[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cisplatin is an effective and extensively used chemotherapeutic agent to treat range of malignancies, but its therapeutic use is limited because of dose-dependent nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Several published reports advocate that supplementation with antioxidant can influence cisplatin induced hepatic damage.
In the present study the Wistar rats were subjected to concurrent prophylactic oral treatment of chrysin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt.) against the hepatotoxicity induced by intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg b.wt.). Efficacy of chrysin against the hepatotoxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities, histopathological changes and expression levels of molecular markers of inflammation.
Chrysin ameliorated cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase activity, glutathione depletion, decrease in antioxidant (catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase) and phase-II detoxifying (glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase) enzyme activities. Chrysin also attenuated expression of COX-2, iNOS and levels of NFκB and TNF-α, and hepatic tissue damage which were induced by cisplatin. Histological findings further supported the protective effects of chrysin against cisplatin-induced hepatic damage.
The results of the present study demonstrate that oxidative stress and inflammation are closely associated with cisplatin-induced toxicity and chrysin shows the protective efficacy against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity possibly via attenuating the oxidative stress and inflammatory response.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Pharmacological reports: PR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and also one of the major cause of
death worldwide. The toxic environmental pollutant 7-12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene
(DMBA) is a skin-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against
various types of chemical induced toxicities and carcinogenesis as well. In the present study,
we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of Tannic acid in DMBA+croton oil induced skin
cancer in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of TA against skin cancer was evaluated in
terms of antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and
expression of inflammation and early tumour markers. DMBA + croton oil causes depletion
of antioxidant enzymes (p<0.001) and elevation of early inflammatory and tumour
promotional events. TA prevents the DMBA + croton oil induced toxicity through a
protective mechanism that involves the reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-
NOS, PCNA protein expression and level of proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-6 release
at a very significant level (p<0.001). It could be concluded from our results that TA
attenuates DMBA + croton oil induced tumour promotional potential possibly by inhibiting
oxidative and inflammatory responses and acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: d-limonene is a naturally occurring monoterpene and has been found to posses numerous therapeutic properties. In this study, we used d-limonene as a protective agent against the nephrotoxic effects of anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox). Rats were given d-limonene at doses of 5% and 10% mixed with diet for 20 consecutive days. Dox was give at the dose of 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. The protective effects of d-limonene on Dox-induced oxidative stress and inflammation were investigated by assaying oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxidation, serum toxicity markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Nitrite levels. Administration of Dox (20 mg/kg body weight) in rats enhanced renal lipid peroxidation; depleted glutathione content and anti-oxidant enzymes; elevated levels of kidney toxicity markers viz. kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine; enhanced expression of NFκB, COX-2, and iNOS and nitric oxide. Treatment with d-limonene prevented oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes, further both doses of 5% and 10% showed significant decrease in inflammatory response. Both the doses of d-limonene significantly decreased the levels of kidney toxicity markers KIM-1, BUN, and creatinine. d-limonene also effectively decreased the Dox induced overexpression of NF-κB, COX-2, and iNOS and nitric oxide. Data from the present study indicate the protective role of d-limonene against Dox-induced renal damage.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silibinin is a major bioactive flavonolignan present in milk thistle (Silybum marianum) that possesses antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activity. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate underlying molecular mechanism for antitumorigenic potential of silibinin against chemically induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. In light of the important role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor, and oxidative stress in carcinogenesis, chemopreventive efficacy of silibinin against 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced 2-stage skin carcinogenesis was studied in terms of cytoprotective enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory responses, and the expression of various molecular marker in skin tissue. We found that topical application of silibinin at the dose of 9 mg/mouse effectively suppressed oxidative stress and deregulated activation of inflammatory mediators and tumorigenesis. Thus, findings of the present study suggest that the chemopreventive effect of silibinin is associated with upregulation of endogenous cytoprotective machinery and down regulation of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin -1β, COX-2, iNOS, and NF-κB).
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Nutrition and Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer is the final outcome of a plethora of events. Targeting the proliferation or inducing programmed cell death in a proliferating population is a major standpoint in the cancer therapy. However, proliferation is regulated by several cellular and immunologic processes. This study reports the inhibition of proliferation by augmenting immune surveillance, silencing acute inflammation, and inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of skin cancer by 3 promising medicinal extracts. We used the well-characterized model for experimental skin carcinogenesis in mice for 32 weeks to study the chemopreventive effect of the methanolic extracts of TRIGONELLA FOENUMGRAECUM, ECLIPTA ALB: , and CALENDULA OFFICINALI: . All 3 extracts reduced the number, incidence, and multiplicity of tumors, which was confirmed by the pathologic studies that showed regressed tumors. There was a significant reduction in the PCNA+ nuclei in all treatment groups 32 weeks after the initiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that proliferative population in tumors is diminished by the restoration of the endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibition of the stress-related signal-transducing element NFκB, reduction of inflammation, enhancement of immunosurveillance of the genetically mutated cells, along with silencing of the cell cycle progression signals. Finally, all 3 medicinal extracts induced stable expression of p53 within the tumors, confirmed by the CFDA-Cy3 apoptosis assay. Results of our study confirm that these extracts not only limit the rate of proliferation by inhibition of the processes integral to cancer development but also induce stable cytoplasmic expression of p53-mediated apoptosis, leading to fewer and regressed tumors in mice.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Integrative Cancer Therapies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health problem and is fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths. Now-a-days new strategies have been accounted for the chemoprevention of liver cancer due to ineffective traditional treatments against HCC. In the present study, we have shown that diosmin attenuates 2-AAF induced hepatic toxicity and early tumour promotion markers (ODC, PCNA and Ki67), its chemopreventive efficacy against DEN initiated and 2-AAF promoted hyper-proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Hepatocarcinogenesis has been characterised by the presence of apparent hepatic nodules, hepatic proliferation, elevation in the levels of proliferation markers (PCNA and Ki67), and inflammatory markers (COX-2 and iNOS) in DEN and 2-AAF administered rats. Protective efficacy of diosmin has been investigated in terms of its potential in reducing the percentage of visible hepatic nodules and the restoration of early tumor markers (PCNA, Ki67 and ODC), oxidative stress biomarkers, serum cytotoxicity markers (AST, ALT and LDH), cell necrosis markers (NF- kappa B and TNF-α) and inflammatory markers (COX-2 and iNos). Our study demonstrates that the inhibition of cell proliferation and down regulation of inflammatory markers may be, at least in part, the underlying mechanisms related to the liver tumor inhibition by diosmin. The present study allows us to conclude that diosmin being a dietary supplement, could be used as chemopreventive agent to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, cigarette smoke contains more than four thousand chemicals, many of which are known to be carcinogen or cancer promoter. Many epidemiological reports suggest that cigarette smokers are at a greater risk of other cancers such as oropharynx, stomach, pancreas, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and breast, however, the few epidemiological reports are available on the role of cigarette smoke in the development of prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of farnesol against cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced oxidative stress in prostate.
Farnesol was administered by gavage (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg b.wt. in corn oil) one time daily for 7 days. On day 7, rats were exposed to cigarette smoke via intratracheal instillation of aqueous CSE. CSE enhanced prostatic xanthine oxidase activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) along with decrease in prostatic glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes activities, viz., glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase.
Pre-treatment of rats with farnesol (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg b.wt. orally) resulted in significant decreased in xanthine oxidase activity and LPO at both the doses. The level of reduced glutathione, the activities of glutathione dependent enzymes and antioxidant enzymes were also augmented to significant level with pre-treatment with farnesol.
