierarchical clades using a combination of evidence including amino acid identity, exon/intron structure, rate of synonymous substitutions (K
s) and chromosomal distribution. Estimation of K
s proved the ancient origin of all NIs and the lack of expansion by gene duplication past the event of polyploidisation. We then focused on transcription analysis of five NIs for which evidence of expression was available from expressed sequence tag databases. Among these, four NIs consisted of pairs of homoeologous copies, each pair lying on a pair of chromosomes duplicated by polyploidy. Unequal expression of homoeologous genes was observed by quantitative RT-PCR in leaf, flower, seed and root tissues. Since NIs might play significant roles in fruit and wine quality, NIs expression was monitored in flesh and skin of ‘Merlot’ berries and shown in parallel with the suite of changes that accompany fruit ripening, including glucose and fructose accumulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole-genome physical maps facilitate genome sequencing, sequence assembly, mapping of candidate genes, and the design of targeted genetic markers. An automated protocol was used to construct a Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map. The quality of the result was addressed with regard to the effect of high heterozygosity on the accuracy of contig assembly. Its usefulness for the genome-wide mapping of genes for disease resistance, which is an important trait for grapevine, was then assessed.
The physical map included 29,727 BAC clones assembled into 1,770 contigs, spanning 715,684 kbp, and corresponding to 1.5-fold the genome size. Map inflation was due to high heterozygosity, which caused either the separation of allelic BACs in two different contigs, or local mis-assembly in contigs containing BACs from the two haplotypes. Genetic markers anchored 395 contigs or 255,476 kbp to chromosomes. The fully automated assembly and anchorage procedures were validated by BAC-by-BAC blast of the end sequences against the grape genome sequence, unveiling 7.3% of chimerical contigs. The distribution across the physical map of candidate genes for non-host and host resistance, and for defence signalling pathways was then studied. NBS-LRR and RLK genes for host resistance were found in 424 contigs, 133 of them (32%) were assigned to chromosomes, on which they are mostly organised in clusters. Non-host and defence signalling genes were found in 99 contigs dispersed without a discernable pattern across the genome.
Despite some limitations that interfere with the correct assembly of heterozygous clones into contigs, the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map is a useful and reliable intermediary step between a genetic map and the genome sequence. This tool was successfully exploited for a quick mapping of complex families of genes, and it strengthened previous clues of co-localisation of major NBS-LRR clusters and disease resistance loci in grapevine.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · BMC Plant Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Association genetic methods, based on the exploitation of linkage disequilibrium (LD), are valuable tools for the dissection of complex traits. In many plant species, they indeed have shown their usefulness for the analysis of the genetic determinism of quantitative traits. Such strategies are of even higher interest for perennial species, where their use allows to skip the creation of new genetic material, which is time consuming. The publication of the first high quality draft of the grapevine genome sequence opens the prospect of an efficient exploitation of the natural genetic diversity through association genetics. Such studies will become of high relevance for the grape community. The foundation of association genetic studies is the characterization of genetic resources for the definition of highly polymorphic core-collections (Le Cunff et al, submitted). Several studies aiming at the characterization of the structure of the genetic variation along the genome and in the grapevine genetic resources are also necessary to determine the extent of usefulness of such methods in the species of interest. The talk will illustrate different strategies for the exploitation of LD in grapevine and will focus on the importance of the sample definition, in particular regarding its structure, and on the importance of the LD evaluation on the results of association studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute an abundant source of DNA polymorphisms, which have been successfully used
to identify loci that are associated with a particular phenotype. Additionally, such markers could be efficiently used in
combination with doubled haploid technology to improve the efficiency of breeding programmes. Information on such markers
in plants is still scarce. For bread wheat, SNP data are restricted to a few genes. This can be explained by the hexaploidy
of Triticum aestivum which makes SNP discovery difficult. We developed a novel method for SNP discovery in bread wheat. The strategy is based
on the development of highly specific PCR-primers, which were used to sequence 27 lines. SNPs were discovered from sequence
alignment data. Some SNPs were identified by mass spectrometry in a collection of 113 lines, which were both evaluated for
agronomic traits and genotyped at 42 neutral microsatellite loci. Traits investigated include: protein content, the quantity
of high-molecular-weight glutenins and that of the GluBx subunit. The 42 markers were used to infer population structure,
which was included in linear models for association studies. The results of this preliminary study showed 89 SNPs in approximately
20kbp, i.e., one SNP every 223bp on average. Six SNPs were genotyped: three were located along the sequence of Glu-B1-1, while three non-synonymous SNPs were located along the sequence of the B homoeologous gene coding for SPA (Storage Protein
