[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The use of paclitaxel in cancer treatment is limited by paclitaxel-induced neutropenia. We investigated the ability of genetic variation in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters to predict hematological toxicity.
Using a discovery and validation approach, we identified a pharmacogenetic predictive model for neutropenia. For this, a drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters plus DNA chip was used, which contains 1936 SNPs in 225 metabolic enzyme and drug-transporter genes.
Our 10-SNP model in 279 paclitaxel-dosed patients reached 43% sensitivity in the validation cohort. Analysis in 3-weekly treated patients only resulted in improved sensitivity of 79%, with a specificity of 33%. None of our models reached statistical significance.
Our drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters-based SNP-models are currently of limited value for predicting paclitaxel-induced neutropenia in clinical practice. Original submitted 9 March 2015; Revision submitted 20 May 2015.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Taxanes are anti-cancer agents used to treat several types of solid tumors. They are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, displaying a large pharmacokinetic (PK) variability. In this study, we evaluated the endogenous CYP3A4 marker 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-OHC) as a potential individual taxane PK predictor.
Serum 4β-OHC and cholesterol levels were determined in 291 paclitaxel and 151 docetaxel-treated patients, and were subsequently correlated with taxane clearance.
In the patients treated with paclitaxel, no clinically relevant correlations between 4β-OHC or 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio and paclitaxel clearance were found. In the patients treated with docetaxel, 4β-OHC concentration was weakly correlated with docetaxel clearance in males (R = 0.35 P = 0.01, CI 0.08 to 0.58). Of the 10% patients with taxane outlier clearance values, 4β-OHC did correlate with docetaxel clearance in males (R = 0.76, P = 0.03, CI 0.12 to 0.95).
There was no clinical correlation between paclitaxel clearance and the CYP3A4 activity markers 4β-OHC nor the 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio. A weak correlation was observed between 4β-OHC and docetaxel clearance, but only in males. This endogenous CYP3A4 marker has limited predictive value for taxane clearance in patients.
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Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The present simulation study was initiated to develop a limited sampling strategy and pharmacokinetically based dosing algorithm of weekly paclitaxel based on pharmacokinetic (PK) and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) data from a large database.
We used paclitaxel plasma concentrations from 200 patients with solid tumors receiving weekly paclitaxel infusions to build a population PK model and a proportional odds model on CIPN. Different limited sampling strategies were tested on their accuracy to estimate the individual paclitaxel time-above-threshold-concentration of 0.05 µmol/L (T c>0.05µM), which is a common threshold for paclitaxel. A dosing algorithm was developed based on the population distribution of paclitaxel T c>0.05µM and the correlation between paclitaxel T c>0.05µM and CIPN. A trial simulation based on paclitaxel PK and CIPN was performed using empirical Bayes estimations, applying the proposed dosing algorithm and a single 24-h paclitaxel PK sample.
A single paclitaxel plasma concentration taken 18-30 h after the start of chemotherapy infusion adequately predicted T c>0.05µM. By using an empirical dosing algorithm to target an average paclitaxel T c>0.05µM between 10 and 14 h, Bayesian simulations of repetitive (adapted) dosing suggested a potential reduction of grade 2 CIPN from 9.6 to 4.4 %.
This simulation study proposes a pharmacokinetically based dosing algorithm for weekly paclitaxel and shows potential improvement of the benefit/risk ratio by using empirical Bayesian models.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel is used in the treatment of solid tumors and displays high inter-individual variation in exposure. Low paclitaxel clearance (CL) could lead to increased toxicity during treatment. We present a genetic prediction model identifying patients with low paclitaxel CL, based on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter (DMET)-platform, capable of detecting 1,936 genetic variants in 225 metabolizing enzyme and drug transporter genes.
In 270 paclitaxel-treated patients, unbound plasma concentrations were determined and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from a previously developed population pharmacokinetic model (NONMEM). Patients were divided into a training and validation set. Genetic variants determined by the DMET platform were selected from the training set to be included in the prediction model when they were associated with low paclitaxel CL (1 SD below mean CL) and subsequently tested in the validation set.
A genetic prediction model including 14 SNPs was developed on the training set. In the validation set, this model yielded a sensitivity of 95%, identifying most patients with low paclitaxel CL correctly. The positive predictive value of the model was only 22%. The model remained associated with low CL after multivariate analysis, correcting for age, gender and hemoglobin levels at baseline (P= 0.02).
