Phillip J. Bairstow

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (23)72.93 Total impact

  • Phillip J. Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: Development in the way the hand approaches and intercepts a moving target was studied with children aged 6–11 years. The speed and trajectory of the target was varied. Hand movement was analysed in terms of: the speed and direction of the initial part of the response; ongoing modifications to the speed and path of movement; the speed and accuracy of the hand when close to the target. Results showed that the speed with which the hand moved initially was planned specifically for the target's speed and trajectory, while the direction of movement was planned only roughly. During the movement, there was usually only one adjustment to the speed of the hand, but frequent adjustments to the path of movement. The data show there are two important stages in the development of reaching to targets of different speed. By 8 years there is an advance in ability to plan a movement, while at 10 years there is development in ability to control the ongoing movement.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011
  • Phillip J. Bairstow · Judith I. Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: A group of 40 children aged 7 to 11 years with perceptuo-motor dysfunction from mainstream schools were examined on two eye-hand coordination tasks: one requiring the interception on a television monitor of a moving target of variable speed and trajectory, the other requiring the tracking and recall of a target moving slowly in a circular path. Performance was compared to developmental norms. Results show, that children with perceptuo-motor dysfunction are heterogeneous, and have various ways of carrying out a motor action. Some do not plan a movement, others do not control an ongoing movement like their peers. Yet despite marked abnormalities some children can compensate and be very accurate. Kinaesthetic disability is associated with motor disability. Process-orientated treatment—including kinaesthetic training—improves motor functioning in some domains more than others.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011
  • Phillip J. Bairstow · Judith I. Laszlo

    No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
  • Phillip J. Bairstow · Judith I. Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: A review of literature indicates that the perception and memory of movement patterns with kinaesthesis might be expected to differ depending on whether a movement pattern is actively commanded or passively induced. In addition, it has been suggested that kinaesthesis is a gross sense in the absence of vision. An attempt was made to demonstrate differences between the perception and memory of actively commanded movement patterns, passively induced movement patterns, and visual patterns formed by a moving light. A visual recognition test was employed. While it was apparent that the recognition task was a sensitive one for testing the accuracy of pattern perception, no significant difference was demonstrated between the three movement conditions.
    No preview · Article · May 2007 · The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology
  • Judith I. Laszlo · Phillip J. Bairstow

    No preview · Article · Nov 1988 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
  • Judith Laszlo · Phillip Bairstow · Jon Bartrip
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    ABSTRACT: 40 children (aged 7.5–11.5 yrs) attending mainstream junior schools were administered the Perceptual-Motor Abilities Test (PMAT) and the Test of Motor Impairment (TOMI). These Ss scored highly in terms of errors on the PMAT, which concurred with their teachers" evaluation that their motor development lagged behind their intellectual abilities. Ss were assigned to 1 of 4 training groups: Group 1 Ss were trained in all processes in which they were deficient; Group 2 Ss were trained in kinesthetics only; Group 3 Ss were given spatial and/or temporal programming; and Group 4 Ss had general fine and gross motor skill training along traditional lines. After training, Ss were retested on the PMAT and TOMI. 29 Ss were found to suffer from dyskinesthesia. Kinesthetic training alone improved motor performance for Group 2 Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    No preview · Article · Jan 1988 · Support for Learning
  • Judith I. Laszlo · Phillip J. Bairstow · Jon Bartrip · Ursula T. Rolfe
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    ABSTRACT: The task orientated approach in management of clumsiness was focussed on symptom alleviation. The process orientated approach, here described, aims at causal diagnosis and focal therapy. Forty children, attending mainstream Junior schools were chosen by teachers for participation in the study. The selected children were considered by the teachers to have motor difficulties which interfered with their progress at school, i.e. they were clumsy. Kinaesthetic perception, and spatial and temporal programming processes were assessed. Children in the experimental groups were trained in all or some of the processes in which they were found to be deficient. Training time ranged from 1.5 to 3 hours per child, spread over a two-week period. The Control Group received training along the lines of traditional remedial teaching. The results showed that: first, adequate kinaesthetic perceptual ability is necessary in motor behaviour; second, improvement in deficient processes resulted in significant improvement in general motor performance and acquisition of complex skills; third, the emotive label of clumsiness can be eliminated by the diagnostically valid term of perceptual-motor dysfunction; and fourth, traditional training in the Control Group did not result in improved motor performance.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1988
  • Phillip J. Bairstow · Judith I. Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: Doyle and colleagues (1986) are critical of the methodology employed in previous studies on the measurement of kinaesthetic sensitivity. Their criticism are inappropriate in the context of the purpose and the final form of a standardized test of kinaesthetic sensitivity (Laszlo and Bairstow 1985b). They suggest an alternative methodology and imply - on the basis of a lack of correlation between different measures of sensitivity - that it is superior to the earlier methodology. The two methodologies give different measures of kinaesthetic sensitivity, and the reasons for a lack of correlation are discussed.
    No preview · Article · May 1986 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
  • Judith I. Laszlo · Phillip J. Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: The skill of handwriting is considered as a perceptual-motor skill. A closed-loop model of motor control is adapted to describe this skill. The role of kinaesthesis in the acquisition and performance of handwriting is described. Application of the Kinaesthetic Sensitivity Test shows that 33 per cent of five-and six-year-old children are kinaesthetically incompetent. The concept of kinaesthetic readiness is introduced, and the lack of kinaesthetic readiness is discussed as one possible source of the difficulty which may hinder effective training of writing in this age group. As a tentative suggestion it is proposed that formal training of handwriting could be delayed till the age of seven, by which age most children develop kinaesthetic readiness naturally.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1984 · School Psychology International
  • J I Laszlo · P J Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews studies which demonstrate the importance of kinaesthesis in the acquisition and performance of motor skills. A method of measuring kinaesthetic sensitivity in children and adults (recently developed) is briefly described. Developmental trends in kinaesthetic perception are discussed and large individual differences found within age groups. It was shown that kinaesthetically undeveloped children can be trained to perceive and memorize kinaesthetic information with greatly improved accuracy. Furthermore perceptual training facilitates the performance of a drawing skill. On the basis of these results an argument is made for the importance of kinaesthesis in skilled motor behaviour.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1983 · The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A
  • Phillip J. Bairstow · Judith I. Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: In this study of kinaesthesis, the learning, retention, and recall of complex patterns was examined. Subjects were blindfolded, held a stylus in the right hand, and moved around stencil patterns, either actively or passively. The patterns were recalled with a free active movement of the right hand, after various amounts of practice, immediately or after a 60–s interval, once or twice in succession, with and without visual guidance. The shape and size of the drawings was compared with the criterion patterns. The effect of practice varied depending on whether the criterion movement was active or passive, and on the measure of recall performance. Even when the criterion patterns were freely practised, the recall traces showed large errors in shape and systematic shrinkage in size, and there were large individual differences. Regardless of these errors, recall performance was reliable. The effect of an unfilled retention interval varied as a function of practice. When the patterns were recalled under visual guidance, there was no shrinkage in the size of the drawings.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1982 · The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A
  • Phillip J. Bairstow · Judith I. Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: A test of kinaesthetic sensitivity to passive movements of the upper limbs was constructed consisting of two tasks: position and movement discrimination, and movement pattern perception and memory. 475 subjects ranging in age from five years to adult were tested and development trends were established. The test was found to be a useful tool in measuring the kinaesthetic sensitivity of normal subjects, as well as of intellectually and physically handicapped children. Results for right and left arms did not differ in the test of kinaesthetic perception and memory. Kinaesthetic sensitivity was found to be correlated with everyday motor functions involving fine manual control, as well as with co-ordinated gross body movements.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1981 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
