A. Sternberg

Tel Aviv University, Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Publications (217)853.26 Total impact

  • Natalie Mashian · Avi Loeb · Amiel Sternberg
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the cumulative CO emission from galaxies throughout cosmic history distorts the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a level that is well above the detection limit of future instruments, such as the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE). Most of the CO foreground originates from modest redshifts, z ~ 2-5, and needs to be efficiently removed for more subtle distortions from the earlier universe to be detected.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
  • Shmuel Bialy · Amiel Sternberg
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    ABSTRACT: We present a simple analytic procedure for generating atomic-to-molecular (HI-to-H$_2$) density profiles for optically thick clouds illuminated by far-ultraviolet radiation. Our procedure is based on the analytic theory for the structure of 1D HI/H$_2$ photon-dominated regions, presented by Sternberg et al. (2014). Depth-dependent HI and H$_2$ density fractions may be computed for arbitrary gas density, far-ultraviolet field intensity, and the metallicity dependent H$_2$ formation rate coefficient, and dust absorption cross section. We use our procedure to generate a set of HI-to-H$_2$ transition profiles for a wide range of conditions, from the weak- to strong-field limits, and from super-solar down to low metallicities. We show that if presented as functions of dust optical depth the HI and H$_2$ density profiles depend primarily on the Sternberg "$\alpha G$ parameter" (dimensionless) that determines the dust optical depth associated with the total photodissociated HI column. We derive a universal analytic formula for the HI-to-H$_2$ transition points as a function of just $\alpha G$. Our formula will be useful for interpreting emission-line observations of HI/H$_2$ interfaces, for estimating star-formation thresholds, and for sub-grid components in hydrodynamics simulations.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: The optical classification of a Seyfert galaxy and whether it is considered X-ray absorbed are often used interchangeably. But there are many borderline cases and also numerous examples where the optical and X-ray classifications appear to be in conflict. In this article we re-visit the relation between optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in AGNs. We make use of our "dust color" method (Burtscher et al. 2015) to derive the optical obscuration A_V and consistently estimated X-ray absorbing columns using 0.3--150 keV spectral energy distributions. We also take into account the variable nature of the neutral gas column N_H and derive the Seyfert sub-classes of all our objects in a consistent way. We show in a sample of 25 local, hard-X-ray detected Seyfert galaxies (log L_X / (erg/s) ~ 41.5 - 43.5) that there can actually be a good agreement between optical and X-ray classification. If Seyfert types 1.8 and 1.9 are considered unobscured, the threshold between X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed should be chosen at a column N_H = 10^22.3 / cm^2 to be consistent with the optical classification. We find that N_H is related to A_V and that the N_H/A_V ratio is approximately Galactic or higher in all sources, as indicated previously. But in several objects we also see that deviations from the Galactic ratio are only due to a variable X-ray column, showing that (1) deviations from the Galactic N_H/A_V can simply be explained by dust-free neutral gas within the broad line region in some sources, that (2) the dust properties in AGNs can be similar to Galactic dust and that (3) the dust color method is a robust way to estimate the optical extinction towards the sublimation radius in all but the most obscured AGNs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the angular momenta of massive star forming galaxies (SFGs) at the peak of the cosmic star formation epoch (z~0.8-2.6). Our sample of ~360 log(M*/Msun) ~ 9.3-11.8 SFGs is mainly based on the KMOS^3D and SINS/zC-SINF surveys of H\alpha\ kinematics, and collectively provides a representative subset of the massive star forming population. The inferred halo scale, angular momentum distribution is broadly consistent with that theoretically predicted for their dark matter halos, in terms of mean spin parameter <\lambda> ~ 0.037 and its dispersion ($\sigma_{log(\lambda)}$~0.2). Spin parameters correlate with the disk radial scale, and with their stellar surface density, but do not depend significantly on halo mass, stellar mass, or redshift. Our data thus support the long-standing assumption that on average the specific angular momentum of early disks reflects that of their dark matter halos (jd = jDM), despite the fact that gas enters the virial radius with substantially higher angular momentum, requiring subsequent angular momentum redistribution. The lack of correlation between \lambda x (jd/jDM) and the nuclear stellar density $\Sigma_{*}$(1kpc) favors that disk-internal angular momentum redistribution leads to "compaction" inside massive high-z disks. The average disk to dark halo mass ratio is ~5%, consistent with recent abundance matching results and implying that our high-z disks are strongly baryon dominated.