[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both research and clinical medicine requires similar attributes of efficiency, diligence and effective teamwork. Furthermore, residents must succeed at scholarship and patient care to be competitive for fellowship training. It is unknown whether research productivity among residents is related to broad measures of clinical achievement. Our goal was to examine associations between the quantity of internal medicine residents’ publications and validated measures of their knowledge, skills and multi-source evaluations of performance.
This was a longitudinal study of 308 residents graduating from Mayo Clinic from 2006 to 2012. We identified peer-reviewed articles in Ovid MEDLINE between July of each resident’s match year and the end of their graduation. Outcomes included American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examination scores, mini clinical examination (mini-CEX) scores, and validated assessments of clinical performance by resident-peers, faculty and non-physicians. Performance assessments were averaged to form an overall score ranging from 1 to 5. Associations between quantity of resident publications – and ABIM, mini-CEX and performance assessment scores – were determined using multivariate linear regression.
The residents published 642 papers, of which 443 (69.0 %) were research papers, 198 (30.8 %) were case reports, and 380 (59.2 %) were first-authored. On adjusted analysis, multi-source clinical performance evaluations were significantly associated (beta; 99 % CI; p-value) with the numbers of research articles (0.012; 0.001–0.024; 0.007), and overall publications (0.012; 0.002–0.022; 0.002).
To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that scholarly productivity based on journal publication is associated with clinical performance during residency training. Our findings suggest that residents who invest substantial efforts in research are not compromised in their abilities to learn medicine and care for patients.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Medical Education
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that high workload among attending physicians may be associated with reduced teaching effectiveness and poor patient outcomes, but these relationships have not been investigated using objective measures of workload and safety. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between attending workload, teaching effectiveness, and patient safety, hypothesizing that higher workload would be associated with lower teaching effectiveness and negative patient outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a retrospective study of 69,386 teaching evaluation items submitted by 543 internal medicine residents for 107 attending physicians who supervised inpatient teaching services from July 2, 2005 to July 1, 2011. MEASUREMENTS: Attending workload measures included hospital service census, patient length of stay, daily admissions, daily discharges, and concurrent outpatient duties. Teaching effectiveness was measured using residents' evaluations of attendings.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Hospital Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To summarize characteristics and validity evidence of tools that assess teamwork in undergraduate medical education (UME), and provide recommendations for addressing the interprofessional collaboration competencies of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). Method: The authors conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1, 1979, through April 1, 2014; they searched reference lists and national meeting abstracts. They included original research reports that described a quantitative tool used to assess teamwork in UME. They abstracted characteristics and validity evidence for the tools, plus study quality, according to established frameworks. Two authors independently abstracted 25% of articles and calculated agreement. Authors then applied predefined criteria to identify tools best suited to address the AAMC's teamwork competencies. Results: Of 13,549 citations, 70 articles describing 64 teamwork assessment tools were included. Of these 64 tools, 27 (42%) assessed teamwork in classroom, 31 (48%) in simulation, and only 7 (11%) in actual clinical settings. The majority (47; 73%) of tools assessed medical students' teamwork in interprofessional teams. On the basis of content concordance, strength of validity evidence, generalizability of scores, and level of outcomes, four published tools were recommended to assess the AAMC's teamwork competencies: the Collaborative Healthcare Interdisciplinary Relationship Planning Scale, Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale, Communication and Teamwork Skills assessment, and Teamwork Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise. Conclusions: Substantial validity evidence supports the use of several UME teamwork assessments. Four tools have been appropriately designed and sufficiently studied to constitute appropriate assessments of the AAMC's teamwork competencies.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Academic Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Point-of-care ultrasound is a rapidly evolving component of internal medicine (IM) residency training. The optimal approach for teaching this skill remains unclear.
We sought to determine whether the addition of a longitudinal ultrasound curriculum to a stand-alone workshop for ultrasound training improved knowledge retention in IM residents.