In this first large-sized application of the DMET-platform for paclitaxel, we identified a 14 SNP model with high sensitivity to identify patients with low paclitaxel CL. However, due to the low positive predictive value we conclude that genetic variability encoded in the DMET-chip alone does not sufficiently explain paclitaxel CL.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Paclitaxel is used for the treatment of several solid tumors and displays a high interindividual variation in exposure and toxicity. Neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent side effects of paclitaxel. This study explores potential predictive pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic determinants for the onset and severity of neurotoxicity.
In an exploratory cohort of patients (n = 261) treated with paclitaxel, neurotoxicity incidence, and severity, pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacogenetic variants were determined. Paclitaxel plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and individual pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from previously developed population pharmacokinetic models by nonlinear mixed effects modeling. Genetic variants of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics tested were CYP3A4*22, CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, and ABCB1 3435 C>T. The association between CYP3A4*22 and neurotoxicity observed in the exploratory cohort was validated in an independent patient cohort (n = 239).
Exposure to paclitaxel (logAUC) was correlated with severity of neurotoxicity (P < 0.00001). Female CYP3A4*22 carriers were at increased risk of developing neurotoxicity (P = 0.043) in the exploratory cohort. CYP3A4*22 carrier status itself was not associated with pharmacokinetic parameters (CL, AUC, Cmax, or T>0.05) of paclitaxel in males or females. Other genetic variants displayed no association with neurotoxicity. In the subsequent independent validation cohort, CYP3A4*22 carriers were at risk of developing grade 3 neurotoxicity (OR = 19.1; P = 0.001).
Paclitaxel exposure showed a relationship with the severity of paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, female CYP3A4*22 carriers had increased risk of developing severe neurotoxicity during paclitaxel therapy. These observations may guide future individualization of paclitaxel treatment.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Aim:
The CYP3A4*22 allele was recently reported to be associated with reduced CYP3A4 activity. We investigated the impact of this allele on the metabolism of the CYP3A-phenotyping probes, midazolam (MDZ) and erythromycin.
Patients & methods:
Genomic DNA from 108 cancer patients receiving intravenous MDZ and 45 undergoing the erythromycin breath test was analyzed for CYP3A4*22 (rs35599367 C>T) and CYP3A5*3.
The MDZ metabolic ratio (1´-OH-MDZ:MDZ) was 20.7% (95% CI: -36.2 to -6.2) lower for CYP3A4*22 carriers compared with CYP3A4*1/*1 patients (p = 0.01). Combining CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3 genotypes showed a 38.7% decrease (95% CI: -50.0 to -27.4; p < 0.001) in 1´-OH-MDZ:MDZ for poor (CYP3A4*22-CYP3A5*3/*3) and 28.0% (95% CI: -33.3 to -22.6; p < 0.001) for intermediate (CYP3A4*1/*1-CYP3A5*3/*3) metabolizers, compared with extensive (CYP3A4*1/*1-CYP3A5*1) CYP3A metabolizers. CYP3A4 erythromycin N-demethylation activity was 40% lower in CYP3A4*22 carriers compared with CYP3A4*1/*1 patients (p = 0.032).
The CYP3A4*22 allele is associated with decreased CYP3A4-mediated metabolism, as verified by CYP3A-phenotyping probes.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Pharmacogenomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective:
P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is essential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in humans. The POR*28 allele (A503V) has been shown to impact on in-vitro CYP-mediated metabolism, including CYP3A isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo impact of the POR*28 allele on the pharmacokinetics of the classic CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin. Whereas midazolam is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, erythromycin is exclusively oxidized by CYP3A4.
Materials and methods:
To assess CYP3A activity, 108 cancer patients received midazolam and 45 others underwent the erythromycin breath test. Patients were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3.
In patients expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 carriers showed 45% lower midazolam metabolic ratios compared with POR*1/*1 patients (P<0.001). This is in line with a lower CYP3A5 activity toward midazolam for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, POR*28 had no influence on midazolam pharmacokinetics. For erythromycin, POR*28 carriership did not influence its metabolism.
Our data show that the POR*28 allele is associated with a lower in vivo CYP3A5 activity, but has no effects on CYP3A4-mediated erythromycin and midazolam metabolism.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Docetaxel is extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 in the liver but mechanisms by which the drug is taken up into hepatocytes remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that (i) liver uptake of docetaxel is mediated by the polymorphic solute carriers OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and (ii) inherited genetic defects in this process may impair systemic drug elimination.
Transport of docetaxel was studied in vitro using various cell lines stably transfected with OATP1B1*1A (wild-type), OATP1B1*5 [c.521T>C (V174A); rs4149056], OATP1B3, or the mouse transporter Oatp1b2. Docetaxel clearance was evaluated in wild-type and Oatp1b2-knockout mice as well as in two cohorts of patients with multiple variant transporter genotypes (n = 213).
Docetaxel was found to be a substrate for OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and Oatp1b2 but was not transported by OATP1B1*5. Deficiency of Oatp1b2 in mice was associated with an 18-fold decrease in docetaxel clearance (P = 0.0099), which was unrelated to changes in intrinsic metabolic capacity in mouse liver microsomes. In patients, however, none of the studied common reduced function variants in OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 were associated with docetaxel clearance (P > 0.05).
The existence of at least two potentially redundant uptake transporters in the human liver with similar affinity for docetaxel supports the possibility that functional defects in both of these proteins may be required to confer substantially altered disposition phenotypes. In view of the established exposure-toxicity relationships for docetaxel, we suggest that caution is warranted if docetaxel has to be administered together with agents that potently inhibit both OATP1B1 and OATP1B3.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke is known to interact with the metabolism of several anticancer drugs. It may also affect the incidence and severity of adverse events and efficacy of chemotherapy. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on the pharmacokinetics and toxicities of patients treated with docetaxel or paclitaxel.
Smoking status, toxicity profiles, and pharmacokinetic parameters (calculated by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling population analysis) were determined in 566 patients (429 nonsmokers and 137 smokers) treated with docetaxel or paclitaxel.
Smokers treated with docetaxel showed less grade IV neutropenia (35% vs. 52%; P = 0.01) than nonsmokers. Smokers treated with paclitaxel had less grade III-IV leukopenia than nonsmokers (12% vs. 25%; P = 0.03), and the white blood cell (WBC) nadir was lower in nonsmokers (median, 2.7 × 10(9)/L; range, 0.05 × 10(9) to 11.6 × 10(9)/L) than in smokers (median, 3.3 × 10(9)/L; range 0.8 × 10(9) to 10.2 × 10(9)/L; P = 0.02). Of interest, significantly lower WBC counts and absolute neutrophil counts at baseline were seen in nonsmoking patients treated with paclitaxel (P = 0.0001). Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar in smokers and nonsmokers for both taxanes.
Cigarette smoking does not alter the pharmacokinetic determinants of docetaxel and paclitaxel. Smokers treated with docetaxel and paclitaxel have less neutropenia and leukopenia, but further research is warranted to elucidate this potential protective effect.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of cabazitaxel, a novel tubulin-binding taxane, in 100 μl aliquots of human lithium heparinized plasma with deuterated cabazitaxel as internal standard. The sample extraction and cleaning-up involved a simple liquid-liquid extraction with 20 μl aliquots of 4% ammonium hydroxide, 100 μl aliquots of acetonitrile and 1 ml aliquots of n-butylchloride. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a reversed phase C₁₈ column eluted at a flow-rate of 0.20 ml/min on a gradient of acetonitrile. The overall cycle time of the method was 5 min, with cabazitaxel eluting at 3.0 min. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions were set at 836>555 (m/z), and 842>561 (m/z) for cabazitaxel and the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 1.00-100 ng/ml with the lower limit of quantitation validated at 1.00 ng/ml. The within-run and between-run precisions, also at the level of the LLQ, were within 8.75%, while the accuracy ranged from 88.5 to 94.1%. As dilution of samples prior to extraction resulted in a loss of cabazitaxel of approximately 6.5% per dilution step, a second calibration curve ranging from 40.0 to 4000 ng/ml was validated and was also linear. The within-run and between-run precisions in this range were within 4.99%, while the accuracy ranged from 95.8 to 100.3%. The method was successfully applied to samples derived from a clinical study.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen, a widely used agent for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer, is mainly metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A to form its most abundant active metabolite, endoxifen. Interpatient variability in toxicity and efficacy of tamoxifen is substantial. Contradictory results on the value of CYP2D6 genotyping to reduce the variable efficacy have been reported. In this pharmacokinetic study, we investigated the value of dextromethorphan, a known probe drug for both CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymatic activity, as a potential phenotyping probe for tamoxifen pharmacokinetics.