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Emission from high-J CO lines in galaxies has long been proposed as a tracer of X-ray dominated regions (XDRs) produced by AGN. Of particular interest is the question of whether the obscuring torus, which is required by AGN unification models, can be observed via high-J CO cooling lines. Here we report on the analysis of a deep Herschel-PACS observation of an extremely high J CO transition (40-39) in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The line was not detected, with a derived 3$\sigma$ upper limit of $2 \times 10^{-17}\,\text{W}\,\text{m}^{-2}$. We apply an XDR model in order to investigate whether the upper limit constrains the properties of a molecular torus in NGC 1068. The XDR model predicts the CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions for various gas densities and illuminating X-ray fluxes. In our model, the CO(40-39) upper limit is matched by gas with densities $\sim 10^{6}-10^{7}\,\text{cm}^{-3}$, located at $1.6-5\,\text{pc}$ from the AGN, with column densities of at least $10^{25}\,\text{cm}^{-2}$. At such high column densities, however, dust absorbs most of the CO(40-39) line emission at $\lambda = 65.69\, \mu$m. Therefore, even if NGC 1068 has a molecular torus which radiates in the CO(40-39) line, the dust can attenuate the line emission to below the PACS detection limit. The upper limit is thus consistent with the existence of a molecular torus in NGC 1068. In general, we expect that the CO(40-39) is observable in only a few AGN nuclei (if at all), because of the required high gas column density, and absorption by dust.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the CO J=1-0 transition in a sample of four $z\sim2$ main sequence galaxies. These galaxies are in the blue sequence of star-forming galaxies at their redshift, and are part of the IRAM Plateau de Bure HIgh-$z$ Blue Sequence Survey (PHIBSS) which imaged them in CO J=3-2. Two galaxies are imaged here at high signal-to-noise, allowing determinations of their disk sizes, line profiles, molecular surface densities, and excitation. Using these and published measurements, we show that the CO and optical disks have similar sizes in main-sequence galaxies, and in the galaxy where we can compare CO J=1-0 and J=3-2 sizes we find these are also very similar. Assuming a Galactic CO-to-H$_2$ conversion, we measure surface densities of $\Sigma_{mol}\sim1200$ M$_\odot$pc$^{-2}$ in projection and estimate $\Sigma_{mol}\sim500-900$ M$_\odot$pc$^{-2}$ deprojected. Finally, our data yields velocity-integrated Rayleigh-Jeans brightness temperature line ratios $r_{31}$ that are approximately unity. In addition to the similar disk sizes, the very similar line profiles in J=1-0 and J=3-2 indicate that both transitions sample the same kinematics, implying that their emission is coextensive. We conclude that in these two main sequence galaxies there is no evidence for significant excitation gradients or a large molecular reservoir that is diffuse or cold and not involved in active star-formation. We suggest that $r_{31}$ in very actively star-forming galaxies is likely an indicator of how well mixed the star formation activity and the molecular reservoir are.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Natalie Mashian · Amiel Sternberg · Abraham Loeb
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    ABSTRACT: We present a novel approach to estimating the intensity mapping signal of any CO rotational line emitted during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Our approach is based on large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling, a radiative transfer modeling technique that generates the full CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for a specified gas kinetic temperature, volume density, velocity gradient, molecular abundance, and column density. These parameters, which drive the physics of CO transitions and ultimately dictate the shape and amplitude of the CO SLED, can be linked to the global properties of the host galaxy, mainly the star formation rate (SFR) and the SFR surface density. By further employing an empirically derived SFR-M relation for high redshift galaxies, we can express the LVG parameters, and thus the specific intensity of any CO rotational transition, as functions of the host halo mass M and redshift z. Integrating over the range of halo masses expected to host CO-luminous galaxies, i.e. M >= 10^8 M{_\odot}, we predict a mean CO(1-0) brightness temperature ranging from ~1 {\mu}K at z = 6 to ~ 0.2 {\mu}K at z = 10 in the case where the duty cycles of star formation and CO luminous activity are assumed to be 0.1 (f_{UV} = f_{duty} = 0.1). In this model, the CO emission signal remains strong for higher rotational levels, with < T_{CO} > ~ 0.3 and 0.1 {\mu}K for the CO J = 10->9 transition at z = 6 and 10 respectively. If instead we adopt duty cycles of unity, the estimated CO(1-0) brightness temperature declines to < T_{CO}>~ 0.6 {\mu}K at z = 6 and ~0.03 {\mu}K at z =10 respectively; the correspondingly reduced signal strengths of the higher J lines make detection of these transitions at high significance less likely in the f_{UV} = f_{duty} = 1 model.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