Thus, our data suggests that farnesol is a potent defense against CSE induced prostatic oxidative damage in rodent model of experiment.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Toxicology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present investigation was designed to evaluate the efficacy of diosmin against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats by modulating various mechanisms including ethanol metabolizing enzymes, generation of free radicals, imbalance in oxidant-antioxidant status, oxidative damage to membrane lipids, activation of transcription factors and elevation in inflammatory markers involved in ethanol-induced hepatic damage. Diosmin is a flavone glycoside, having anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Thirty female Wistar rats segregated in five groups, each with six animals. Group I as control followed by Group II, III and IV were treated with ethanol for 28 days. While groups III and IV were administered with diosmin at 10 mg/kg b wt (D1) and 20 mg/kg b wt (D2) respectively prior to ethanol administration. Group V was given only higher dose of diosmin. In ethanol-treated group, ethanol metabolizing enzymes viz., CYP 450 2E1 and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) significantly increased by 77.82% and 32.32% in liver tissues respectively as compared with control group and this enhancement is significantly normalized with diosmin administration. Diosmin administration (D1 & D2) significantly (p < 0.001) attenuates oxidative stress markers i.e., LPO, GSH, GPx, GR and XO by 90.77 & 137.55%, 17.18 & 25%, 37.3 & 49.86%, 21.63 & 44.9% and 56.14 &77.19% respectively. Serum ALT, AST and LDH significantly increased by 102.03, 116.91 and 45.20% in ethanol-treated group as compared with control group. Group III and IV animals showed significant reduction in the serum toxicity markers. Diosmin further alleviated ethanol-induced NF-κB activation, enhanced expression of TNF-α, COX-2 and iNOS. Findings from the present study permit us to conclude that diosmin alleviates alcoholic liver injury via modulating ethanol metabolizing pathway, inhibition of oxidative stress markers and suppression of inflammatory markers. This may represent a novel protective strategy against ethanol-induced liver diseases.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diosmin (DM) is a naturally occurring flavone and has been found to possess numerous therapeutic properties. In this study, we used DM as a protective agent against the nephrotoxic effects of the environmental toxicant trichloroethylene (TCE). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (I-V, n 6). Groups II, III and IV received an oral administration of TCE at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for twenty consecutive days. The animals in groups II and III received an oral treatment of DM at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for twenty consecutive days, while groups I and V were given maize oil (5 ml/kg body weight and DM 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 20 d. The protective effects of DM on TCE-induced oxidative stress and caspase-dependent apoptosis were investigated by assaying oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxidation (LPO), serum toxicity markers, alkaline unwinding assay, caspase-3, -7 and -9, Bax and p53 expression. Oral administration of TCE in rats enhanced renal LPO, depleted glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes, induced DNA strand breaks (P< 0·001), modulated the expression of Bax and p53 protein and induced the expression of caspase-3, -7 and -9. Co-treatment with DM prevented oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes; furthermore, a significant dose-dependent decrease in DNA disintegration and kidney toxicity markers such as blood urea N, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase and kidney injury molecule-1 was observed. DM also effectively decreased the TCE-induced up-regulation of Bax and p53. Data from the present study establish the protective role of DM against TCE-induced renal damage.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines often act as trigger for development of most of the chronic human diseases including cancer via up-regulation of transcription factors and activation of MAP kinases. We investigated the protective effects of geraniol (GOH) against 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced oxidative and inflammatory responses, expression of p38MAPK, NF-κB and COX-2 in mouse skin. Animals were divided into four groups I-IV (n=6). Group II and III received topical application of TPA at the dose of 10nmol/0.2ml of acetone/animal/day, for two days. Group III was pre-treated with GOH (250μg) topically 30min prior to each TPA administration. While group I and IV were given acetone (0.2ml) and GOH respectively. Our results show that GOH significantly inhibited TPA induced lipid peroxidation (LPO), inflammatory responses, proinflammatory cytokine release, up regulates reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activity of different antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, GOH also inhibited TPA induced altered activity of p38MAPK. Further, TPA induced altered expression of NF-κB (p65) and COX-2 was also attenuated by GOH. Thus, our results suggest that GOH attenuates early tumor promotional changes, and it may serve as one of the various ways to prevent carcinogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Experimental and Molecular Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colon carcinogenesis is a multistep process and it emanates from a series of molecular and histopathological alterations. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a natural and major pentacyclic triterpenoid glycoside of licorice roots extracts. It has several pharmacological and biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of GA against 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH)-induced precancerous lesions i.e., aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin depleted foci (MDF), and its role in regulating the hyperproliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the colon of Wistar rats.
Animals were divided into 5 groups. In group III, IV and V, GA was administered at the dose of 15 mg/kg b. wt. orally while in group II, III and IV, DMH was administered subcutaneously in the groin at the dose of 20 mg/kg b.wt once a week for first 5 weeks and animals were euthanized after 9 weeks.
GA supplementation suppressed the development of precancerous lesions and it also reduced the infiltration of mast cells, suppressed the immunostaining of Ki-67, NF-kB-p65, COX-2, iNOS and VEGF while enhanced the immunostaining of p53, connexin-43, caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3. GA treatment significantly attenuated the level of TNF-α and it also reduced the depletion of the mucous layer as well as attenuated the shifting of sialomucin to sulphomucin.
Our findings suggest that GA has strong chemopreventive potential against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis but further studies are warranted to elucidate the precise mechanism of action of GA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavonoid family is a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and hence possess strong antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of chrysin; a bio-active flavonoid as an anticancer agent. Renal cancer was initiated by single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN 200mg/kg BW body weight) and promoted by twice weekly administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) 9mg Fe/Kg BW for 16 wk. In the present study, we report the chemopreventive effects of chrysin against (Fe-NTA) induced renal oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperproliferative response, and two-stage renal carcinogenesis. To ascertain the molecular mechanism implicated in the antitumor promoting activity of chrysin, its effect was investigated on markers of tumor promotion and inflammation: ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), inducible nitric oxide sythase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxyegenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and on levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Pretreatment of animals with chrysin at both doses (20 and 40mg/kg body weight) markedly inhibited all. Further, Fe-NTA enhances renal lipid peroxidation, with concomitant reduction in reduced glutathione content (GSH), antioxidant enzymes, and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It induces serum toxicity markers viz., blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Prophylactic treatment of animals with chrysin before the administration of Fe-NTA was effective in modulating oxidative and renal injury markers and resulted in the diminution of Fe-NTA mediated injury. These results suggest chrysin as an effective chemopreventive agent having the capability to obstruct DEN initiated and Fe-NTA promoted renal cancer in the rat model.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth and development of prostate gland is governed by testosterone. Testosterone helps in maintaining the adipose tissue stores of the body. It is well documented that with advancing age there has been a gradual decline in testosterone levels. Our aim was to study the protective role of daidzein on flutamide-induced androgen deprivation on matrix degrading genes, lipid profile and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Sub-chronic (60 days) flutamide (30 mg/kg b.wt) administration resulted in marked increase in expressions of matrix degrading genes [matrix metalloproteases 9 and urokinase plasminogen activation receptor]. Additionally, it increased the levels of low density lipoproteins, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lowered the levels of high density lipoproteins and endogenous antioxidant levels. Oral administration of daidzein (20 and 60 mg/kg b.wt) restituted the levels to normal. Daidzein administration resulted in amelioration of the prostate atrophy, degeneracy and invasiveness induced by flutamide. Our findings suggest that the daidzein may be given as dietary supplement to patients who are on androgen deprivation therapy, to minimize the adverse effects related to it and also retarding susceptibility of patients to cardiovascular diseases.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colon cancer is the third most common malignant neoplasm in the world and it remains an important cause of death, especially in western countries. The toxic environmental pollutant, 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), is also a colon-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemically induced toxicity and also carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of TA against DMH induced colon toxicity in a rat model. Efficacy of TA against the colon toxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of early molecular markers of inflammation and tumor promotion. DMH treatment induced oxidative stress enzymes (p<0.001) and an early inflammatory and tumor promotion response in the colons of Wistar rats. TA treatment prevented deteriorative effects induced by DMH through a protective mechanism that involved reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression levels and TNF-α(p<0.001) release. It could be concluded from our results that TA markedly protects against chemically induced colon toxicity and acts plausibly by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that aberrant production of inflammatory mediators has been associated with most the toxic manifestations and the genesis of different chronic diseases including cancer. The basic aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of soy isoflavones (SIF) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cutaneous inflammatory responses and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. We have studied the protective effects of SIF against TPA induced oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines level, activation of NF-κB, expression