In this prospective study, 40 women using tamoxifen for invasive breast cancer received a single dose of dextromethorphan 2 hours after tamoxifen intake. Dextromethorphan, tamoxifen, and their respective metabolites were quantified. Exposure parameters of all compounds were estimated, log transformed, and subsequently correlated.
A strong and highly significant correlation (r = -0.72; P < .001) was found between the exposures of dextromethorphan (0 to 6 hours) and endoxifen (0 to 24 hours). Also, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of dextromethorphan (0 to 6 hours) and daily trough endoxifen concentration was strongly correlated (r = -0.70; P < .001). In a single patient using the potent CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine, the low endoxifen concentration was accurately predicted by dextromethorphan exposure.
Dextromethorphan exposure after a single administration adequately predicted endoxifen exposure in individual patients with breast cancer taking tamoxifen. This test could contribute to the personalization and optimization of tamoxifen treatment, but it needs additional validation and simplification before being applicable in future dosing strategies.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitative determination of dextromethorphan (DM) and its metabolites dextrorphan (DX), 3-methoxymorphinan (3MM) and 3-hydroxymorphinan (3HM), in human lithium heparinized plasma. The extraction involved a simple liquid-liquid extraction with 1 ml n-butylchloride from 200μl aliquots of plasma, after the addition of 20 μl 4% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 100 μl stable labeled isotopic internal standards in acetonitrile. Chromatographic separations were achieved on an Aquity UPLC(®) BEH C(18) 1.7 μm 2.1 mm x 100mm column eluted at a flow-rate of 0.250 ml/min on a gradient of acetonitrile. The overall cycle time of the method was 7 min, with elution times of 1.3min for DX and 3HM, 2.8 min for 3MM and 2.9min for DM. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions were set at 272>215 (m/z), at 258>133 (m/z), at 258>213 (m/z) and at 244>157 (m/z) for DM, DX, 3MM and 3HM, respectively. The calibration curves were linear (r²≥0.995) over the range of 0.500-100 nM with the lower limit of quantitation validated at 0.500 nM for all compounds, which is equivalent to 136, 129, 129 and 122 pg/ml for DM, DX, 3MM and 3HM, respectively. Extraction recoveries were constant, but ranged from 39% for DM to 83% for DX. The within-run and between-run precisions were within 11.6%, while the accuracy ranged from 92.7 to 110.6%. The applicability of the bioanalytical method was demonstrated and is currently implemented in a clinical trial to study DM as probe-drug for individualized tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Danusertib is a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor of multiple kinases, including aurora-A, B, and C. This explorative study aims to identify possible relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter proteins and clearance of danusertib, to clarify the interpatient variability in exposure. In addition, this study explores the relationship between target receptor polymorphisms and toxicity of danusertib.
For associations with clearance, 48 cancer patients treated in a phase I study were analyzed for ABCB1, ABCG2 and FMO3 polymorphisms. Association analyses between neutropenia and drug target receptors, including KDR, RET, FLT3, FLT4, AURKB and AURKA, were performed in 30 patients treated at recommended phase II dose-levels in three danusertib phase I or phase II trials.
No relationships between danusertib clearance and drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter protein polymorphisms were found. Only, for the one patient with FMO3 18281AA polymorphism, a significantly higher clearance was noticed, compared to patients carrying at least 1 wild type allele. No effect of target receptor genotypes or haplotypes on neutropenia was observed.
As we did not find any major correlations between pharmacogenetic variability in the studied enzymes and transporters and pharmacokinetics nor toxicity, it is unlikely that danusertib is highly susceptible for pharmacogenetic variation. Therefore, no dosing alterations of danusertib are expected in the future, based on the polymorphisms studied. However, the relationship between FMO3 polymorphisms and clearance of danusertib warrants further research, as we could study only a small group of patients.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Investigational New Drugs