Activator). The SNPs from Glu-B1-1 had a significant effect on the studied variables, whereas those of SPA had no effect. Such results might indicate that some haplotypes for Glu-B1-1 are linked to higher protein content, through an increased amount of high-molecular-weight glutenins, especially the GluBx
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The analysis of the first plant genomes provided unexpected evidence for genome duplication events in species that had previously been considered as true diploids on the basis of their genetics. These polyploidization events may have had important consequences in plant evolution, in particular for species radiation and adaptation and for the modulation of functional capacities. Here we report a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) obtained from a highly homozygous genotype. The draft sequence of the grapevine genome is the fourth one produced so far for flowering plants, the second for a woody species and the first for a fruit crop (cultivated for both fruit and beverage). Grapevine was selected because of its important place in the cultural heritage of humanity beginning during the Neolithic period. Several large expansions of gene families with roles in aromatic features are observed. The grapevine genome has not undergone recent genome duplication, thus enabling the discovery of ancestral traits and features of the genetic organization of flowering plants. This analysis reveals the contribution of three ancestral genomes to the grapevine haploid content. This ancestral arrangement is common to many dicotyledonous plants but is absent from the genome of rice, which is a monocotyledon. Furthermore, we explain the chronology of previously described whole-genome duplication events in the evolution of flowering plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rop/Rac GTPases are plant-specific signalling proteins with multiple roles, some of which have implications in plant development and in hormone signal transduction. Using expressed sequence tag (EST) and gene database analyses, members of the Rop family were characterized for the first time in a perennial species (Vitis vinifera). The grapevine genome was found to contain seven expressed VvRops. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that VvRops could be distributed into four groups, as described in the literature for model plants. Genetic mapping was successfully performed for five VvRops, which were localized on independent linkage groups. Conserved and divergent regions were identified on the protein sequences. The results of VvRop expression obtained by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses indicated that all the organs investigated displayed VvRop expression, however with different patterns. Whereas no total organ specificity for VvRop expression could be evidenced, VvRop9 displayed high expression in developing berries only. During berry development, the transcript profile was generally similar for all the VvRops, i.e. displaying a peak early in the herbaceous phase followed by a decline towards veraison and thereafter. Western blotting gave a similar expression profile for VvRop proteins. Response to growth regulators was generally specific to each VvRop. The potential involvement of specific VvRops in grapevine development is discussed.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Experimental Botany
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hexaploid bread wheat is still scarce. The goal of this study was to detect SNPs in wheat and examine their frequency. Twenty-six bread wheat lines from different origins worldwide were used. Specific PCR-products were obtained from 21 genes and directly sequenced. SNPs were discovered from the alignment of these sequences. The overall sequence polymorphism observed in this sample appears to be low; 64 single-base polymorphisms were detected in approximately 21.5 kb (i.e., 1 SNP every 335 bp). The level of polymorphism is highly variable among the different genes studied. Fifty percent of the genes studied contained no sequence polymorphism, whereas most SNPs detected were located in only 2 genes. As expected, taking into account a synthetic line created with a wild Triticum tauschii parent increases the level of polymorphism (101 SNPs; 1 SNP every 212 bp). The detected SNPs are available at http://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/GnpSNP">http://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/GnpSNP. Data on linkage disequilibrium (LD) are still preliminary. They showed a significant level of LD in the 2 most polymorphic genes. To conclude, the genome size of hexaploid wheat and its low level of polymorphism complicate SNP discovery in this species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crossover (CO) is a key process for the accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division. In most eukaryotes, meiotic recombination is not homogeneous along the chromosomes, suggesting a tight control of the location of recombination events. We genotyped 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the entire chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis thaliana on 702 F2 plants, representing 1404 meioses and allowing the detection of 1171 COs, to study CO localization in a higher plant. The genetic recombination rates varied along the chromosome from 0 cM/Mb near the centromere to 20 cM/Mb on the short arm next to the NOR region, with a chromosome average of 4.6 cM/Mb. Principal component analysis showed that CO rates negatively correlate with the G+C content (P = 3x10(-4)), in contrast to that reported in other eukaryotes. COs also significantly correlate with the density of single repeats and the CpG ratio, but not with genes, pseudogenes, transposable elements, or dispersed repeats. Chromosome 4 has, on average, 1.6 COs per meiosis, and these COs are subjected to interference. A detailed analysis of several regions having high CO rates revealed "hot spots" of meiotic recombination contained in small fragments of a few kilobases. Both the intensity and the density of these hot spots explain the variation of CO rates along the chromosome.