of COX-2 and ki-67 in mouse skin. Animals were divided into five groups I-V (n=6). Groups II, III and IV received topical application of TPA at the dose of 10nmol/0.2ml of acetone/animal/day, for 2 days. Animals of the groups III and IV were pre-treated with SIF 1.0μg (D1) and 2.0μg (D2) topically 30min prior to each TPA administration, while groups I and V were given acetone (0.2ml) and SIF (D2), respectively. We have found that SIF pretreatment significantly inhibited TPA induced oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines production and activation of NF-κB. SIF also inhibited the expression of COX-2 and ki-67. Histological findings further supported the protective effects of SIF against TPA-induced cutaneous damage. Thus, our results suggest that inhibitory effect of SIF on TPA-induced cutaneous inflammation includes inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, attenuation of oxidative stress, activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we have shown that Quercus infectoria attenuates Fe- NTA induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in rats. Fe-NTA promoted DEN (N-diethyl nitrosamine) initiated renal carcinogenesis by increasing the percentage incidence of tumors and induces early tumor markers viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) level and PCNA expression. Fe- NTA (9 mg Fe/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) enhances renal Malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase and hydrogen peroxide generation with reduction in renal glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phase-II metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase. It also enhances blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Fe-NTA also lead to increase in levels of some inflammatory markers viz NO and MPO and some proinflammatory cytokines viz PGE-2 and TNF-1. The chemopreventive efficacy of Quercus infectoria was studied in terms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities, LPO, redox status, serum toxicity markers, inflammatory and proinflammatory markers and cell proliferation in the kidney tissue. Oral administration of Quercus infectoria at doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg b wt effectively suppressed renal oxidative stress, inflammation and tumor incidence. Chemopreventive effects of Quercus infectoria were associated with up-regulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities and down regulation of serum toxicity markers. Present study supports Quercus infectoria as a potent chemopreventive agent and suppresses Fe-NTA-induced renal carcinogenesis and oxidative and inflammatory response in Wistar rat.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · International Journal of Drug Development & Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP)) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of numerous forms of cancer, but it has pronounced adverse effects, namely nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, diarrhoea and nausea. CDDP-induced emesis and diarrhoea are also marked toxicities that may be due to intestinal injury. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavone commonly found in many plants, possesses multiple biological activities, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of chrysin against CDDP-induced jejunal toxicity. The plausible mechanism of CDDP-induced jejunal toxicity includes oxidative stress, p53 and apoptosis via up-regulating the expression of caspase-6 and -3. Chrysin was administered to Wistar rats orally in maize oil. A single intraperitoneal injection of CDDP was given and the animals were killed after 24 h of CDDP injection. Chrysin ameliorated CDDP-induced lipid peroxidation, increase in xanthine oxidase activity, glutathione depletion, decrease in antioxidant (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and phase-II detoxifying (glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase) enzyme activities. Chrysin attenuated CDDP-induced goblet cell disintegration, enhanced expression of p53 and apoptotic tissue damage. Histological findings further substantiated the protective effects of chrysin against CDDP-induced damage in the jejunum. The results of the present study demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis are closely associated with CDDP-induced toxicity and chrysin shows the protective efficacy against CDDP-induced jejunum toxicity possibly via attenuating the oxidative stress and apoptotic tissue damage.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyphenols are the abundant micronutrient in our diet and attention has been given to them for the prevention of degenerative diseases. Since over production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokine are often act as the triggers for the promotion stage of carcinogenesis by transcriptional up-regulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and cycloxygenage-2 (COX-2). We investigated the protective effects of caffeic acid (CA) on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced oxidative and inflammatory responses, expression of NF-κB and COX-2 in mouse skin. Animals were given pre-treatment of CA at two different doses 10μmol (D1) and 20μmol (D2)/0.2ml of acetone 30min prior to each TPA (10nmol/0.2ml of acetone) application. Our results show that CA significantly inhibit the TPA induced lipid peroxidation (LPO), inflammatory responses, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release and also found to up regulate GSH content and the activity of different antioxidant enzymes. Further, CA was found to inhibit the TPA induced expression of NF-κB and COX-2. Thus, our results suggest that CA attenuates TPA induced tumor promotional triggers possibly by inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory responses thereby diminishing the expression of NF-κB and COX-2.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association