Anand Shah

University of Pennsylvania, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (42)138.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: As primary care moves toward a system of population health management, providers will need to engage patients outside traditional office-based interactions. Objective: We assessed patient attitudes regarding technology use to communicate with their primary care team or to engage with other patients outside typical office settings. Design/Participants/Main Measures We conducted a national survey using GfK KnowledgePanel(®) to examine attitudes on the use of digital technology (email, text messaging, and social media such as Facebook and Twitter) to communicate with primary care teams about health behavior goals and test results. We also assessed attitudes toward the use of digital technologies to engage with other patients in activities such as peer coaching. Key results: Of the 5119 panel members invited to participate, 3336 completed the survey (response rate, 65.2 %). Among respondents, more than half (58 %) reported using Facebook, and nearly two-thirds (64.1 %) used text messaging. Overall, few participants were willing to communicate about health goals via social media (3.1 %) or text messaging (13.3 %), compared to email (48.8 %) or phone (75.5 %) (results were similar for communication about test results). Among those that used text messaging, race/ethnicity was the only factor independently associated with greater support for text messaging [African American (OR 1.44; 95 % CI, 1.01-2.06) and Hispanic (OR 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.25-2.59)] in multivariate models. Participants interested in engaging in peer coaching through Facebook (11.7 %) were more likely to be younger (p < 0.0001), female (p < 0.001), and a racial/ethnic minority (African American, non-Hispanic or Hispanic, p < 0.0004). Conclusions: Despite regular use of new digital technology such as text messaging and social media, few participants supported using these tools for communicating with their physicians' practice. Participants were most supportive of using email for communication. Contrary to previous studies, among users of technology, low socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minorities were equally or more likely to support use.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of General Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: A subset of patients with minimal extrathoracic disease may benefit from aggressive primary tumor treatment. We report comparative outcomes in oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with and without definitive, conventionally fractionated thoracic radiation therapy. We identified consecutive patients with stage IV NSCLC who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2 and ≤4 total sites of metastatic disease and who had been prescribed ≥50 Gy of thoracic radiation. Twenty-nine patients with oligometastatic NSCLC were identified between January 2004 and August 2010. Median survival was 22 months from diagnosis. Four patients (14%) experienced pneumonitis greater than or equal to grade 3; 6 (21%) had esophagitis greater than or equal to grade 3. Local control was associated with improved survival (P = .02). In matched subset analysis, median survival was 9 months (P < .01) in patients who received chemotherapy alone. Median time to local failure was 18 versus 6 months (P = .01). On multivariable analysis, radiation (P < .01; odds ratio [OR], 0.33), fewer metastases (P < .01; OR, 2.14), and female sex (P < .01; OR, 0.41) were associated with improved survival. Definitive dose radiation therapy may improve survival in a select subset of patients with minimal extrathoracic disease in whom local progression is of primary concern. Prospective trials are needed to further evaluate the role of local control in oligometastatic NSCLC. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Practical Radiation Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Adoption of electronic health record systems has increased the availability of patient-level electronic health information. To examine public support for secondary uses of electronic health information under different consent arrangements. National experimental survey to examine perceptions of uses of electronic health information according to patient consent (obtained vs. not obtained), use (research vs. marketing), and framing of the findings (abstract description without results vs. specific results). Nationally representative survey. 3064 African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white persons (response rate, 65%). Appropriateness of health information use described in vignettes on a scale of 1 (not at all appropriate) to 10 (very appropriate). Mean ratings ranged from a low of 3.81 for a marketing use when consent was not obtained and specific results were presented to a high of 7.06 for a research use when consent was obtained and specific results were presented. Participants rated scenarios in which consent was obtained as more appropriate than when consent was not obtained (difference, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.34]; P < 0.001). Participants rated scenarios in which the use was marketing as less appropriate than when the use was research (difference, -2.03 [CI, -2.27 to -1.78]; P < 0.001). Unconsented research uses were rated as more appropriate than consented marketing uses (5.65 vs. 4.52; difference, 1.13 [CI, 0.87 to 1.39]). Participants rated hypothetical scenarios. Results could be vulnerable to nonresponse bias despite the high response rate. Although approaches to health information sharing emphasize consent, public opinion also emphasizes purpose, which suggests a need to focus more attention on the social value of information use. National Human Genome Research Institute.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Annals of internal medicine
  • Anand Shah · Stephen M Hahn · Charles B Simone

    No preview · Article · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The traditional treatment for clearly operable (CO) patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is lobectomy, with wedge resection (WR) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) serving as alternatives in marginally operable (MO) patients. Given an aging population with an increasing prevalence of screening, it is likely that progressively more people will be diagnosed with stage I NSCLC, and thus it is critical to compare the cost-effectiveness of these treatments. Methods: A Markov model was created to compare the cost-effectiveness of SBRT with WR and lobectomy for MO and CO patients, respectively. Disease, treatment, and toxicity data were extracted from the literature and varied in sensitivity analyses. A payer (Medicare) perspective was used. Results: In the base case, SBRT (MO cohort), SBRT (CO cohort), WR, and lobectomy were associated with mean cost and quality-adjusted life expectancies of $42,094/8.03, $40,107/8.21, $51,487/7.93, and $49,093/8.89, respectively. In MO patients, SBRT was the dominant and thus cost-effective strategy. This result was confirmed in most deterministic sensitivity analyses as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis, in which SBRT was most likely cost-effective up to a willingness-to-pay of more than $500,000/quality-adjusted life year. For CO patients, lobectomy was the cost-effective treatment option in the base case (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $13,216/quality-adjusted life year) and in nearly every sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: SBRT was nearly always the most cost-effective treatment strategy for MO patients with stage I NSCLC. In contrast, for patients with CO disease, lobectomy was the most cost-effective option.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: We tested three hypotheses: (1) blacks with pancreatic cancer are recommended surgical resection less often than whites; (2) when recommended surgical resection, blacks refuse surgery more often than whites; and lastly, (3) racial differences in refusal of surgical resection have decreased over time. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients with potentially resectable, nonmetastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1988 to 2009. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess whether differences in the proportion of whites versus blacks refusing surgery among patients recommended for resection changed over time. A total of 35,944 patients were included; most were white (87.6 %). After adjusting for covariates including tumor stage, pancreatic cancer resection was less often recommended to and performed in blacks compared with whites (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.88, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.95; aOR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.76-0.91, respectively). Blacks also underwent surgical resection less often when surgery was recommended (aOR 0.73, 95 % CI 0.64-0.85). Racial disparities in surgery recommendation and its performance did not decrease from 1988 to 2009. In multivariable adjusted analyses, blacks refused surgery more often when it was recommended (aOR in 1988 4.75, 95 % CI 2.51-9.01); this disparity decreased over time (aOR 0.93 per year, 95 % CI 0.89-0.97). Although racial disparities in pancreatic cancer surgery refusal have diminished over the past two decades, significant disparities in the recommendation and performance of surgery persist. It is likely that both provider- and patient-level factors have a substantial impact on surgery recommendation and its acceptance. The identification of such factors is critical to design a framework for eliminating disparities in cancer-directed surgery for pancreatic cancer.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Importance As health information technology grows, secondary uses of personal health information offer promise in advancing research, public health, and health care. Public perceptions about sharing personal health data are important for establishing and evaluating ethical and regulatory structures to oversee the use of these data.Objective To measure patient preferences about sharing their electronic health information for secondary purposes (other than their own health care).Design, Setting, and Participants In this conjoint analysis study, we surveyed 3336 adults (568 Hispanic, 500 non-Hispanic African American, and 2268 non-Hispanic white); participants were randomized to 6 of 18 scenarios describing secondary uses of electronic health information, constructed with 3 attributes: uses (research, quality improvement, or commercial marketing), users (university hospitals, commercial enterprises, or public health departments), and data sensitivity (whether it included genetic information about their own cancer risk). This design enabled participants to reveal their preferences for secondary uses of their personal health information.Main Outcomes and Measures Participants responded to each conjoint scenario by rating their willingness to share their electronic personal health information on a 1 to 10 scale (1 represents low willingness; 10, high willingness). Conjoint analysis yields importance weights reflecting the contribution of a dimension (use, user, or sensitivity) to willingness to share personal health information.Results The use of data was a more important factor in the conjoint analysis (importance weight, 64.3%) than the user (importance weight, 32.6%) and data sensitivity (importance weight, 3.1%). In unadjusted linear regression models, marketing uses (β = −1.55), quality improvement uses (β = −0.51), drug company users (β = −0.80), and public health department users (β = −0.52) were associated with less willingness to share health information than research uses and university hospital users (all P < .001). Hispanics and African Americans differentiated less than whites between uses.Conclusions and Relevance Participants cared most about the specific purpose for using their health information, although differences were smaller among racial and ethnic minorities. The user of the information was of secondary importance, and the sensitivity was not a significant factor. These preferences should be considered in policies governing secondary uses of health information.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · JAMA Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Subjects of Chinese heritage have been found to participate in clinical research at lower rates than other groups despite growing in numbers as a population. While much research has examined research participants' motivation, there has not been a comprehensive synthesis of this information with respect to participants of Chinese descent. We sought to identify the factors that promote and hinder participation in clinical research among participants of Chinese heritage. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in Pubmed, OpenJGATE, SCIRUS, and COCHRANE databases and performed a meta-synthesis of retrieved articles. We extracted qualitative data, such as quotes to identify emerging themes. We identified five studies that met our selection criteria. Of them, only one (1/5) was conducted in China while other studies involved Chinese emigrants in USA (3/5) and Singapore (1/5). Participants from China were similar to emigrants with regard to factors that either promoted or decreased research participation. Four studies reported data exclusively on Chinese subjects. Three of the five studies involved qualitative interviews while the others were conducted using a survey design. Six themes favoring research participation were identified: Personal Benefit to Participants, Financial Incentives, Participant Sense of Altruism, Family or Physician Recommendations, Advertisements, and Convenience to the Participant. Five factors were seen as a barrier to participation in clinical trials: Mistrust of Researchers, Language Barrier, Lack of Financial and Other Support, Cultural and Social Barriers, Lack of Knowledge about Clinical Trials. Chinese heritage clinical research participants value personal benefit, financial incentives, the ability to help others, recommendations of others, advertisements, and convenience when considering clinical research participation. In addition, the establishment of trust and addressing knowledge deficits are important factors to them. Investigators seeking to optimize enrolment in these populations should incorporate these findings into their study design and subject handouts.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: To analyze the location of metastatic lymph nodes in seminoma patients relative to vascular and bony anatomy and conventional radiation fields. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional scans of 90 seminoma patients with infradiaphragmatic adenopathy were analyzed. The position of each node respective to vascular anatomy was transferred to a standardized template. Conventional radiation fields were overlaid on the template and locations of metastatic nodes were assessed. Results: One hundred and forty-five nodes were radiographically positive. Eighty-four percent, 9%, and 7% of nodes were located in the para-aortic, common iliac, and pelvic regions, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of nodes were within a 2.5 cm lateral and 2.1cm anterior expansion of the aorta inferior to T12/L1. No radiographically positive nodes were identified within the renal hilum or superior to L1 in left-sided seminomas. For right-sided seminomas, no radiographically positive nodes were superior to L2. Three percent of all radiographically positive nodes would have been located outside of conventional and modified fields. Conclusions: Infradiaphragmatic nodal metastases from a contemporary cohort of seminoma patients localized to a smaller area than is targeted by conventional radiation fields. Modified treatment fields based on vascular, rather than bony, anatomy are smaller and may allow for a significant decrease in normal tissue irradiation and toxicity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Radiotherapy and Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Many patients considering prostate cancer (PCa) treatment options report seeking proton beam therapy (PBT) based in part on information readily available on the Internet. There is, however, potential for considerable variation in Internet health information (IHI). We thus evaluated the characteristics, quality, and accuracy of IHI on PBT for PCa. Methods and materials: We undertook a qualitative research study using snowball-purposive sampling in which we evaluated the top 50 Google search results for "proton prostate cancer." Quality was evaluated on a 5-point scale using the validated 15-question DISCERN instrument. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing IHI with the best available evidence. Results: Thirty-seven IHI websites were included in the final sample. These websites most frequently were patient information/support resources (46%), were focused exclusively on PBT (51%), and had a commercial affiliation (38%). There was a significant difference in quality according to the type of IHI. Substantial inaccuracies were noted in the study sample compared with best available or contextual evidence. Conclusions: There are shortcomings in quality and accuracy in consumer-oriented IHI on PBT for PCa. Providers must be prepared to educate patients how to critically evaluate IHI related to PBT for PCa to best inform their treatment decisions.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the knowledge of, and attitudes toward, out-of-pocket expenses (OOPE) associated with prostate cancer treatment and the influence of OOPE on the treatment choices of patients with prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We undertook a qualitative research study for which we recruited patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Patients answered a series of open-ended questions during a semistructured interview and completed a questionnaire about the physician's role in discussing OOPE, the burden of OOPE, the effect of OOPE on treatment decisions, and previous knowledge of OOPE. Results: A total of 41 (26 white and 15 black) eligible patients were enrolled from the urology and radiation oncology practices of the University of Pennsylvania. Qualitative assessment revealed 5 major themes: (a) "my insurance takes care of it"; (b) "health is more important than cost"; (c) "I did not look into it"; (d) "I cannot afford it but would have chosen the same treatment"; and (e) "It is not my doctor's business." Most patients (38 of 41, 93%) reported that they would not have chosen a different treatment even if they had known the actual OOPE of their treatment. Patients who reported feeling burdened by OOPE were socioeconomically heterogeneous, and their treatment choices remained unaffected. Only 2 patients stated they knew "a lot" about the likely OOPE for different prostate cancer treatments before choosing their treatment. Conclusion: Among insured patients with prostate cancer treated at a large academic medical center, few had knowledge of OOPE before making treatment choices.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:: The objectives of this investigation were to (1) compare short-term outcomes for patients undergoing primary gastric bypass surgery with those who had gastric bypass procedures performed as a rescue procedure after failed gastric banding and (2) study trends in the frequency of reoperations between 2005 and 2008 for patients who had prior gastric banding. BACKGROUND:: The use of gastric banding to treat obesity has increased drastically in the United States. However, the frequency of reoperations related to gastric banding and associated short-term outcomes are unknown. METHODS:: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2008 was used for this population-based study. Descriptive statistics as well as unadjusted and risk-adjusted generalized linear models were performed to assess adverse short-term outcomes. RESULTS:: A total of 66,303 patients were included in the analysis, 63,171 (95.3%) underwent a primary gastric bypass procedure and 3132 patients (4.7%) underwent a gastric band-related reoperation. Patients undergoing a gastric bypass procedure concomitant with a band-related reoperation had more intraoperative complications [risk-adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.3, P = 0.002] and postoperative complications (risk-adjusted OR: 8.0, P < 0.001), were at higher risk of reoperations/reinterventions (risk-adjusted OR: 6.0, P < 0.001), increased length of hospital stay (adjusted mean difference: 0.89 days, P < 0.001), and higher hospital charges (adjusted mean difference: $13,257, P < 0.001). The number of gastric band-related reoperations increased from 579 in 2005 to 1132 in 2008 (196%). CONCLUSIONS:: The number of reoperations after gastric banding is rapidly increasing in the United States. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study providing strong evidence that patients undergoing gastric bypass procedure after failed gastric banding have more adverse outcomes than those undergoing gastric bypass alone. The broad indication for gastric banding should be reaffirmed for the US population.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Annals of surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Among patients undergoing urgent surgery for left-sided diverticulitis, those admitted on weekends vs weekdays have higher rates of Hartmann procedure and adverse outcomes. Analysis of data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between January 2002 and December 2008. Unadjusted and risk-adjusted generalized linear regression models were used. Academic research. Data on patients undergoing urgent surgery for acute diverticulitis. Rates of Hartmann procedure vs primary anastomosis, complications, length of hospital stay, and total hospital charges. In total, 31 832 patients were included; 7066 (22.2%) were admitted on weekends, and 24 766 (77.8%) were admitted on weekdays. The mean (SD) age of patients was 60.8 (15.3) years, and 16 830 (52.9%) were female. A Hartmann procedure was performed in 4580 patients (64.8%) admitted on weekends compared with 13 351 patients (53.9%) admitted on weekdays (risk-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.57; P < .001). In risk-adjusted analyses, patients admitted on weekends had significantly higher risk for any postoperative complication (OR, 1.10; P = .005) and nonroutine hospital discharge (OR, 1.33; P < .001) compared with patients admitted on weekdays, as well as a median length of hospital stay that was 0.5 days longer and median total hospital charges that were $3734 higher (P < .001 for both). Patients undergoing urgent surgery for left-sided diverticulitis who are admitted on a weekend have a higher risk for undergoing a Hartmann procedure and worse short-term outcomes compared with patients who are admitted on a weekday. Further research is warranted to investigate possible underlying mechanisms and to develop strategies for reducing this substantial weekend effect.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960)
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    ABSTRACT: The "weekend effect" is defined as increased morbidity and mortality for patients admitted on weekends compared with weekdays. It has been observed for several diseases, including myocardial infarction and renal insufficiency; however, it has not yet been investigated for laparoscopic appendectomy in acute appendicitis-one of the most prevalent surgical diagnoses. The present study is based on the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 1999 to 2008. The following outcomes were compared between patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis admitted on weekdays versus weekends: severity of appendicitis, intraoperative and postoperative complications, conversion rate, in-hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay. Unadjusted and risk-adjusted generalized linear regression analyses were performed. Overall, 151,774 patients were included, mean age was 39.6 years, 52.6% (n = 79,801) were male, and 25.3% (n = 38,317) were admitted on weekends. After risk adjustment, the conversion rate was lower [odds ratio (OR): 0.94, p = 0.004, number needed to harm (NNH): 244], whereas pulmonary complications (OR: 1.12, p = 0.028, NNH: 649) and reoperations (OR: 1.21, p = 0.013, NNH: 1,028) were slightly higher on weekends than on weekdays. Overall postoperative complications (OR: 1.03, p = 0.24), mortality (OR: 1.37, p = 0.075) and length of hospital stay (mean on weekday: 2.00 days, weekends: 2.01 days, p = 0.29) were not statistically different. The present investigation provides evidence that no clinically significant "weekend effect" for patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy exists. Therefore, hospital or staffing policy changes are not justified based on the findings from this large national study.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · World Journal of Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the importance of delivering evidence-based health care, orthopedic surgeons have directed fewer efforts towards the generation of such evidence. Even when present, published evidence lacks methodological rigor and is known to be inaccurate. One of the main reasons for the lack of generation of quality evidence, and the low involvement in research among orthopedic surgeons, is the lack of structured research coaching environments where they can learn concepts and hone their research skills. There is a palpable need for a pragmatic and outcome-oriented approach that can equip orthopedic surgeons with effective ways of communicating their research in writing. We describe a pragmatic research coaching program, designed and developed by the Research on Research group, which aims to build a global network of orthopedic researchers trained in streamlined and standardized research methods. We also provide a brief overview of the course principles and tools, and the platforms used in this program.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Acta Ortopédica Brasileira
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate patients' willingness to participate (WTP) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with proton beam therapy (PBT) for prostate cancer (PCa). We undertook a qualitative research study in which we prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa. We used purposive sampling to ensure a diverse sample based on age, race, travel distance, and physician. Patients participated in a semi-structured interview in which they reviewed a description of a hypothetical RCT, were asked open-ended and focused follow-up questions regarding their motivations for and concerns about enrollment, and completed a questionnaire assessing characteristics such as demographics and prior knowledge of IMRT or PBT. Patients' stated WTP was assessed using a 6-point Likert scale. Forty-six eligible patients (33 white, 13 black) were enrolled from the practices of eight physicians. We identified 21 factors that impacted patients' WTP, which largely centered on five major themes: altruism/desire to compare treatments, randomization, deference to physician opinion, financial incentives, and time demands/scheduling. Most patients (27 of 46, 59%) stated they would either "definitely" or "probably" participate. Seventeen percent (8 of 46) stated they would "definitely not" or "probably not" enroll, most of whom (6 of 8) preferred PBT before their physician visit. A substantial proportion of patients indicated high WTP in a RCT comparing IMRT and PBT for PCa.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    ABSTRACT: Gallstone formation is common in obese patients, particularly during rapid weight loss. Whether a concomitant cholecystectomy should be performed during laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery is still contentious. We aimed to analyze trends in concomitant cholecystectomy and laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (2001-2008), to identify factors associated with concomitant cholecystectomy, and to compare short-term outcomes after laparoscopic gastric bypass with and without concomitant cholecystectomy. We used data from adults undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass for obesity from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to assess changes over time. Unadjusted and risk-adjusted generalized linear models were performed to assess predictors of concomitant cholecystectomy and to assess postoperative short-term outcomes. A total of 70,287 patients were included: mean age was 43.1 years and 81.6% were female. Concomitant cholecystectomy was performed in 6,402 (9.1%) patients. The proportion of patients undergoing concomitant cholecystectomy decreased significantly from 26.3% in 2001 to 3.7% in 2008 (p for trend < 0.001). Patients who underwent concomitant cholecystectomy had higher rates of mortality (unadjusted odds ratios [OR], 2.16; p = 0.012), overall postoperative complications (risk-adjusted OR, 1.59; p = 0.001), and reinterventions (risk-adjusted OR, 3.83; p < 0.001), less frequent routine discharge (risk-adjusted OR, 0.70; p = 0.05), and longer adjusted hospital stay (median difference, 0.4 days; p < 0.001). Concomitant cholecystectomy and laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery have decreased significantly over the last decade. Given the higher rates of postoperative complications, reinterventions, mortality, as well as longer hospital stay, concomitant cholecystectomy should only be considered in patients with symptomatic gallbladder disease.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Obesity Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Management and outcomes of patients with invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas are not well established. We investigated whether adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) improved cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) among patients undergoing surgical resection for invasive IPMN. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was used in this retrospective cohort study. All adult patients with resection of invasive IPMN from 1988 to 2007 were included. CSS and OS were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Unadjusted and propensity-score-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards modeling were used for subgroup analyses. 972 patients were included. Adjuvant RT was administered to 31.8% (n=309) of patients. There was no difference in overall median CSS or OS in patients who received adjuvant RT (5-year CSS: 26.5 months; 5-year OS: 23.5 months) versus those who did not (CSS: 28.5 months, P=0.17; OS: 23.5 months, P=0.23). Univariate predictors of survival were lymph node (LN) involvement, T4-classified tumors, and poorly differentiated tumor grade (all P<0.05). In the propensity-score-adjusted analysis, adjuvant RT was associated with improved 5-year CSS [hazard ratio (HR): 0.67, P=0.004] and 5-year OS (HR: 0.73, P=0.014) among all patients with LN involvement, though further analysis by T-classification demonstrated no survival differences among patients with T1/T2 disease; patients with T3/T4-classified tumors had improved CSS (HR: 0.71, P=0.022) but no difference in OS (HR: 0.76, P=0.06). On propensity-score-adjusted analysis, adjuvant RT was associated with improved survival in selected subsets of patients with invasive IPMN, particularly those with T3/T4 tumors and LN involvement.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Leukemia & lymphoma
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    ABSTRACT: The essence of comparative effectiveness research (CER) is to understand what health interventions work, for which patients, and under what conditions. The objective of this article is to introduce the relative strengths and weaknesses of several forms of evidence to illustrate the potential for CER evidence generation within radiation oncology. We introduce the underlying concepts of effectiveness and efficacy. We describe the design of traditional explanatory randomized trials (RCTs). We introduce the rationale, strengths, and weaknesses of several alternative study designs for comparative effectiveness, including pragmatic clinical trials, adaptive trials, and observational (nonrandomized) studies. Explanatory RCTs are designed to assess the efficacy of an intervention while achieving a high degree of internal validity. Pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) are prospective studies performed in typical, real-world clinical practice settings. The emphasis of PCTs is to maintain a degree of internal validity while also maximizing external validity. Adaptive trials can be modified at interim stages using existing or evolving evidence in the course of a trial, which may allow trials to maintain clinical relevance by studying current treatments. Observational data are becoming increasingly important, given substantial funding for clinical registries and greater availability of electronic medical records and claims databases, but need to address well-known limitations such as selection bias. With the rapid proliferation of new and evolving radiotherapy technologies, it is incumbent upon our field to invest in building the evidence base for radiotherapy CER and to actively participate in current initiatives for generating comparative evidence.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Practical Radiation Oncology

Publication Stats

443 Citations
138.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2015
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2012-2013
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2011-2013
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Singapore Clinical Research Institute
  • 2008-2013
    • Duke University
      • Department of Surgery
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2007-2009
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Surgery
      Durham, North Carolina, United States