[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although intima-media thickness (IMT) was increased in several inflammatory diseases, studies investigating whether the inflammatory processes lead to macrovascular alteration with increased IMT in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) lack.
Using ultrasound (high-resolution B-mode), we compared bilaterally the IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), the radial artery (RA-IMT), the brachial artery (BRA-IMT) and the quotient QRA/CCA, in CRPS type I (n=17), peripheral nerve injury (PNI, n=17) and pain-free controls (PFC, n=22, matched to CRPS by gender, age and traditional cardiovascular risk factors). Statistics: Spearman’s correlation, paired t-test, ANOVA (p<0.05).
Compared to PFC, RA-IMT were significantly increased in both patient groups bilaterally (mean±standard deviation, CRPS affected side vs. PFC dominant side: 0.32±0.08 mm vs. 0.19±0.08 mm, p<0.001; PNI affected side vs. PFC dominant side: 0.27±0.09 mm vs. 0.19±0.08 mm, p< 0.05; CRPS non-affected side vs. PFC non-dominant side: 0.30±0.10 mm vs. 0.19±0.09 mm, p<0.001; PNI non-affected side vs. PFC non-dominant side: 0.25±0.10 mm vs. 0.19±0.09 mm, p<0.05) and QRA/CCA (CRPS affected-side vs. PFC dominant side: 0.49±0.12 vs. 0.30±0.11, p<0.001; PNI affected side vs. PFC dominant side: 0.41±0.10 vs. 0.30±0.11, p<0.05; CRPS non-affected side vs. PFC non-dominant side: 0.43±0.19 vs. 0.30±0.13, p<0.001; PNI non-affected side vs. PFC non-dominant side: 0.39±0.14 vs. 0.30±0.13, p<0.05), and BRA-IMT - only on the affected side in CRPS (CRPS: 0.42±0.06 mm vs. PFC: 0.35±0.08 mm; p<0.05). In CRPS, QRA/CCA was significantly higher on the affected side compared to PNI (p<0.05). However, only CRPS displayed within-group side-to-side differences with a significantly increased RA-IMT and QRA/CCA on the affected side (p<0.05). The CCA-IMT was comparable between all groups and sides.
The increased IMT of peripheral arteries in CRPS suggests ongoing inflammatory process. Until now, only endothelial dysfunction has been reported. The presented morphological macrovascular alterations might explain the treatment resistance of some CRPS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary success rates, and the angiographic and clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention, are influenced
by many different factors. Clinical features and morphologic characteristics of the target lesion are important. Also, interventionally
caused endothelial trauma may trigger atherogenetic and procoagulatory factors leading to intraluminal thrombosis. The study
population consisted of 228 consecutive, unselected patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease or exercise-induced
myocardial ischemia and coronary artery stenoses eligible for percutaneous intervention. We analyzed different clinical, morphological,
and laboratory (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides,
fibrinogen) features in those patients with adverse cardiac events (stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, urgent target
vessel revascularization, death) after primary successful coronary artery stenting, compared with a control group without
adverse events. In the group with adverse cardiac events we found a significantly higher level of fibrinogen compared with
the control group. Other laboratory data and clinical characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups.
The study shows a possible association between hyperfibrinogenemia and adverse cardiac events after intracoronary stenting.
In clinical practice, the potential role of elevated levels of fibrinogen in an unfavorable outcome after percutaneous coronary
interventions should be considered when planning coronary artery stenting.
Key words Fibrinogen-Coronary artery stenting-Adverse cardiac events
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Heart and Vessels
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Society of Cardiology recently proposed a new algorithm "How to diagnose heart failure with normal ejection fraction". Central element of the diagnostic strategy is the demonstration of diastolic dysfunction, either by tissue Doppler-derived indices in first line, or in second line by a combination of elevated blood levels of natriuretic peptide with abnormal tissue Doppler findings. We thought to use this diagnostic flowchart in a population-based cohort of elderly women, in whom the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure is believed to be high. The purpose was to evaluate the association of dyspnea with the presence of diastolic dysfunction.
The study cohort recruited from a cross-sectional follow-up examination of the SALIA cohort (study on the influence of air pollution on lung function, inflammation, and aging). Participants with cardiac or pulmonary disease were excluded, 291 participants formed the final study group (all women, age range 69 to 79 years, all in sinus rhythm, LV ejection fraction > 50%, LV enddiastolic volume index < 97 mL/m2). Quality of life was assessed by the Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire, and actual symptoms by a structural questionnaire; the examination consisted of a physical examination, measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide, ECG and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Diastolic dysfunction was assumed when the E/E' ratio exceeded 15 as derived from tissue Doppler. In case, tissue Doppler yielded an E/E' ratio ranging from 8 to 15, additional non-invasive parameters had to be fulfilled: left atrial volume index > 40 ml/m2 body surface, or left ventricular mass index > 122 g/m2 body surface, or transmitral E/A ratio < 0.5 plus deceleration time > 280 ms, or blood level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) > 200 pg/mL.
The examinations were concordant with the presence of diastolic dysfunction in 122/291 participants (41.9%). The diagnosis based in 94% of cases on two criteria: in 50 cases on the criterion "E/E' ratio > 15", and in 65 cases on the criterion "15 > E/E'>8 and LV mass index > 122 g/m2". The participants with diastolic dysfunction had on average a higher body mass index, more frequent a history of arterial hypertension and of hospitalization for congestive heart failure, poorer quality of life, and higher BNP blood levels as compared to those participants without signs of diastolic dysfunction. The number of participants complaining exertional dyspnea, however, was similar distributed among the subgroups with and without signs of diastolic dysfunction (40.2 vs 40.8%; p = n.s). In a logistic regression model, the symptom dyspnea was best predicted by systolic pulmonary artery pressure, followed by left atrial volume index, BNP, and body mass index.
The demonstration of diastolic dysfunction showed only a poor association with the symptom dyspnea in a cohort of elderly women with otherwise normal systolic function. Additional structural or hemodynamic changes are necessary to "explain" the symptom dyspnea. It is unclear whether these additional factors are secondary to a more advanced stage of diastolic dysfunction, or are related to cardiovascular co-morbidities, or both.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an alternative technique in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. However, a number of patients have no benefit after implantation. This prospective study attempted to identify predictors of poor treatment response.
From June 2008 to September 2010, consecutive patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis and high surgical risk were submitted to TAVI with the CoreValve prosthesis (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN). The primary end point was all-cause mortality at 6 months. Secondary end point (poor treatment response) was defined as no improvement of symptoms assessed with the New York Heart Association class 6 months after TAVI.
A total of 145 patients (mean age 79.1 ± 6.4 years, mean logistic EuroSCORE 21% ± 16.2%) were included. During the follow-up period, 23 (15.9%) patients died. Independent predictors of all-cause mortality were as follows: aortic mean gradient ≤40 mm Hg (odds ratio [OR] 3.93), moderate and severe tricuspid valve regurgitation (OR 4.50), and moderate and severe postprocedural aortic valve regurgitation (OR 4.26). In 122 surviving patients, 25 patients (20%) showed no improvement in symptoms. Independent predictors of poor treatment response were severe mitral valve regurgitation (OR 7.42) and moderate and severe postprocedural aortic valve regurgitation (OR 10.1).
Cardiac comorbidities (low-gradient aortic stenosis, tricuspidal valve regurgitation) are associated with all-cause mortality, whereas mitral valve regurgitation is a risk factor for poor treatment response after TAVI. Postprocedural aortic valve regurgitation is a strong predictor of both-mortality and poor treatment response.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced age and female sex are associated with increased myocardial stiffness, even in the absence of cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and left atrial (LA) enlargement are typical findings in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction (DD). Because DD has been described in asymptomatic subjects, its clinical impact remains controversial. It has previously been hypothesized that mild DD has no clinical impact when natriuretic peptide levels are normal. The present study aimed to determine the impact of LA volume and LV mass on DD in elderly women.
A cross-sectional survey was used to investigate a cohort of 311 randomly selected, nonhospitalized elderly women (mean [± SD] age 74.3±2.9 years). Examination comprised quality of life, measurement of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and echocardiography. The prevalences of different degrees of DD were as follows: mild 47.9% (n=149), moderate 36.7% (n=114) and severe 4.8% (n=15). Compared with normal diastolic function, moderate and severe DD were associated with higher BNP levels (P=0.038 and P<0.001, respectively) and elevated indexes of LA volume (LAVI) (P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively) and LV mass (LVMI) (P=0.074 and P=0.017, respectively). Participants with normal diastolic function and mild DD had no significant differences in quality of life, BNP levels, LAVI or LVMI.
Mild DD is common in elderly women and is not associated with increased BNP levels or poor quality of life. Compared with individuals with moderate and severe DD, LAVI and LVMI are normal in patients with mild DD.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Experimental and clinical cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative therapy for symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis in high-risk patients with several co-morbidities. We evaluated the 1-year effects of TAVI on quality of life, exercise capacity, neurohormonal activation, and myocardial hypertrophy. From June 2008 to October 2009, consecutive patients aged ≥75 years with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis (area <1 cm(2)) and a logistic euroSCORE ≥15% or aged >60 years with additional specified risk factors underwent TAVI. An aortic valve prosthesis (CoreValve) was inserted in a retrograde fashion. Examinations were performed before and 30 days and 1 year after TAVI. An assessment of the quality of life (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire), a 6-minute walking test, measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide, and echocardiography were performed. In 51 patients (mean age 78 ± 6.6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 58.4 ± 12.2%), the follow-up examinations were performed after TAVI. The 1-year follow-up visit after TAVI revealed significantly improved quality of life (baseline Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score 39.6 ± 19 vs 26.1 ± 18, p <0.001) and more distance covered in the 6-minute walking test (baseline 185 ± 106 vs 266 ± 118 m, p <0.001). The B-type natriuretic peptide level had decreased (baseline 642 ± 634 vs 323 ± 266 pg/ml, p <0.001), and the left ventricular mass index had decreased (156 ± 45 vs 130 ± 42 g/m(2), p <0.001). The left ventricular diameter and ejection fraction remained unchanged. In conclusion, TAVI leads to significantly reduced neurohormonal activation, regression of myocardial hypertrophy, and lasting enhancement of quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with symptomatic and severe aortic stenosis 1 year after intervention.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The American journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease with percutaneous intervention requires antithrombotic therapy. Patients with elevated thromboembolic risk benefit from therapy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The safety and effectiveness of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition have been well documented in clinical trials. Drug-induced bleeding complications in elderly patients have not been specifically addressed.
Between 2006 and 2009, a total of 439 unselected patients 80 years of age and older undergoing percutaneous intervention for symptomatic coronary artery disease were included in the present nonrandomized retrospective study. In one-half of the patients, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were administered peri-interventionally. The in-hospital occurrence of bleeding complications (access site, gastrointestinal and cerebral) were analyzed in the groups with and without glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.
The mean age of the patients was 84 years. Nearly all patients (95%) received dual antiplatelet therapy. Patients treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors had more complex coronary lesions and bypass graft interventions, and a tendency toward more access site bleeding complications than patients without inhibitors, which included femoral hematomas (4.6% versus 2.3%, respectively; P not significant) and femoral pseudoaneurysms (6% versus 3.2%, respectively; P not significant). The rate of blood transfusion was equal in both groups (0.9%). Major hemorrhagic events did not occur. Vessel closure devices were used more often in patients without glycoprotein inhibition.
An increase in minor bleedings must be expected when using glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients 80 years of age and older. However, this issue must not prevent this treatment option from being offered to elderly patients. There appears to be no elevated risk for major bleeding complications. Broadened use of vascular closure devices in this specific patient population may lower the rate of access site complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective study was designed to evaluate the hemodynamic results of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the CoreValve prosthesis (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) and the effects on left ventricular function.
From June 2008 to June 2009, consecutive patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis (aortic valve area <1 cm(2)) and the indication for TAVI were included. Aortic valve prosthesis was inserted retrograde. Examinations of study patients were performed before, 30 days, and 6 months after TAVI and comprised measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiography. Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch was defined as an indexed effective aortic valve area < or =0.65 cm(2)/m(2).
In 39 patients, follow-up examinations were performed after TAVI. Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch seldom occurred (n = 1), but mild to moderate aortic valve regurgitation due to paravalvular leaks was common (n = 24, 62%). After 6 months, left ventricular mass index declined (158 +/- 46 vs 138 +/- 45 g/m(2), P = .001), and peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') and peak systolic mitral annular velocity (S') increased (P = .004 and P < .001, respectively). B-type natriuretic peptide levels decreased (744 +/- 708 at baseline vs 367 +/- 273 at 30 days, P = .003, 279 +/- 186 pg/mL at 6 months, P = .001). Left ventricular diameters and ejection fraction remained unchanged.
Despite the high incidence of paravalvular regurgitation after TAVI, hemodynamic results were favorable. Furthermore, TAVI had positive effects on left ventricular remodeling and improved neurohormonal activity, myocardial hypertrophy, and diastolic function.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · American heart journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) as an additional echocardiographic tool to analyse right ventricular (RV) systolic function has been recently established and two-dimensional-guided M-mode measurements of systolic long axis function of the RV are simple, repeatable, and highly reproducible. However, rare data are available on normal values. We aimed to analyse normal values in healthy women >70 years of age.
In a cross-sectional survey, we investigated a cohort of randomly selected, non-hospitalized women >70 years of age. History of myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and diastolic dysfunction were exclusion criteria. In order to rule out left ventricular or RV dysfunction, a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and normal values of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were necessary prior to study inclusion. A detailed echocardiographic examination was performed. A total of 80 participants were included (mean age 75 +/- 2.6 years). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 63.8 +/- 5.7%. Tissue Doppler derived mean E/E' ratio was 10 +/- 2.3. Mean right atrial diameter was 31.3 +/- 4.7 mm. Mean values for RV outflow tract and RV dimension were 27.3 +/- 3.6 and 28.8 +/- 3.7 mm, respectively. Mean TAPSE was 23.7 +/- 3.5 mm. Mean value of BNP was normal (42.5 +/- 35.7 pg/mL).
In women >70 years of age without heart failure, structural heart disease, and neurohormonal activation, normal TAPSE values are approximately 24 mm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The technique of miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (M-CPB) for beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is relatively new and has potential advantages when compared to conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). M-CPB consists of less tubing length and requires less priming volume. The system is phosphorylcholine coated and results in minimal pump-related inflammatory response and organ injury. Finally, this technique combines the advantages of the off-pump CABG (OPCAB) with the better exposure provided by CPB to facilitate complete revascularization. The hypothesis is that CABG with M-CPB has a better outcome in terms of complete coronary revascularization and perioperative results as that compared to off-pump CABG (OPCAB). In a retrospective study, 302 patients underwent beating-heart CABG, 117 (39%) of them with the use of M-CPB and 185 (61%) with OPCAB. After propensity score matching 62 patients in both groups were demographically similar. The most important intra- and early-postoperative parameters were analyzed. Endpoints were hospital mortality and complete revascularization. Hospital mortality was comparable between the groups. The revascularization was significantly more complete in M-CPB patients than in patients in the OPCAB group. Beating-heart CABG with M-CPB is a safe procedure and it provides an optimal operative exposure with significantly more complete coronary revascularization when compared to OPCAB. Beating-heart CABG with the support of a M-CPB is the operation of choice when total coronary revascularization is needed.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Artificial Organs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biventricular (BiV) is extensively used in the treatment of congestive heart failure but so far no recommendations for optimized programming of atrioventricular-delay (AVD) settings have been proposed. Can AVD optimization be performed using a simple formula based on non-invasive doppler-echocardiography?
25 patients (ejection fraction 30+/-8%) received BiV ICDs. Doppler-echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic and systolic flow was performed for different AVDs (30ms to 150ms) and different stimulation sites (left ventricular (LV), right ventricular and BiV). The optimal atrioventricular delay was calculated applying a simple formula based on systolic and diastolic mechanical delays determined during doppler-echocardiography.
The mean optimal AVD was calculated to be 112+/-29ms (50 to 180ms) for BiV, 95+/-30ms (65 to 150ms) for LV and 75+/-28ms (40 to 125ms) for right ventricular pacing with wide interindividual variations. Compared to suboptimal AVDs diastolic optimization improved preejection and ejection intervals independent to pacing site. Optimization of the AVD significantly increased ejection time during BiV pacing (279ms versus 266ms; p<0.05). Compared to LV or right ventricular pacing BiV pacing produced the shortest mean pre-ejection and longest ejection intervals as parameters of improved systolic ventricular contractile synchrony. Diastolic filling times were longest during BiV pacing compared to LV or RV pacing.
Individual programming of BiV pacing devices increases hemodynamic benefit when implementing the inter-individually widely varying electromechanical delays. Optimization applying a simple formula not only improves diastolic ventricular filling but also increases systolic functional parameters.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Indian pacing and electrophysiology journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements in the so-called gray-zone range of > or = 0.75 and < or =0.80 are associated with uncertainty concerning the guidance of patient therapy. It is unclear whether any difference in clinical outcome exists when revascularization treatment of FFR-evaluated lesions in this borderline range is deferred or performed. The objective of this study is to compare the clinical outcome of these patients with respect to their recommended treatment strategy.
Out of a single center database of 900 consecutive patients with stable coronary artery disease, 97 patients with borderline FFR measurements were identified and included in the study. The rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularization) and the presence of angina were evaluated at follow-up.
A total of 48 patients were deferred from revascularization and 49 patients underwent revascularization. There was no difference in risk profile between these groups. At a mean follow-up of 24+/-16 months, event-free survival in the deferred group was significantly better regarding overall MACE, combined rate of cardiac death, and MI, as well as MACE related to the FFR-evaluated vessel. No difference with regard to the presence of angina was observed.
Patients with coronary lesions in the borderline FFR range can be deferred from revascularization without putting them at increased risk for major adverse events. Revascularization may be considered in the course of therapy on an individual basis if typical angina persists or worsens despite maximal medical treatment.
Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Clinical Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective study aimed to determine to what extent clinical symptoms and neurohumoral activation are improved in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the CoreValve prosthesis.
From June 2008 to June 2009 consecutive patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis (area<1 cm(2)), age>or=75 years with a logistic EuroSCORE >or=15% or age>60 years plus additional specified risk factors were evaluated for TAVI. Examinations of study patients were performed before and 30 days after TAVI and comprised assessment of quality of life (Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire, [MLHFQ]) 6-minute walk test, measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiography. Aortic valve prosthesis was inserted retrograde using a femoral arterial or a subclavian artery approach.
In 44 consecutive patients (mean age 79.1+/-7 years, 50% women, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 55.8+/-8.5%) TAVI was successfully performed. Follow-up 30 days after TAVI showed a significantly improved quality of life (baseline 44+/-19.1 vs 28+/-17.5 MLHFQ Score, p<0.001) and an enhanced distance in the 6-minute walk test (baseline 204+/-103 vs 266+/-123 m, p<0.001). B-type natriuretic peptide levels were reduced (baseline 725+/-837 vs 423+/-320 pg/ml, p=0.005).
Our preliminary results show a significant clinical benefit and a reduction of neurohormonal activation in patients with severe and symptomatic aortic valve stenosis early after TAVI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maximal hyperemia is a critical prerequisite for correct fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements. Continuous administration of adenosine by femoral venous access is considered the gold-standard. However, antecubital venous access is used as an alternative route of administration due to the increasing popularity of radial versus femoral access for coronary catheterization. Because of a potentially larger cross sectional venous area in the arm-theoretically associated with slower flow velocities-and the extremely short half-life of adenosine, there are concerns whether this route of administration is truly equivalent to the femoral route.
Fifty randomly selected patients with coronary artery disease were included. FFR was measured with a pressure monitoring wire and the recording was digitally stored. Hyperemia was successively induced by adenosine via the antecubital vein at a dose of 140 microg kg(-1) min(-1) (A140), via the antecubital vein at a dose of 170 microg kg(-1) min(-1) (A170), and via the femoral vein at a dose of 140 microg kg(-1) min(-1) (F140).
Induction of hyperemia by A140 yielded significantly lower hyperemic responses than compared with A170 (P = 0.038) and F140 (P = 0.005). No significant difference was seen between adenosine administration by A170 versus F140. Hyperemic stimulation by A140 underestimated lesion severity near the ischemic threshold of FFR more frequently than the other modalities. There were no differences in side-effects between any of the dosages and routes of administration.
The intravenous application of adenosine via antecubital venous access is feasible but slightly less effective than the femoral approach. In this setting, an antecubital dosage of 170 microg kg(-1) min(-1) is comparable to the standard dosage of 140 microg kg(-1) min(-1) in the femoral vein. In some patients, this regimen might prevent an underestimation of lesion severity.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Clinical Research in Cardiology