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    ABSTRACT: We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-IR wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 μm CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arcsecond and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log = 42.5 (log LxAGN = 42.5). These offsets only become clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of AVhot = 5.15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and AVhot= 15.35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We use the Sternberg et al. theory for interstellar atomic to molecular hydrogen (H i-to-H2) conversion to analyze H i-to-H2 transitions in five (low-mass) star-forming and dark regions in the Perseus molecular cloud, B1, B1E, B5, IC348, and NGC1333. The observed H i mass surface densities of 6.3–9.2 are consistent with H i-to-H2 transitions dominated by H i-dust shielding in predominantly atomic envelopes. For each source, we constrain the dimensionless parameter , and the ratio , of the FUV intensity to hydrogen gas density. We find values from 5.0 to 26.1, implying characteristic atomic hydrogen densities 11.8–1.8 cm−3, for appropriate for Perseus. Our analysis implies that the dusty H i shielding layers are probably multiphased, with thermally unstable UNM gas in addition to cold CNM within the 21 cm kinematic radius.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Shmuel Bialy · Amiel Sternberg · Abraham Loeb
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that high abundances of water vapor could have existed in extremely low metallicity ($10^{-3}$ solar) partially shielded gas, during the epoch of first metal enrichment of the interstellar medium of galaxies at high redshifts.
    No preview · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a complete volume limited sample of nearby active galaxies selected by their 14-195keV luminosity, and outline its rationale for studying the mechanisms regulating gas inflow and outflow. We describe also a complementary sample of inactive galaxies, selected to match the AGN host galaxy properties. The active sample appears to have no bias in terms of AGN type, the only difference being the neutral absorbing column which is two orders of magnitude greater for the Seyfert 2s. In the luminosity range spanned by the sample, log L_{14-195keV} [erg/s] = 42.4-43.7, the optically obscured and X-ray absorbed fractions are 50-65%. The similarity of these fractions to more distant spectroscopic AGN samples, although over a limited luminosity range, suggests that the torus does not strongly evolve with redshift. Our sample confirms that X-ray unabsorbed Seyfert 2s are rare, comprising not more than a few percent of the Seyfert 2 population. At higher luminosities, the optically obscured fraction decreases (as expected for the increasing dust sublimation radius), but the X-ray absorbed fraction changes little. We argue that the cold X-ray absorption in these Seyfert 1s can be accounted for by neutral gas in clouds that also contribute to the broad line region (BLR) emission; and suggest that a geometrically thick neutral gas torus co-exists with the BLR and bridges the gap to the dusty torus.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-infrared wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 micron CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arc second and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log L_MIR = 42.5 (log L_X = 42.5). These offsets only becomes clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to-mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of A_V (hot) = 5 - 15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and A_V (hot) = 15 - 35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    Shmuel Bialy · Amiel Sternberg · Abraham Loeb
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that high abundances of water vapor could have existed in extremely low metallicity ($10^{-3}$ solar) partially shielded gas, during the epoch of first metal enrichment of the interstellar medium of galaxies at high redshifts.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present neutral hydrogen (HI) imaging observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope of AGC198606, an HI cloud discovered in the ALFALFA 21cm survey. This object is of particular note as it is located 16 km/s and 1.2 degrees from the gas-bearing ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Leo T while having a similar HI linewidth and approximately twice the flux density. The HI imaging observations reveal a smooth, undisturbed HI morphology with a full extent of 23'x16' at the 5x10^18 atoms cm^-2 level. The velocity field of AGC198606 shows ordered motion with a gradient of ~25 km/s across ~20'. The global velocity dispersion is 9.3 km/s with no evidence for a narrow spectral component. No optical counterpart to AGC198606 is detected. The distance to AGC198606 is unknown, and we consider several different scenarios: physical association with Leo T, a minihalo at a distance of ~150 kpc based on the models of Faerman et al. (2013), and a cloud in the Galactic halo. At a distance of 420 kpc, AGC198606 would have an HI mass of 6.2x10^5 Msun, an HI radius of 1.4 kpc, and a dynamical mass within the HI extent of 1.5x10^8 Msun.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M */M ☉) ≥ 10.9) z ~ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M */M ☉) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS3Dspectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ~450-5300 km s–1), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M */M ☉) ~ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ~ 1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of far-infrared (FIR) CO rotational emission from nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) and starburst galaxies, as well as several merging systems and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Using Herschel-PACS, we have detected transitions in the J$_{upp}$ = 14 - 20 range ($\lambda \sim$ 130 - 185 $\mu$m, $\nu \sim$ 1612 - 2300 GHz) with upper limits on (and in two cases, detections of) CO line fluxes up to J$_{upp}$ = 30. The PACS CO data obtained here provide the first well-sampled FIR extragalactic CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) for this range, and will be an essential reference for future high redshift studies. Combining these data with low-J line intensities taken from the literature, we present a CO ratio-ratio diagram and discuss its potential diagnostic value in distinguishing excitation sources and physical properties of the molecular gas. We then quantitatively analyze the CO emission from a subset of the detected sources with Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) radiative transfer models to fit the CO SLEDs. Using both single-component and two-component LVG models to fit the kinetic temperature, velocity gradient, number density and column density of the gas, we derive the molecular gas mass and the corresponding CO-to-H$_2$ conversion factor, $\alpha_{CO}$, for each respective source. Finally, we compare our best-fit LVG model results with those obtained in previous studies of the same galaxies and comment on any differences.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Shmuel Bialy · Amiel Sternberg
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    ABSTRACT: We present numerical computations and analytic scaling relations for interstellar ion-molecule gas-phase chemistry down to very low metallicities (10−3 × solar), and/or up to high driving ionization rates. Relevant environments include the cool interstellar medium (ISM) in low-metallicity dwarf galaxies, early enriched clouds at the reionization and Pop-II star formation era, and in dense cold gas exposed to intense X-ray or cosmic ray sources. We focus on the behaviour for H2, CO, CH, OH, H2O and O2, at gas temperatures ∼100 K, characteristic of a cooled ISM at low metallicities. We consider shielded or partially shielded one-zone gas parcels, and solve the gas-phase chemical rate equations for the steady-state ‘metal-molecule abundances for a wide range of ionization parameters, ζ/n, and metallicties, Z ′. We find that the OH abundances are always maximal near the H-to-H2 conversion points, and that large OH abundances persist at very low metallicities even when the hydrogen is predominantly atomic. We study the OH/O2, C/CO and OH/CO abundance ratios, from large to small, as functions of ζ/n and Z ′. Much of the cold dense ISM for the Pop-II generation may have been OH-dominated and atomic rather than CO-dominated and molecular.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star forming galaxies (SFGs) between z=0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2 and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion time scale (tdepl) and gas fraction (Mmolgas/M*) with redshift, specific star formation rate (sSFR) and stellar mass (M*) in SFGs. The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO-H2 mass conversion factor varies little within +-0.6 dex of the main sequence line, and less than a factor of 2 throughout this redshift range. We find that tdepl scales as (1+z)^-0.3 *(sSFR)^-0.5, with no M* dependence. The resulting steep redshift dependence of Mmolgas/M* ~ (1+z)^3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M* relation. At constant M*, a larger sSFR is due to a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion time scale. As a result galaxy integrated samples of the Mmolgas-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine Mmolgas with an accuracy of +-0.1 dex in relative terms, and +-0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the correlations between stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and the [N II]/Hα flux ratio as an indicator of gas-phase metallicity for a sample of 222 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 2.6 and log (M */M ☉) = 9.0-11.5 from the LUCI, SINS/zC-SINF, and KMOS3D surveys. This sample provides a unique analysis of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over an extended redshift range using consistent data analysis techniques and a uniform strong-line metallicity indicator. We find a constant slope at the low-mass end of the relation and can fully describe its redshift evolution through the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass where the relation begins to flatten at the asymptotic metallicity. At a fixed mass and redshift, our data do not show a correlation between the [N II]/Hα ratio and SFR, which disagrees with the 0.2-0.3 dex offset in [N II]/Hα predicted by the "fundamental relation" between stellar mass, SFR, and metallicity discussed in recent literature. However, the overall evolution toward lower [N II]/Hα at earlier times does broadly agree with these predictions.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) z~1-3 star-forming galaxies (Forster Schreiber et al.), by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS^3D spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Ha, [NII], and [SII] lines ~ 450-5300 km/s), with large [NII]/Ha ratios, above log(M*/Msun) ~ 10.9, with 66+/-15% of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z~1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014

Publication Stats

10k Citations
853.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2015
    • Tel Aviv University
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Faculty of Exact Sciences
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2013
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1997-2009
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2001-2003
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994
    • University of Cologne
      • I. Institute of Physics
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany