Alexander Karl

University Hospital München, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (139)390.31 Total impact

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    C G Stief · A Karl

    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Der Urologe
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most common urologic diseases in childhood. About every third child that presents with a urinary tract infection (UTI) has urinary reflux to the ureter or kidney. Demonstration of a backflow of urine into the ureters or kidneys proves vesicoureteral reflux. In unclear cases, a positioned instillation of contrast agent (PIC) cystogram might be performed and is able to prove vesico-ureteral reflux. Objectives: Since low-grade VUR has a high probability of maturation and self-limitation, infants with VUR should be given prophylactic antibiotics during their first year of life, reevaluating the status of VUR after 12 months. The aim of any treatment is to prevent renal damage. Therapy: The individual risk of renal scarring is decisive for the choice of adequate therapy. This risk is mainly dependent on reflux grade, age, and gender of the child as well as parental therapy adherence. In principle, therapeutic options include conservative as well as endoscopic or open surgical antireflux therapies. Conclusion: Decisions on treatment should be made individually with parents taking into account all the findings available.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Der Urologe
  • A. Karl · H. Blasl · J. Straub · C. Stief · M. Riccabona
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    ABSTRACT: Background The number of outpatient surgeries for routine surgical interventions continues to increase, especially in adults. For many patients, there is no doubt that interventions like arthroscopy will be performed on an outpatient basis. Regarding urologic surgeries in adults (e.g., vasectomy, hydrecelectomy), outpatient treatment is well established. For adults such a procedure represents a well-calculable situation in most cases, as the patient can quite accurately imagine the events that will follow. In terms of pediatric outpatient surgery, the scenario is sometimes quite different. Parents are more anxious and uncertain because they must decide for the well-being of their children and they often do not exactly know what will happen during the procedure. In addition, they do not have to decide for themselves but for their children. Discussion Unfortunately, parents often lack information prior to surgery. Therefore, all persons involved in the treatment of children (e.g., urologists, anesthesiologists, nurses) must be trained and educated in giving adequate and appropriate information especially for parents. Conclusion The purpose of this article is to provide different starting points for an optimized preparation and care of children and parents concerning outpatient surgery in pediatric urology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Der Urologe
  • Jan-Friedrich Jokisch · Alexander Karl · Christian Stief
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive urothelial cell carcinoma is the most frequent malignancy of the urinary bladder. The high recurrence rate (up to 80%) and risk of progression (up to 30%) reflect the need for long-term follow-up and sometimes multiple interventions. To reduce the rate of recurrences and tumor progression, intravesical immunotherapy, especially the use of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), represents the gold standard adjuvant treatment of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). This article reviews the role of BCG therapy and several promising new immunotherapeutic approaches such as mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid complex, interleukin-10 (IL-10) antibody, vaccine-based therapy, alpha-emitter therapy, and photodynamic therapy checkpoint inhibitors. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed using the terms (immunotherapy, NMIBC, BCG, and intravesical) using PubMed and Cochrane databases. Results: BCG represents the most common intravesical immunotherapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of high-risk NMIBC. Its use is associated with a significant reduction of recurrence and progression. Patients with NMIBC of intermediate and high-risk benefit the most from BCG therapy. To achieve maximal efficacy, an induction therapy followed by a maintenance schedule should be used. Full-dose BCG is recommended to obtain ideal antitumoral activity and there is no evidence of a reduction of side effects in patients treated with a reduced dose. There are multiple new approaches and agents in immunotherapy with potential and promising antineoplastic effects. Conclusions: The beneficial effect of BCG is well documented and established. To reduce the tumor specific mortality, it is essential to follow guideline-based treatment. In patients with BCG-failure, there are new promising alternatives other than BCG but BCG remains the gold standard at this stage.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Indian Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Das Harnblasenkarzinom ist die häufigste bösartige Erkrankung des unteren Harntrakts. Klassisches Symptom ist die schmerzlose Makrohämaturie, die Sie in jedem Fall ernst nehmen sollten. Über den aktuellen Stand bei Diagnostik und Therapie informiert Sie der nachfolgende Beitrag.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Different blood parameters have shown to be associated with patient's oncological outcome. There is only limited knowledge about the prognostic relevance of routine blood parameters in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the influence of preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels on overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Materials and methods: Preoperative CRP and Hb levels were available in 664 patients who underwent RC due to TCC from 2004 to 2013 at our institution. More men than women (77 vs. 23 %) underwent surgery with a median age of 70 years (35-97). Median follow-up time was 24 months (max. 108). Outcome was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression models. Results: Median CRP level was 0.5 mg/dl (0.1-28.3), and median Hb level was 13.4 g/dl (6.7-17.9). Patients with CRP value above the median died significantly earlier due to their disease than those with CRP below the median (median CSS 19 vs. 70 months; p < 0.001). Patients with preoperative Hb level below the median had significantly worse outcome than those with Hb level above the median (median CSS 25 vs. 78 months; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, CRP and Hb levels were independent prognostic parameters regarding CSS/OS (CRP p = 0.016/p = 0.004; Hb p = 0.006/p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: In our single-center study, preoperative CRP and Hb levels were found to be independent prognostic factors, indicating impaired outcome in patients undergoing RC for TCC. These findings could be used for individual risk stratification and optimization of therapeutic strategies.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · World Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The use of artificial colloids is currently controversial, especially in Central Europe Several studies demonstrated a worse outcome in intensive care unit patients with the use of hydroxyethyl starch. This recently even led to a drug warning about use of hydroxyethyl starch products in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The data on hydroxyethyl starch in non-critically ill patients are insufficient to support perioperative use. Methods/Design: We are conducting a single-center, open-label, randomized, comparative trial with two parallel patient groups to compare human albumin 5 % (test drug) with hydroxyethyl starch 6 % 130/0.4 (comparator). The primary endpoint is cystatin C ratio, calculated as the ratio of the cystatin value at day 90 after surgery relative to the preoperative value. Secondary objectives are inter alia the evaluation of the influence of human albumin and hydroxyethyl starch on further laboratory chemical and clinical parameters, glycocalyx shedding, intensive care unit and hospital stay and acute kidney injury as defined by RIFLE criteria (risk of renal dysfunction, injury to the kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease) criteria. Discussion: There is a general lack of evidence on the relative safety and effects of hydroxyethyl starch compared with human albumin for volume replacement in a perioperative setting. Previously conducted studies of surgical patients in which researchers have compared different hydroxyethyl starch products included too few patients to properly evaluate clinical important outcomes such as renal function. In the present study in a high-risk patient population undergoing a major surgical intervention, we will determine if perioperative fluid replacement with human albumin 5 % will have a long-term advantage over a third-generation hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 on the progression of renal dysfunction until 90 days after surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy have been shown to be associated with impaired outcome. In pT3pN0 patients with PSM either immediate radiotherapy or clinical and biological monitoring followed by salvage radiotherapy is recommended by the latest guidelines of the European Association of Urology. A retrospective, multicenter study of eight urological centers was conducted on 536 prostatectomy patients with pT3aN0/NxR1 tumors and no neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy. A pathological re-review of all prostate specimens was performed. Association of clinical and pathological features with biochemical recurrence (BCR) was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. With 48months median follow-up, BCR occurred in 39.7%. Preoperative PSA value, performance of pelvic lymph node dissection and Gleason score were significantly associated with BCR. In multivariate analysis, Gleason score was the only independent prognostic factor (p<0.001) for BCR. Five-year BCR-free survival rates were 74%, 70%, 38%, and 51% with Gleason score 6, 3+4=7a, 4+3=7b, and 8-10, respectively. In pT3aN0/NxR1 patients with no adjuvant/neoadjuvant treatment, Gleason Score permits independent prediction of the risk for BCR. These findings could help to estimate and discuss the individual risk for BCR with our patients on an individual basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Radiotherapy and Oncology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · European Urology Supplements
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · European Urology Supplements
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: To predict biochemical recurrence respecting the natural course of pT2 prostate cancer with positive surgical margin (R1) and no adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy. A multicenter data analysis of 956 patients with pT2R1N0/Nx tumors was performed. Patients underwent radical prostatectomy between 1994 and 2009. No patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. All prostate specimens were re-evaluated according to a well-defined protocol. The association of pathological and clinical features, in regard to BCR, was calculated using various statistical tests. With a mean follow-up of 48 months, BCR was found in 25.4 %. In univariate analysis, multiple parameters such as tumor volume, PSA, Gleason at positive margin were significantly associated with BCR. However, in multivariate analysis, Gleason score (GS) of the prostatectomy specimen was the only significant parameter for BCR. Median time to recurrence for GS ≤ 6 was not reached; 5-year BCR-free survival was 82 %; and they were 127 months and 72 % for GS 3+4, 56 months and 54 % for GS 4 + 3, and 27 months and 32 % for GS 8-10. The retrospective approach is a limitation of our study. Our study provides data on the BCR in pT2R1-PCa without adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy and thus a rationale for an individual's risk stratification. The data support patients and physicians in estimating the individual risk and timing of BCR and thus serve to personalize the management in pT2R1-PCa.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · World Journal of Urology
  • Alexander Karl · Thomas R W Herrmann