We conducted an observational cohort study from July to December 2013. All postgraduate year (PGY)-1 IM residents attended an ultrasound workshop during orientation. Ability to identify static images of ascites, kidney, thyroid, pleural fluid, inferior vena cava, and internal jugular vein was assessed immediately after the workshop. An ultrasound curriculum, including morning report and ultrasound rounds, was initiated during the inpatient medicine rotation. PGY-1 residents were randomly assigned to participate in the longitudinal curriculum. Six months later, we conducted a follow-up survey with all PGY-1 residents.
Forty-eight PGY-1 residents (67%) completed the postworkshop test and the 6-month follow-up test. Of these, 50% (24 of 48) had participated in the ultrasound curriculum. Residents not exposed to the curriculum showed a decline in the identification of ascites, pleural effusion, and internal jugular vein at 6 months (P < .05), whereas those who participated in the curriculum maintained their performance (P < .05).
Six months after exposure to a longitudinal ultrasound curriculum, residents were more likely to correctly identify ultrasound images of ascites, kidney, and pleural effusion. The addition of a longitudinal ultrasound curriculum may result in improved knowledge retention in IM residents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite its importance, little is known about internal medicine (IM) residents' ability to assess and communicate a patient's overnight risk during the resident-to-resident handoff. To evaluate IM residents' ability to identify patients at risk for clinical deterioration using the Patient Acuity Rating (PAR) tool (scored on a 1-7 symmetric scale; 1="Extremely unlikely", 7="Extremely likely"), and to measure how well IM residents conveyed a patient's potential for clinical deterioration during day-to-night handoff. Observational cohort study of 46 postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) and 32 postgraduate year 3 (PGY-3) internal medicine residents rotating on one of four general medicine services from October 2013 through January 2014. Primary outcomes were (1) level of agreement between resident handoff giver and receiver regarding patients' clinical risk and (2) accuracy of resident-assigned PAR score in predicting a patient's risk of clinical deterioration over the subsequent 24 hours. Analysis of PGY-1 giver-receiver handoff agreement revealed an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95 % CI) of 0.51 (0.45-0.56), while PGY-3 giver-receiver agreement yielded an ICC (95 % CI) of 0.42 (0.36-0.47). Based on 865 ratings of 378 patients, PGY-1 handoff giver PAR scores of 5 and 6+ were significantly associated with increased odds of clinical deterioration within 24 hours (aOR = 6.5 and 12.4; P = 0.03 and 0.005, respectively). For the 1,170 PAR ratings of 438 patients assigned by PGY-3 handoff givers, PAR scores of 4, 5, and 6+ were significantly associated with increased odds of an event within 24 hours (aORs = 6.0, 9.6, and 18.1; P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.0008, respectively). The PAR is a useful tool to quantify IM residents' judgment of patient stability, and may be particularly valuable during resident handoff, given that the level of agreement between giver and receiver regarding patient risk is only fair.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of General Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been limited research on the improvement of underperforming clinical teachers.
To determine whether a faculty development program could improve the evaluations of clinical teachers in an internal medicine residency program.
A total of 123 teachers completed faculty development at the Mayo Clinic from 2009 to 2012. The faculty enhancement and education development program (FEED) consists of 6 interactive, small group, 2-hour sessions taught by experienced Mayo Clinic faculty over 1 year. These sessions address the following competencies: asking questions, diagnosing learners, giving feedback, using teaching frameworks, recognizing learning styles, and providing clinical supervision. Resident-of-faculty Mayo teaching effectiveness (MTE) scores have previously demonstrated content, internal structure, and criterion validity. Teachers were grouped into the top 80% or the bottom 20%, according to baseline MTE scores. Mixed linear models were used to compare these groups regarding changes in MTE scores after completion of FEED. Results were adjusted for teacher age, sex, medical specialty, academic rank, and teaching awards.
For all participants combined, the adjusted MTE scores (mean; standard error) improved from baseline (3.80; 0.04) to completion of FEED (3.93; 0.04; P < .001). However, the bottom 20% had a significantly greater improvement in scores than the top 80% (score-change difference = 0.166, P < .001).
We describe a low-intensity faculty development intervention that benefited all clinical teachers, but was particularly effective for underperforming teachers in internal medicine. The approach may be suitable for adoption or adaptation in other graduate medical education programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
With the advent of compact ultrasound (US) devices, it is easier for physicians to enhance their physical examinations through the use of US. However, although this new tool is widely available, few internal medicine physicians have US training. This study sought to understand physicians' baseline knowledge and skill, provide education in US principles, and demonstrate that proper use of compact US devices is a skill that can be quickly learned.
Training was performed at the Mayo Clinic in June 2010 and June 2011. The participants consisted of internal medicine residents. The workshop included didactics and hands-on US experiences with human and cadaver models in a simulation center. Pretests and posttests of residents' knowledge, attitudes, and skills with US were completed. We reassessed the 2010 group in the spring of 2012 with a long-term retention survey for knowledge and confidence in viewing images.
A total of 136 interns completed the workshop. Thirty-nine residents completed the long-term retention survey. Posttest assessments showed a statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of US imaging, confidence in identifying structures, image identification, and image acquisition (P < .0001). In the long-term retention study, knowledge of US imaging and confidence in identifying structures did decline.
This educational intervention resulted in improvement in US knowledge and image acquisition. However, the knowledge diminished over time, suggesting that further education is needed if US is to become an important component of internal medicine training and practice.
Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transition from medical student to intern may cause stress and burnout in new interns and the delivery of suboptimal patient care. Despite a formal set of subinternship curriculum guidelines, program directors have expressed concern regarding the skill set of new interns and the lack of standardization in that skill set among interns from different medical schools. To address these issues, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System focuses on the development of a competency-based education continuum spanning undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education.
In 2010, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine subinternship task force, in collaboration with the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine survey committee, surveyed internal medicine residency program directors to determine which competencies or skills they expected from new medical school graduates. The authors summarized the results using categories of interest.
In both an item rank list and free-text responses, program directors were nearly uniform in ranking the skills they deemed most important for new interns-organization and time management and prioritization skills; effective communication skills; basic clinical skills; and knowing when to ask for assistance.
Stakeholders should use the results of this survey as they develop a milestone-based curriculum for the fourth year of medical school and for the internal medicine subinternship. By doing so, they should develop a standardized set of skills that meet program directors' expectations, reduce the stress of transitions across the educational continuum, and improve the quality of patient care.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Annual data reporting for residency programs in the Next Accreditation System (NAS) includes new components, including changes in the annual resident survey. Program directors from multiple specialties have expressed concerns regarding the survey related to residents' understanding of the questions, accuracy of the data, and use of the results by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). We surveyed internal medicine program directors to ascertain their opinions of the ACGME resident survey in order to better inform policymakers as residency programs implement the NAS. 272 program directors responded. Most program directors disagreed with the changes in the resident survey, did not believe there was sufficient transparency in its use, and believe they should receive aggregate responses from their residents. A majority of program directors used resident survey data to secure program resources. Program directors do not seem to find it overly burdensome to have residents complete the survey, with 41% finding it "easy" to assure completion. The 2013 changes in the annual resident survey as part of the NAS were not generally accepted by program directors in internal medicine. Nonetheless, program directors continue to use survey results to support the program. How the survey results will be incorporated into accreditation decisions is a significant concern among internal medicine program directors.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · The American journal of medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valid teamwork assessment is imperative to determine physician competency and optimize patient outcomes. We systematically reviewed published instruments assessing teamwork in undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education in general internal medicine and all medical subspecialties.
We searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, CINAHL and PsycINFO from January 1979 through October 2012, references of included articles, and abstracts from four professional meetings. Two content experts were queried for additional studies.
Included studies described quantitative tools measuring teamwork among medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians on single or multi-professional (interprofessional) teams.
Instrument validity and study quality were extracted using established frameworks with existing validity evidence. Two authors independently abstracted 30 % of articles and agreement was calculated.
Of 12,922 citations, 178 articles describing 73 unique teamwork assessment tools met inclusion criteria. Interrater agreement was intraclass correlation coefficient 0.73 (95 % CI 0.63-0.81). Studies involved practicing physicians (142, 80 %), residents/fellows (70, 39 %), and medical students (11, 6 %). The majority (152, 85 %) assessed interprofessional teams. Studies were conducted in inpatient (77, 43 %), outpatient (42, 24 %), simulation (37, 21 %), and classroom (13, 7 %) settings. Validity evidence for the 73 tools included content (54, 74 %), internal structure (51, 70 %), relationships to other variables (25, 34 %), and response process (12, 16 %). Attitudes and opinions were the most frequently assessed outcomes. Relationships between teamwork scores and patient outcomes were directly examined for 13 (18 %) of tools. Scores from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire and Team Climate Inventory have substantial validity evidence and have been associated with improved patient outcomes.
Review is limited to quantitative assessments of teamwork in internal medicine.
There is strong validity evidence for several published tools assessing teamwork in internal medicine. However, few teamwork assessments have been directly linked to patient outcomes.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of General Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence-based practice in education requires high-quality evidence, and many in the medical education community have called for an improvement in the methodological quality of education research.
Our aim was to use a valid measure of medical education research quality to highlight the methodological quality of research publications and provide an overview of the recent internal medicine (IM) residency literature.
We searched MEDLINE and PreMEDLINE to identify English-language articles published in the United States and Canada between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011, focusing on IM residency education. Study quality was assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI), which has demonstrated reliability and validity. Qualitative articles were excluded. Articles were ranked by quality score, and the top 25% were examined for common themes, and 2 articles within each theme were selected for in-depth presentation.
The search identified 731 abstracts of which 223 articles met our inclusion criteria. The mean (±SD) MERSQI score of the 223 studies included in the review was 11.07 (±2.48). Quality scores were highest for data analysis (2.70) and lowest for study design (1.41) and validity (1.29). The themes identified included resident well-being, duty hours and resident workload, career decisions and gender, simulation medicine, and patient-centered outcomes.
Our review provides an overview of the IM medical education literature for 2010-2011, highlighting 5 themes of interest to the medical education community. Study design and validity are 2 areas where improvements in methodological quality are needed, and authors should consider these when designing research protocols.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient care and medical knowledge are Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. The correlation between amount of patient contact and knowledge acquisition is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a correlation exists between the number of patient encounters and in-training exam (ITE) scores in internal medicine (IM) and pediatric residents at a large academic medical center. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study PARTICIPANTS: Resident physicians at Mayo Clinic from July 2006 to June 2010 in IM (318 resident-years) and pediatrics (66 resident-years). METHODS: We tabulated patient encounters through review of clinical notes in an electronic medical record during post graduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2. Using linear regression models, we investigated associations between ITE score and number of notes during the previous PGY, adjusted for previous ITE score, gender, medical school origin, and conference attendance. KEY RESULTS: For IM, PGY-2 admission and consult encounters in the hospital and specialty clinics had a positive linear association with ITE-3 % score (β = 0.02; p = 0.004). For IM, PGY-1 conference attendance is positively associated with PGY-2 ITE performance. We did not detect a correlation between PGY-1 patient encounters and subsequent ITE scores for IM or pediatric residents. No association was found between IM PGY-2 ITE score and inpatient, outpatient, or total encounters in the first year of training. Resident continuity clinic and total encounters were not associated with change in PGY-3 ITE score. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a positive association between hospital and subspecialty encounters during the second year of IM training and subsequent ITE score, such that each additional 50 encounters were associated with an increase of 1 % correct in PGY-3 ITE score after controlling for previous ITE performance and continuity clinic encounters. We did not find a correlation for volume of encounters and medical knowledge for IM PGY-1 residents or the pediatric cohort.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of General Internal Medicine