[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: John Allen, a British physician of the eighteenth century, deserves being remembered for a series of inventions, but most importantly -- from a 'medical' point of view -- for his highly praised manuscript, the 'Universae Medicinae Practicae,sive Doctissimorum Virorum de Morbis Eorumque Causis ac Remediis Judicia', which long served as a text-book for medical students of the time, and also as a reference book for practitioners throughout European countries, for several decades after its original first publication. It contains the opinions ('Sententiae') of the most celebrated authors of all ages, from Hippocrates, Galen and Avicenna up to Allen's contemporaries, concerning a wide number of diseases, their causes, signs, symptoms, and therapeutical remedies where available. The present paper deals mostly with parts of the Synopsis concerning renal diseases and related clinical signs.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Journal of nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elimination of water from the body represents a fundamental therapeutic goal in those diseases in which oedemas occur. Aim of this work is the design of a material able to absorb large amount of water to be used, by oral administration, in those cases in which resistance to diuretics appears. Sorption and mechanical properties of the cellulose based superabsorbent hydrogel acting as a water elimination system have been modulated through the insertion of molecular spacers between the crosslinks. Starting polymers are the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa), a polyelectrolyte cellulose derivative, and the hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), a non-polyelectrolyte derivative. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) with various molecular weights, has been linked by its free ends at two divinylsulfone (DVS) crosslinker molecules, in order to increase the average distance between two crosslinking sites and thus acting as spacer. Both the effect of concentration and molecular weight of the spacer resulted to significantly affect the hydrogel final sorption properties and thus the efficiency of the body water elimination system. Biocompatibility studies have been performed to test the hydrogel compatibility with respect to intestinal and macrophages cell lines. To investigate the effects of intestinal cells conditioned media after the contact with the gel on macrophages nitric oxide release tests have been carried out.