Apostolos Baltzopoulos

Nordregio, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden

Are you Apostolos Baltzopoulos?

Claim your profile

Publications (9)8.45 Total impact

  • A. Baltzopoulos · P. Braunerhjelm · I. Tikoudis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Based on unique data covering individuals, firms, industries and regions for the 1999–2005 period, we contribute with new knowledge concerning the impact of regional variables on spin-offs. Implementing a large number of controls, as well as different estimation techniques and robustness tests, we show that Jacobian externalities have a positive effect on spin-offs. Moreover, using an entropy measure to disentangle unrelated and related variety (RV), we conclude that the effect is confined to RV. These findings are likely to be associated with strong welfare effects: a standard deviation increase (decrease) in related (unrelated) variety increases spin-off propensity by approximately 25%. Other variables are shown to have economic effects of a similar magnitude but may have a different effect across sectors. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the impact of other determinants proposed in the literature (e.g., Marshallian externalities and scale effects) is too small to be detected.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Economic Geography
  • Source
    Apostolos Baltzopoulos · Pontus Braunerhjelm · Ioannis Tikoudis
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The extent and importance of spin-offs for industrial dynamics have been analysed in a number of previous studies, yet knowledge is surprisingly scarce about the determinants that trigger such entrepreneurial ventures. In the current analysis we use unique and detailed Swedish data to comprehensively explore how individual, firm, regional, and industry variables influence spin-offs during 1999-2005. In addition to the expected general positive impact of regional size and entrepreneurial culture, we find specific features for knowledge intensive manufacturing and service production on the propensity of employees to spin off a new venture. Moreover, we use an entropy measure to disentangle unrelated and related variety, and find that the former has a significantly negative impact while the latter a significantly positive effect on the propensity of the individual to start a spin-off.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
  • Source
    Apostolos Baltzopoulos · Anders Broström
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Baltzopoulos A. and Broström A. Attractors of entrepreneurial activity: universities, regions and alumni entrepreneurs, Regional Studies. This paper investigates how universities may affect regional entrepreneurship through the localization decisions of entrepreneurial alumni. Empirically, a comprehensive, individual-level data set from Sweden for the period 2003-2005 is employed. The results suggest that even when controlling for their spatial history, individuals have an increased propensity to set up in the region where they studied. This effect is found to substitute for both urbanization economies and localization economies as drivers of regional-level entrepreneurship. Thus, the present analysis provides evidence on how universities affect regional economic development that complements the strong focus on spin-off activities by university researchers in previous studies.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Regional Studies
  • Source
    Martin Andersson · Apostolos Baltzopoulos · Hans Lööf
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Why are similar workers paid differently? I review and compare two lines of research that have recently witnessed great progress in addressing “unexplained” wage inequality: (i) worker unobserved heterogeneity in, and sorting by, human capital; (ii) firms’ monopsony power in labor markets characterized by job search frictions. Both lines share a view of wage differentials as an equilibrium phenomenon. Despite their profound conceptual and technical differences, they remain natural competitors in this investigation. Unlike other hypotheses, they provide natural and unifying explanations for job and worker flows, unemployment duration and incidence, job-to-job quits, and the shape of the wage distribution.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Research Policy
  • Source
    Apostolos Baltzopoulos

    Preview · Article · Jan 2010
  • Source
    Apostolos Baltzopoulos
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The presence of universities in a region has been found to be an important factor for regional economic growth. In search for the specific explanations of this phenomenon, the connection between universities and locally based entrepreneurship has attracted considerable attention. We investigate how universities may affect regional entrepreneurship through the localisation decisions of entrepreneurial alumni. Empirically, we use data on the background of all 35 187 young individuals who founded start-up firms in Sweden in the period 2003-2005, a third of whom attended a university, to estimate whether the choice of where to pursue tertiary education studies had significant impact on the location of their firm. Our results suggest that even when controlling for the spatial history of the individual founder, individuals have an increased propensity to set up in the region where they studied. This effect is found to substitute for both urbanisation economies and localisation economies as drivers of regional-level entrepreneurship. Thus, our analysis provides evidence on how universities affect regional economic development that complements the strong focus on spin-off activities by university researchers in previous studies.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010
  • Source
    Apostolos Baltzopoulos
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Past research on the effects of agglomeration externalities on regional economic development is inconclusive and has focused mainly on employment growth and innovative output. This paper considers the link between agglomeration externalities and entrepreneurship. It does so by looking at the importance of Marshallian specialization and Jacobian diversity externalities for regional entrepreneurial output implementing an individual level data set that allows considering not only the effect on total number of start-ups but also on the propensity of the entrepreneur to start his new venture in an industry he has previous experience in. The results suggest that while Marshallian externalities have a positive, Jacobian externalities have a negative effect on regional entrepreneurial output. However, Jacobian externalities increase the probability that an entrepreneur will start a firm in an industry he has relevant experience in, especially in the case of knowledge intensive industries.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009
  • Source
    Apostolos Baltzopoulos
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study carries out a mutli-level analysis of entrepeneurship by considering the choice of the individual to leave his job position to become self-employed. A comprehensive data-set matching the individual to his place of work allows controlling for the characteristics of both the firm and the region he worked in before starting his own firm. The results suggest that small firms spawn entrepreneurs more frequently and individuals working in larger regions that are characterized by larger local markets, higher accumulation of knowledge resources and higher population density are more likely to transcend into entrepreneurship. I also find evidence that people are more likely to select the path of self-employment in the face of weak local competition.
    Preview · Article ·
  • Source
    Apostolos Baltzopoulos
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present paper asks how localisation (MAR) and diversity (Jacobs) externalities affect opportunity-based entrepreneurship across all industry sectors in Sweden's private economy in the period 1999-2005. MAR externalities are found to positively affect entrepreneurship across all sectors. Jacobs externalities, measured as related variety using an entropy measure, positively affect entrepreneurship in high-tech manufacturing and in knowledge intensive business services but have no significant effect on low-tech manufacturing and other services. The results suggest that previous studies that find no evidence of entrepreneurship benefiting from a diverse local market composition might be using too broad measures of variety.
    Preview · Article ·