    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · World Journal of Urology
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    Alexander Karl · Patrick Weidlich

    Preview · Article · Jan 2015

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Radiotherapy and Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) is a newly developed technique for the sonographic quantification of tissue elasticity. It has been used in the assessment of breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of VTIQ in indeterminate testicular lesions. Methods: Twenty patients with known testicular pathology underwent conventional B-mode sonography with additional VTIQ of the testicular lesions using a Siemens Acuson S2000™ and S3000™ (Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA, USA) system. Tissue mechanical properties were analysed in the VTIQ examination. The pathologic diagnosis was established after surgery or in the follow-up examination for suspected benign lesions. Results: Over 36 months, 22 focal testicular lesions (median lesion size, 18 mm; range, 4-36 mm in 20 patients (median age, 43 years; range, 22-81 years) were examined. Lesions were hyperechoic (n = 1), hypoechoic (n = 14), isoechoic (n = 1), of mixed echogenicity (n = 3) or anechoic (n = 3). Histological examination showed one benign lesion (6.25%) with a mean size of 7 mm and 15 malignant lesions (93.75%) with a mean size of 20 mm. Mean shear wave velocity for normal testicular tissue was 1.17 m/s. No shear wave velocity could be measured in cystic lesions. The rest of the benign lesions showed a mean shear wave velocity of 2.37 m/s. The value of the shear wave velocity in germ cell tumours showed a mean shear wave velocity of 1.94 m/s and for seminoma it showed a mean shear wave velocity of 2.42 m/s. Conclusions: VTIQ is a reliable new method for measuring qualitative and quantitative stiffness of testicular lesions and tissue. The qualitative shear-wave elastography features were highly reproducible and showed good diagnostic performance in unclear testicular lesions. The VTIQ technique is also useful in assessing small testicular nodules and pseudolesions.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We analyzed the impact of salvage lymph node dissection on the prognosis in patients with biochemical recurrence and positive lymph nodes on positron emission tomography/computerized tomography after radical prostatectomy. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 58 patients who underwent pelvic and/or retroperitoneal salvage lymph node dissection from June 2005 to February 2012. Biochemical response was defined as prostate specific antigen less than 0.2 ng/ml 40 days after salvage treatment. Biochemical recurrence in those with a biochemical response was defined as prostate specific antigen greater than 0.2 ng/ml and increasing. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess time to biochemical recurrence, clinical recurrence and cancer specific survival. Cox and binary logistic regressions were used to determine factors influencing clinical recurrence and biochemical response. Results: Median followup after salvage lymph node dissection was 39 months. A total of 13 patients (22.4%) achieved a biochemical response. Only 1 patient remained free of biochemical recurrence during followup. Clinical recurrence developed in 25 patients (48.1%) after salvage treatment. Six patients (10.3%) died of disease, including 4 with indeterminate extralymphatic findings on positron emission tomography/computerized tomography before salvage therapy. The 5-year cancer specific survival rate was 71.1%. Patients with a complete biochemical response showed a trend toward a longer time to clinical recurrence (p = 0.20). Biochemical response did not influence cancer specific survival. Conclusions: Salvage lymph node dissection in patients with biochemical recurrence and positive lymph nodes on positron emission tomography/computerized tomography led to a biochemical response in a certain proportion. Most patients progressed to biochemical recurrence after salvage treatment but almost half showed no further clinical recurrence. Cancer specific mortality occurred predominantly in patients with prior suspicion of extralymphatic lesions. Salvage lymph node dissection may delay androgen deprivation therapy and clinical recurrence in select patients.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: High dose local stereotactic radiosurgery was performed in select patients to improve local tumor control and overall survival. We report on patients with renal tumors treated with single fraction robotic stereotactic radiosurgery. Materials and methods: A total of 40 patients with a median age of 64 years who had an indication for nephrectomy and subsequent hemodialysis were entered in a prospective case-control study of single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery. Of the patients 11 had transitional cell cancer and 29 had renal cell cancer. Tumor response, renal function, survival and adverse events were estimated every 3 months. Followup was at least 6 months. Results: A total of 45 renal tumors were treated. Median followup was 28.1 months (range 6.0 to 78.3). The local tumor control rate 9 months after stereotactic radiosurgery was 98% (95% CI 89-99). There was a measurable size reduction in 38 lesions, including complete remission in 19. Renal function remained stable. Using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation median creatinine clearance was 76.8 (range 25.3 to 126.3) and 70.3 ml/minute/1.73 m(2) (range 18.6 to 127.3) at baseline and followup, respectively (p = 0.89). Grade I erythrodermia developed in 1 patient, 3 reported grade I fatigue and 2 reported grade I nausea. Nephrectomy was avoided in all cases. Conclusions: Single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery as an outpatient procedure is a treatment modality with short-term safety and efficacy. It avoids treatment related loss of renal function and hemodialysis in select patients with transitional or renal cell cancer. At short followup oncologic results were similar to those of other ablative techniques for renal tumors. To date functional results have been excellent. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term results and limits of stereotactic radiosurgery in this setting.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is associated with a high recurrence risk, partly because of the persistence of lesions following transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) due to the presence of multiple lesions and the difficulty in identifying the exact extent and location of tumours using standard white-light cystoscopy (WLC). Hexaminolevulinate (HAL) is an optical-imaging agent used with blue-light cystoscopy (BLC) in NMIBC diagnosis. Increasing evidence from long-term follow-up confirms the benefits of BLC over WLC in terms of increased detection and reduced recurrence rates.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare complications after radical cystectomy in patients aged ≥75 years. Materials and methods: 251 patients aged 75-95 years (median 79) underwent radical cystectomy between 2000 and 2012 at four institutions. The patients were divided into two groups: ≥75-84 years of age (group 1) versus ≥85 years of age (group 2). Comorbidities, body mass index, and complications were obtained retrospectively, except at the Central Hospital of Bolzano and Weill Cornell Medical Center, which collected data prospectively. Cancer-specific survival, overall mortality, hospital stay, clinical outcome and complications were assessed. Complications were categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification reporting system. The mean follow-up was 21 months. Results: The median hospital stay was 17 (2-91) days. Perioperative Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III complications were seen in 24.1% (48/199) of group 1 patients and 19.2% (10/52) of group 2 patients (p = 0.045). 30- and 90-day mortality was 4.5 and 13.5% in group 1 and 6.5 and 32.3% in group 2, respectively. Only the 90-day mortality rate was statistically significant (p < 0.05) between the two groups. The 3-year overall survival was 40% in group 1 and 34% in group 2. The 3-year cancer-specific survival was 52% in group 1 and 50% in group 2. Conclusions: We evaluated a large series of elderly (≥75 years) patients undergoing radical cystectomy at four institutions. Comparing patients aged ≥75-84 and ≥85 years revealed no significant difference in complications, 30-day mortality, overall and cancer-specific survival rates. Only 90-day mortality rates were significantly higher in the ≥85-year-old patients.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Urologia Internationalis

Publication Stats

1k Citations
390.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008-2015
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005-2015
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Urology
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2010-2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2008-2013
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • • Institute of Pathology
      • • Department of Urology
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Urology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands