[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two major cytopathic factors in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the accessory proteins viral infectivity factor (Vif) and viral protein R (Vpr), inhibit cell-cycle progression at the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Although Vpr-induced blockade and the associated T-cell death have been well studied, the molecular mechanism of G2 arrest by Vif remains undefined. To elucidate how Vif induces arrest, we infected synchronized Jurkat T-cells and examined the effect of Vif on the activation of Cdk1 and CyclinB1, the chief cell-cycle factors for the G2 to M phase transition. We found that the characteristic dephosphorylation of an inhibitory phosphate on Cdk1 did not occur in infected cells expressing Vif. In addition, the nuclear translocation of Cdk1 and CyclinB1 was disregulated. Finally, Vif-induced cell cycle arrest was correlated with proviral expression of Vif. Taken together, our results suggest that Vif impairs mitotic entry by interfering with Cdk1-CyclinB1 activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor NF-kappaB is required for lymphocyte activation and proliferation as well as the survival of certain lymphoma types. Antigen receptor stimulation assembles an NF-kappaB activating platform containing the scaffold protein CARMA1 (also called CARD11), the adaptor BCL10 and the paracaspase MALT1 (the CBM complex), linked to the inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase complex, but signal transduction is not fully understood. We conducted parallel screens involving a mass spectrometry analysis of CARMA1 binding partners and an RNA interference screen for growth inhibition of the CBM-dependent 'activated B-cell-like' (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here we report that both screens identified casein kinase 1alpha (CK1alpha) as a bifunctional regulator of NF-kappaB. CK1alpha dynamically associates with the CBM complex on T-cell-receptor (TCR) engagement to participate in cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. However, CK1alpha kinase activity has a contrasting role by subsequently promoting the phosphorylation and inactivation of CARMA1. CK1alpha has thus a dual 'gating' function which first promotes and then terminates receptor-induced NF-kappaB. ABC DLBCL cells required CK1alpha for constitutive NF-kappaB activity, indicating that CK1alpha functions as a conditionally essential malignancy gene-a member of a new class of potential cancer therapeutic targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite continuing advances in our understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, the mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV-1-infected individuals remains unclear. The HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein causes cell death, likely through a mechanism related to its ability to arrest cells in the G2,M phase. Recent evidence implicated the scaffold protein, 14-3-3, in Vpr cell cycle blockade.
We found that in human T cells, 14-3-3 plays an active role in mediating Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest and reveal a dramatic increase in the amount of Cdk1, Cdc25C, and CyclinB1 bound to 14-3-3 theta during Vprv-induced G2,M arrest. By contrast, a cell-cycle-arrest-dead Vpr mutant failed to augment 14-3-3 theta association with Cdk1 and CyclinB1. Moreover, G2,M arrest caused by HIV-1 infection strongly correlated with a disruption in 14-3-3 theta binding to centrosomal proteins, Plk1 and centrin. Finally, Vpr caused elevated levels of CyclinB1, Plk1, and Cdk1 in a complex with the nuclear transport and spindle assembly protein, importin beta.
Thus, our data reveal a new facet of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest involving previously unrecognized abnormal rearrangements of multiprotein assemblies containing key cell cycle regulatory proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p21 RAS subfamily of small GTPases, including KRAS, HRAS, and NRAS, regulates cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and other signaling networks, and is the most frequent target of activating mutations in cancer. Activating germline mutations of KRAS and HRAS cause severe developmental abnormalities leading to Noonan, cardio-facial-cutaneous, and Costello syndrome, but activating germline mutations of NRAS have not been reported. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is the most common genetic disease of lymphocyte apoptosis and causes autoimmunity as well as excessive lymphocyte accumulation, particularly of CD4(-), CD8(-) alphabeta T cells. Mutations in ALPS typically affect CD95 (Fas/APO-1)-mediated apoptosis, one of the extrinsic death pathways involving TNF receptor superfamily proteins, but certain ALPS individuals have no such mutations. We show here that the salient features of ALPS as well as a predisposition to hematological malignancies can be caused by a heterozygous germline Gly13Asp activating mutation of the NRAS oncogene that does not impair CD95-mediated apoptosis. The increase in active, GTP-bound NRAS augments RAF/MEK/ERK signaling, which markedly decreases the proapoptotic protein BIM and attenuates intrinsic, nonreceptor-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Thus, germline activating mutations in NRAS differ from other p21 Ras oncoproteins by causing selective immune abnormalities without general developmental defects. Our observations on the effects of NRAS activation indicate that RAS-inactivating drugs, such as farnesyltransferase inhibitors should be examined in human autoimmune and lymphocyte homeostasis disorders.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triggering of lymphocyte antigen receptors is the critical first step in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. T cell receptor (TCR) ligation assembles a large membrane signalosome, culminating in NF-kappaB activation [1,2]. Recently, caspase-8 was found to play a surprisingly prominent role in lymphocyte activation in addition to its well-known role in apoptosis . Caspase-8 is activated after TCR stimulation and nucleates a complex with B cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10), paracaspase MALT1, and the inhibitors of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex . We now report that the ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 binds to active caspase-8 upon TCR stimulation and facilitates its movement into lipid rafts. We identified in silico two putative TRAF6 binding motifs in the caspase-8 sequence and found that mutation of critical residues within these sites abolished TRAF6 binding and diminished TCR-induced NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, RNAi-mediated silencing of TRAF6 abrogated caspase-8 recruitment to the lipid rafts. Protein kinase Ctheta (PKCtheta), CARMA1, and BCL10 are also required for TCR-induced caspase-8 relocation, but only PKCtheta and BCL10 control caspase-8 activation. Our results suggest that PKCtheta independently controls CARMA1 phosphorylation and BCL10-dependent caspase-8 activation and unveil an essential role for TRAF6 as a critical adaptor linking these two convergent signaling events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV type I (HIV-1) can cause G(2) cell cycle arrest and death of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in vitro and inexorable depletion of these cells in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of viral cytopathicity has not been satisfactorily elucidated. Previously, we showed that HIV-1 kills T cells by a necrotic form of cell death that requires high level expression of an integrated provirus but not the env or nef genes. To determine which viral protein(s) are required for cell death, we systematically mutated, alone and in combination, the ORFs of the NL4-3 strain of HIV-1. We found that the elimination of the viral functions encoded by gag-pol and vpu, tat, and rev did not mitigate cytopathicity. However, elimination of the vif and vpr accessory genes together, but not individually, renders the virus incapable of causing cell death and G(2) cell cycle blockade. We thus identify vif and vpr as necessary for T cell cytopathic effects induced by HIV-1. These findings may provide an important insight into the molecular mechanism of viral pathogenesis in AIDS.
Preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caspase-8, a proapoptotic protease, has an essential role in lymphocyte activation and protective immunity. We show that caspase-8 deficiency (CED) in humans and mice specifically abolishes activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) after stimulation through antigen receptors, Fc receptors, or Toll-like receptor 4 in T, B, and natural killer cells. Caspase-8 also causes the alphabeta complex of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase (IKK) to associate with the upstream Bcl10-MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) adapter complex. Recruitment of the IKKalpha, beta complex, its activation, and the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB require enzyme activity of full-length caspase-8. These findings thus explain the paradoxical association of defective apoptosis and combined immunodeficiency in human CED.