  • J I Laszlo · P J Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: A test of kinaesthetic sensitivity was constructed, consisting of three tasks: localization, discrimination of position and movement, and perception of pattern. The purposes were to devise a test of kinaesthetic perception in children and adults, and to study possible developmental trends in such sensitivity. 180 children (five to 12 years) and adults were tested. The localization task was found to be not suitable and was omitted from the test, but the other two tasks proved to be suitable. Developmental trends in kinaesthetic acuity and perception were established.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1980 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
  • Phillip J. Bairstow · Judith I. Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: Electrophysiological experiments have shown that during voluntary movement, the activity of kinesthetic receptors relevant to actively contracting muscles is modified. Furthermore, efferent motor commands interact with the central transmission and processing of kinesthetic sensory input. This article addresses itself to the question of whether the efferent motor commands of voluntary movement influence the perception and processing of kinesthetic spatial information. In two experiments, subjects moved around unfamiliar and unseen criterion stencil patterns with their right hands. In the first experiment subjects were required to concurrently track the constrained movements with their left hands. In the second experiment, following movement around a criterion pattern, the subjects had to recall it with their right hands. Tracking and recall movements in the two experiments showed a systematic spatial bias in the direction in which the right-hand constrained movements were commanded. It is argued that when a limb movement is contrained, the interaction between the efferent command pattern and the returning kinesthetic sensory input results in its position being perceived with a constant error in the direction in which the movement was commanded.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1980 · Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance
  • J I Laszlo · P J Bairstow · G R Ward · H Bancroft
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    ABSTRACT: It is often argued that, in general, men are superior to women in perceptual motor skills (for example, car driving). Extensive reviews of the relevant literature do not give convincing evidence of sex differences in manual dexterity or motor skills in general. However, in the studies reported here, variables have been isolated which demonstrate that sex differences do exist in two perceptual motor tasks. These studies showed that females are adversely affected by irrelevant stimuli while performing tasks permitting freedom in movements but perform as well as males when the movement is stereotyped.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1980 · Nature
  • Judith I. Laszlo · Phillip J. Bairstow · Gary R. Ward · Hudson Bancroft
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    ABSTRACT: It is often argued that, in general, men are superior to women in perceptual motor skills (for example, car driving). Extensive reviews of the relevant literature do not give convincing evidence of sex differences in manual dexterity1 or motor skills in general2. However, in the studies reported here, variables have been isolated which demonstrate that sex differences do exist in two perceptual motor tasks. These studies showed that females are adversely affected by irrelevant stimuli while performing tasks permitting freedom in movements but perform as well as males when the movement is stereotyped.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1980
  • Judith I. Laszlo · P.J. Bairstow
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    ABSTRACT: Two points were made in support of the compression-block technique as a useful tool in motor-control research. The effect of motor impairment (if any) can be controlled (a) by only making direct comparisons between results obtained under block, and (b) by keeping muscle exertion during the entire course of the block to an absolute minimum to avoid muscle fatigue.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1979 · Journal of Motor Behavior
  • Phillip J. Bairstow · Judith I. Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: Physiological data suggest that perception and memory of kinesthesis may differ depending on whether a movement pattern is actively commanded or passively induced. An attempt was made to demonstrate a difference between these two types of movements by employing a cross-modal visual recognition test of size perception. Absolute and algebraic errors in the matching of kinesthesis with vision were measured. Positive algebraic errors were seen indicating that subjects' perception for the size of kinesthetic movement patterns was magnified as compared to vision. Active kinesthesis was matched with vision more accurately than was passive kinesthesis, and the data yielded information about the differential contribution of active and passive muscle compartments to the global kinesthetic perception of voluntary movement. Cross-modal matching of kinesthesis with vision was in certain cases as accurate as visual intramodal matching. It was argued that active kinesthesis has internal references, and vision has external references to facilitate the similar-size recognition performance.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1979 · Journal of Motor Behavior
  • J. I. Laszlo · P. J. Bairstow · J. E. Baker

    No preview · Article · Jun 1979 · Perceptual and Motor Skills
  • P J Bairstow · J I Laszlo
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    ABSTRACT: The tracking of complex two-dimensional movement patterns was studied. Subjects were blindfolded, and their right hand moved around stencil patterns in the midsagittal plane, while the left hand concurrently reproduced the right-hand movement. The accuracy with which the left hand shadowed the criterion movements of the right hand was measured in shape and size. Right-hand movements were active or passive. Present tracking performance was contrasted with errors in recall reported by Bairstow and Laszlo (1978). Results showed that tracking performance was accurate. Active and passive criterion movements were tracked differently. Tracking was clearly superior to recall performance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1979 · Journal of Motor Behavior

Publication Stats

385 Citations
72.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Psychology
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • The University of Sheffield
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 1981-2007
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Psychology
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia