Trudy V Murphy

Center for HIV/AIDS Educational Studies and Training, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (80)522.86 Total impact

  • Lin Fan · Kwame Owusu-Edusei · Sarah F Schillie · Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Conclusion: The current U.S. strategy for preventing perinatal HBV remains cost-effective compared to 'Universal HepB strategy'. An 'Antiviral prophylaxis strategy' was cost-saving compared to the 'Current strategy,' and should be considered to continue to decrease the burden of perinatal hepatitis B in the United States. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The clinical course of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is more severe with increased age. In the United States, surveillance data reported to CDC since 2011 indicate increases in both the absolute number of cases and the mean age of cases. Total antibody to HAV (anti-HAV) is a marker of immunity. Methods: We analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for anti-HAV from respondents aged ≥2 years collected from 2007 to 2012 and compared with data collected 10 years earlier (1999-2006). For US-born adults aged ≥20 years, we estimated age-adjusted anti-HAV prevalence by demographic and other characteristics, evaluated factors associated with anti-HAV positivity and examined anti-HAV prevalence by decade of birth. Results: The prevalence of anti-HAV among adults aged ≥20 years was 24.2% (95% CI 22.5-25.9) during 2007-2012, a significant decline from 29.5% (95% CI 28.0-31.1) during 1999-2006. Prevalence of anti-HAV was consistently lower in 2007-2012 compared to 1999-2006 by all characteristics examined. In 2007-2012, the lowest age-specific prevalence was among adults aged 30-49 years (16.1-17.6%). Factors significantly associated with anti-HAV positivity among adults were older age, Mexican American ethnicity, living below poverty, less education, and not having insurance. By decade of birth, the prevalence of anti-HAV was slightly lower in 2009-2012 than in 1999-2002, except among persons born from 1980 to 1989. Conclusions: NHANES data document very low prevalence of hepatitis A immunity among U.S. adults aged 30-49 years; waning of anti-HAV over time may be minimal. Improving vaccination coverage among susceptible adults should be considered.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Vaccine
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    Sarah Schillie · Trudy V. Murphy · Nancy Fenlon · Stephen Ko · John W. Ward
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    ABSTRACT: What recommendations are being reviewed? Postvaccination serologic testing (PVST) is recommended for infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers at age 9–18 months. PVST consists of testing for HBsAg and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). Why are the recommendations being reviewed now? With the discontinuation of Hib/HepB vaccine (Comvax), the hepatitis B vaccine series for infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers will usually be completed at age 6 months, allowing PVST at age 9–12 months. New data from the Enhanced Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program are available that show that lower detectable levels of anti-HBs were associated with increased intervals between receipt of the last vaccine dose and PVST. What is the new recommendation? Considering the lower levels of anti-HBs with increasing time since completing vaccination and the extent of unnecessary revaccination, PVST, consisting of testing for HBsAg and anti-HBs, should be ordered at age 9–12 months (or 1–2 months after the final dose of the vaccine series, if delayed) for infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers. © 2015, Department of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the predictive value of self-reported hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) receipt for the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody (anti-HAV) from either past infection or vaccination, as an indicator of HAV protection. Using 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we assigned participants to 4 groups based on self-reported HepA receipt and anti-HAV results. We compared characteristics across groups and calculated three measures of agreement between self-report and serologic status (anti-HAV): percentage concordance, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values. Using logistic regression we investigated factors associated with agreement between self-reported vaccination status and serological results. Demographic and other characteristics varied significantly across the 4 groups. Overall agreement between self-reported HepA receipt and serological results was 63.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61.9-65.2); PPV and NPV of self-reported vaccination status for serological result were 47.0% (95% CI 44.2-49.8) and 69.4% (95% CI 67.0-71.8), respectively. Mexican American and foreign-born adults had the highest PPVs (71.5% [95% CI 65.9-76.5], and 75.8% [95% CI 71.4-79.7]) and the lowest NPVs (21.8% [95% CI 18.5-25.4], and 20.0% [95% CI 17.2-23.1]), respectively. Young (ages 20-29 years), US-born, and non-Hispanic White adults had the lowest PPVs (37.9% [95% CI 34.5-41.5], 39.1% [95% CI, 36.0-42.3], and 39.8% [36.1-43.7]), and the highest NPVs (76.9% [95% CI 72.2-81.0, 78.5% [95% CI 76.5-80.4)], and 80.6% [95% CI 78.2-82.8), respectively. Multivariate logistic analyses found age, race/ethnicity, education, place of birth and income to be significantly associated with agreement between self-reported vaccination status and serological results. When assessing hepatitis A protection, self-report of not having received HepA was most likely to identify persons at risk for hepatitis A infection (no anti-HAV) among young, US-born and non-Hispanic White adults, and self-report of HepA receipt was least likely to be reliable among adults with the same characteristics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Perinatal exposure is an important mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission, resulting in chronic disease in ∼90% of infected infants. Immunoprophylaxis recommended for infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers reduces up to 95% of perinatal HBV infections. We sought to identify factors associated with perinatal HBV transmission. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 5 of 64 US-funded Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Programs during 2007-2013. We examined effects of maternal demographic and laboratory results, infant gestational age and birth weight, and immunoprophylactic management on perinatal HBV infection. Data from 17 951 mother-infant pairs were analyzed. Among 9252 (51.5%) infants for whom hepatitis B surface antigen testing results were available, 100 (1.1%) acquired perinatal HBV infection. Both hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin were administered within 12 hours of birth for 10 760 (94.9%) of 11 335 infants with information. Perinatal HBV infection was associated with younger maternal age (P = .01), Asian/Pacific Islander race (P < .01), maternal hepatitis B e-antigen positivity (P < .01), maternal antibody to hepatitis B e-antigen negativity (P < .01), maternal viral load ≥2000 IU/mL (P = .04), and infant receipt of <3 HepB vaccine doses (P = .01). Four infants born to 429 mothers with viral load testing were infected; all 4 were born to mothers with viral loads in the ninth or tenth decile. Perinatal HBV infection occurred among 1% of infants, most of whom received recommended immunoprophylaxis. Infants at greatest risk of infection were those born to women who were younger, hepatitis B e-antigen positive, or who had a high viral load or those infants who received <3 HepB vaccine doses. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · PEDIATRICS
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. Routine HepB vaccination was recommended for infants in 1991 and catch-up vaccination has been recommended for adolescents since in 1995. The purpose of this study is to assess HepB vaccination among adolescents 13-17 years. Methods: The 2006-2012 NIS-Teen were analyzed. Vaccination trends and coverage by birth cohort among adolescents were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal models are used to identify factors independently associated with HepB vaccination. Results: HepB vaccination coverage increased from 81.3% in 2006 to 92.8% in 2012. Coverage varied by birth cohort and 79-83% received vaccination before 2 years of age for those who were born during 1995 and 1999. Among those who had not received vaccination by 11 years of age, for the 1993-1995 birth cohorts, 9-15% were vaccinated during ages 11-12 years, and 27-37% had been vaccinated through age 16 years. Coverage among adolescents 13-17 years in 2012 ranged by state from 84.4% in West Virginia to 98.7% in Florida (median 93.3%). Characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HepB vaccination included living more than 5 times above poverty level, living in Northeastern or Southern region of the United States, and having a mixed facility as their vaccination provider. Those with a hospital listed as their vaccination provider and those who did not have a well-child visit at age 11-12 years were independently associated with a lower likelihood of HepB vaccination. Conclusions: Efforts focused on groups with lower coverage may reduce disparities in coverage and prevent hepatitis B infection. Parents and providers should routinely review adolescent immunizations. Routine reminder/recall, expanded access in health care settings, and standing order programs should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adolescents.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Vaccine
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    Lin Fan · Kwame Owusu-Edusei · Sarah F Schillie · Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the antiviral treatment patterns for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods: Using 2011 MarketScan claims, we calculated the rates of antiviral treatment among women (aged 10-50 years) with CHB. We described the pattern of antiviral treatment during pregnancy and ≥1 month after delivery. Results: We identified 6274 women with CHB during 2011. Among these, 64 of 507 (12.6%) pregnant women and 1151 of 5767 (20.0%) nonpregnant women received antiviral treatment (P < 0.01). Pregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (73.4%) and lamivudine (21.9%); nonpregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (50.2%) and entecavir (41.3%) (P < 0.01). Among 48 treated pregnant women with an identifiable delivery date, 16 (33.3%) were prescribed an antiviral before pregnancy and continued treatment for at least one month after delivery; 14 (29.2%) started treatment during the third trimester and continued at least one month after delivery. Conclusion: Among this insured population, pregnant women with CHB received an antiviral significantly less often than nonpregnant women. The most common antiviral prescribed for pregnant women was tenofovir. These data provide a baseline for assessing changes in treatment patterns with anticipated increased use of antivirals to prevent breakthrough perinatal hepatitis B virus infection.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    Stephen C Ko · Emily A Smith · Alaya K Koneru · Lin Fan · Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Background Ninety percent of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections result in chronic HBV (CHBV), which carries 25% risk of premature death from progressive liver injury, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. In 1990, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Programs (PHBPP) to ensure postexposure prophylaxis for exposed infants and accelerate elimination of perinatal CHBV in the United States. From 2000 to 2009, the annual rates of perinatal CHBV reported by PHBPP (0.8%–2.4%) were consistently lower than expected rates from CDC models (3.0%–4.1%), suggesting that rates of CHBV might be higher among infants whose outcomes were not identified by PHBPP. To better understand the factors impacting modeled expected number and rates of perinatal CHBV, we examined historic CDC models, applied updated inputs to the 2009 CDC model, and performed sensitivity analyses over a range of parameter values.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
  • Noele P Nelson · Denise J Jamieson · Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the most common form of chronic hepatitis worldwide, is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 360 million people globally. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. An estimated 15%-40% of persons chronically infected develop HBV-related complications, such as cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma, and 25% die from these complications. MTCT can occur during pregnancy or during delivery. Screening pregnant women for HBV infection, providing infant postexposure prophylaxis, and maternal treatment with antiviral medications are strategies for reducing MTCT transmission rates and the global burden of new chronic HBV infections. Administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine within 24 hours of birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, is 85%-95% efficacious for prevention of MTCT. Despite timely post-exposure prophylaxis, MTCT occurs in 5%-15% of infants. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) positive mothers with HBV DNA level ≥10(6) copies/mL (>200 000 IU/mL) are at greatest risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. Consensus recommendations and evidence-based guidelines for management of chronic HBV infection and screening of pregnant women have been developed. The safety and efficacy of antiviral drug use during pregnancy are areas of ongoing research. Substantial advances have been achieved globally in reducing MTCT, but MTCT remains an ongoing health problem. Attaining a better understanding of the mechanisms of MTCT, implementing existing policies on maternal screening and infant follow-up, and addressing research gaps are critical for further reductions in MTCT transmission.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To resolve discrepant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) results for pregnant women screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Study design: A case was defined as discrepant HBsAg (reactive followed by non-reactive) result during the same pregnancy. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention examined a convenience sample of cases passively reported by US Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Programs. Using a standard form, available results were obtained for hepatitis B tests and vaccination histories. Results were independently reviewed by 3 viral hepatitis experts and a clinical virologist to resolve discrepancies. The initial HBsAg result was classified as probable true positive, probable false positive, or unresolved. Results: From April 2009-December 2011, 142 (75.9%) of 187 reported discrepant cases met the case definition. Of the 142 initial reactive HBsAg results, 113 (79.5%) were laboratory-confirmed, and 89 (62.7%) were resolved. Among these 89 cases, the initial test was a probable true positive in 14 (15.7%), and a false positive in 75 (84.3%). Total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen was positive for 11 (78.6%) of the true positive cases and negative for 67 (89.3%) of the false positive cases. True positives included 2 cases of resolving acute HBV infection and one case recently given hepatitis B vaccination. Conclusions: In this retrospective analysis of discrepant HBsAg-reactive screening results from pregnant women, the majority were false positives, but true positives occurred. Testing for total hepatitis B core antibody, an indicator of past or current HBV infection, was useful for resolving discrepancies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To examine the cost-effectiveness of pre- and postexposure approaches for ensuring hepatitis B protection among previously vaccinated healthcare personnel (HCP). Design. A decision-analytic model was developed for alternative strategies of ensuring hepatitis B protection under assumptions of 68% and 95% long-term protection after a primary vaccination series. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost from infections were estimated, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated relative to a no intervention alternative over 10 years of intervention. Separate analyses were performed for trainees and nontrainees, using the healthcare system perspective. Trainees face higher risk of exposure and likely received primary vaccination as infants. Setting. General healthcare settings. Participants. Trainee and nontrainee HCP. Interventions. Preexposure testing for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen followed by additional vaccination for HCP without protective antibody levels; postexposure evaluation and management for HCP reporting blood or body fluid exposures Results. The preexposure strategy prevents more infections and has higher costs than the postexposure strategy or no intervention. For trainees, 10-year preexposure evaluation ICERs are $832,875 and $144,457 per QALY for 95% and 68% long-term vaccine protection, respectively. Trainee 10-year postexposure evaluation ICERs are $1,146,660 and $191,579 per QALY under the 95% and 68% long-term protection assumptions, respectively. For nontrainees, 10-year ICERs are $745,739 and $1,129,286 per QALY for the preexposure and postexposure evaluation strategies, respectively. Conclusions. ICERs may inform decision makers as they decide whether the added cost of the preexposure strategy provides sufficient value in preventing infections.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
  • Lin Fan · Kwame Owusu-Edusei · Sarah F Schillie · Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of testing pregnant women with hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-positive) for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, and administering maternal antiviral prophylaxis if indicated, to decrease breakthrough perinatal HBV transmission from the U.S. health care perspective. A Markov decision model was constructed for a 2010 birth cohort of 4 million neonates to estimate the cost-effectiveness of two strategies: testing HBsAg-positive pregnant women for 1) HBeAg or 2) HBV load. Maternal antiviral prophylaxis is given from 28 weeks of gestation through 4 weeks postpartum when HBeAg is positive or HBV load is high (10 copies/mL or greater). These strategies were compared with the current recommendation. All neonates born to HBsAg-positive women received recommended active-passive immunoprophylaxis. Effects were measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and all costs were in 2010 U.S. dollars. The HBeAg testing strategy saved $3.3 million and 3,080 QALYs and prevented 486 chronic HBV infections compared with the current recommendation. The HBV load testing strategy cost $3 million more than current recommendation, saved 2,080 QALYs, and prevented 324 chronic infections with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,583 per QALY saved compared with the current recommendations. The results remained robust over a wide range of assumptions. Testing HBsAg-positive pregnant women for HBeAg or HBV load followed by maternal antiviral prophylaxis if HBeAg-positive or high viral load to reduce perinatal hepatitis B transmission in the United States is cost-effective.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Annually, an estimated 25,000 infants are born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women in the United States. Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) are recommended at birth, followed by completion of vaccine series and post-vaccination serologic testing (PVST). In a large cohort of infants born to HBsAg-positive women, factors influencing vaccine response were evaluated. Methods Data were from HBsAg-negative infants born to HBsAg-positive women in the Enhanced Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (EPHBPP) from 2008 to 2013. Vaccine non-responders were defined as infants with antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) <10 mIU/mL at PVST after receiving ≥3 vaccine doses. Multivariable analyses modeled statistically significant predictor variables associated with non-response. Results A number of 17,951 maternal-infant pairs were enrolled; 8654 HBsAg-negative infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers received ≥3 doses of vaccine with anti-HBs results. 8199 (94.7%) infants responded to a primary HepB series; 199 (94.8%) to a second series. Factors associated with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL included gestational age <37 weeks, vaccine birth dose >12 h after birth, timing of final vaccine dose <6 months after birth, receipt of 3 vs. 4 vaccine doses, and PVST interval >6 months from final vaccine dose in bivariate analysis. PVST interval >6 months from final vaccine dose (OR = 2.7, CI = 2.0, 3.6) was significantly associated with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL; the proportion increased from 2% at 1–2 months to 21.6% at 15–16 months after the final dose. Receipt of a 4th dose improved the response rate (OR = 0.5, CI = 0.3, 0.8). Conclusions Ninety-five percent of a large cohort of uninfected infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers in the United States responded to primary HepB vaccine series. The proportion of infants with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL increased with longer interval between the final vaccine dose and PVST. Optimal timing of PVST is within 1–2 months of final vaccine dose to avoid unnecessary revaccination.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the economic impact of the 2009 routine US childhood immunization schedule, including diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, inactivated poliovirus, measles/mumps/rubella, hepatitis B, varicella, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, and rotavirus vaccines; influenza vaccine was not included. Decision analysis was conducted using population-based vaccination coverage, published vaccine efficacies, historical data on disease incidence before vaccination, and disease incidence reported during 2005 to 2009. Costs were estimated using the direct cost and societal (direct and indirect costs) perspectives. Program costs included vaccine, administration, vaccine-associated adverse events, and parent travel and work time lost. All costs were inflated to 2009 dollars, and all costs and benefits in the future were discounted at a 3% annual rate. A hypothetical 2009 US birth cohort of 4 261 494 infants over their lifetime was followed up from birth through death. Net present value (net savings) and benefit-cost ratios of routine childhood immunization were calculated. Analyses showed that routine childhood immunization among members of the 2009 US birth cohort will prevent ∼42 000 early deaths and 20 million cases of disease, with net savings of $13.5 billion in direct costs and $68.8 billion in total societal costs, respectively. The direct and societal benefit-cost ratios for routine childhood vaccination with these 9 vaccines were 3.0 and 10.1. From both direct cost and societal perspectives, vaccinating children as recommended with these vaccines results in substantial cost savings.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PEDIATRICS
  • Noele P Nelson · Trudy V Murphy · Brian J McMahon

    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the cost-effectiveness of the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) over the lifetime of the 2009 US birth cohort and compare the costs and outcomes of the program to a scenario without PHBPP support. PHBPP's goals are to ensure all infants born to hepatitis B (HepB) surface antigen-positive women receive timely postexposure prophylaxis, complete HepB vaccine series, and obtain serologic testing after series completion. Methods: A decision analytic tree and a long-term Markov model represented the risk of perinatal and childhood infections under different prevention alternatives, and the long-term health and economic consequences of HepB infection. Outcome measures were the number of perinatal infections and childhood infections from infants born to HepB surface antigen-positive women, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), lifetime costs, and incremental cost per QALY gained. The health outcomes and total costs of each strategy were compared incrementally. Costs were evaluated from the health care system perspective and expressed in US dollars at a 2010 price base. Results: In all analyses, the PHBPP increased QALYs and led to higher reductions in the number of perinatal and childhood infections than no PHBPP, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of $2602 per QALY. In sensitivity analyses, the cost-effectiveness ratio was robust to variations in model inputs, and there were instances where the program was both more effective and cost saving. Conclusions: This study indicated that the current PHBPP represents a cost-effective use of resources, and ensuring the program reaches all pregnant women could present additional public health benefits.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · PEDIATRICS
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    ABSTRACT: This report contains CDC guidance that augments the 2011 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for evaluating hepatitis B protection among health-care personnel (HCP) and administering post-exposure prophylaxis. Explicit guidance is provided for persons working, training, or volunteering in health-care settings who have documented hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination years before hire or matriculation (e.g., when HepB vaccination was received as part of routine infant [recommended since 1991] or catch-up adolescent [recommended since 1995] vaccination). In the United States, 2,890 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported to CDC in 2011, and an estimated 18,800 new cases of hepatitis B occurred after accounting for underreporting of cases and asymptomatic infection. Although the rate of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections have declined approximately 89% during 1990-2011, from 8.5 to 0.9 cases per 100,000 population in the United States, the risk for occupationally acquired HBV among HCP persists, largely from exposures to patients with chronic HBV infection. ACIP recommends HepB vaccination for unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated HCP with reasonably anticipated risk for blood or body fluid exposure. ACIP also recommends that vaccinated HCP receive postvaccination serologic testing (antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBs]) 1-2 months after the final dose of vaccine is administered (CDC. Immunization of health-care personnel: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2011;60 [No. RR-7]). Increasing numbers of HCP have received routine HepB vaccination either as infants (recommended since 1991) or as catch-up vaccination (recommended since 1995) in adolescence. HepB vaccination results in protective anti-HBs responses among approximately 95% of healthy-term infants. Certain institutions test vaccinated HCP by measuring anti-HBs upon hire or matriculation, even when anti-HBs testing occurs greater than 2 months after vaccination. This guidance can assist clinicians, occupational health and student health providers, infection-control specialists, hospital and health-care training program administrators, and others in selection of an approach for assessing HBV protection for vaccinated HCP. This report emphasizes the importance of administering HepB vaccination for all HCP, provides explicit guidance for evaluating hepatitis B protection among previously vaccinated HCP (particularly those who were vaccinated in infancy or adolescence), and clarifies recommendations for postexposure management of HCP exposed to blood or body fluids.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control
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    Noele P Nelson · Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis A is a communicable disease of the liver caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is a single-stranded, lin-ear, nonenveloped RNA virus of the Picornaviridae family. The incubation period is 14 to 28 days (up to 50 days). The diagnosis is made with a positive test for immunoglob-ulin M antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV), which is detectable from 2 weeks before the onset of symptoms to 6 months afterward. Children are often asymptomatic; the severity of acute hepatitis A generally increases with age. HAV infection typically causes an acute viral illness with jaundice, is limited to several weeks' duration, and often results in substantial morbidity and associated costs. 1-5 Although uncommon, severe hepatic and extrahepatic com-plications, including liver failure, occur. HAV is shed in the feces. The primary mode of transmis-sion is fecal-oral, and transmission usually occurs through direct contact or person-person contact. HAV' s ability to sur-vive for extended periods in the environment facilitates its transmission through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Blood-borne transmission is rare. Hepatitis A Epidemiology
    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2013
  • Kathy K Byrd · Peng-Jun Lu · Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: We compared self-reported hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine coverage among health-care personnel (HCP) with HepB vaccine coverage among the general population and determined trends in vaccination coverage among HCP. We used the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine the weighted proportion of self-reported ≥1- and ≥3-dose HepB vaccine coverage among HCP aged ≥18 years. We used logistic regression to determine independent predictors of vaccination and performed a trend analysis to determine changes in coverage from 2004 to 2010 using data from the 2004-2010 NHIS. Overall, 69.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.2, 71.8) and 63.4% (95% CI 60.8, 65.9) of HCP reported receiving ≥1 and ≥3 doses of HepB vaccine, respectively, compared with 27.1% (95% CI 26.1, 28.1%) and 23.0% (95% CI 22.1, 24.0) among non-HCP. Among HCP with direct patient contact, 80.7% (95% CI 78.2, 83.1) and 74.0% (95% CI 71.2, 76.8) received ≥1 and ≥3 HepB vaccine doses, respectively. Independent predictors of vaccination included direct patient contact, having more than a high school education, influenza vaccination in the past year, and ever having been tested for HIV. There was no significant change in reported coverage from 2004 through 2010. The 2010 HepB vaccine coverage estimate among HCP remained well below the Healthy People 2010 goal of 90%. Efforts to target unvaccinated HCP for preexposure HepB protection should be encouraged.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Public Health Reports
  • Zhen Zhao · Trudy V Murphy
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B birth dose vaccination is a critical step in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus infection. This study assesses the prevalence of children who missed the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccination and identifies socio-demographic factors associated with non-receipt of the birth dose among children in the United States. A survey observation study was conducted with the national representative sample of 17,053 U.S. children aged 19-35months obtained from the 2009 National Immunization Survey. Categorical data analysis and multivariable logistic regression in the context of complex sample survey were applied to evaluate the prevalence and determine the independent risk factors. 39.2% of children missed the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccination. Children who reside in states without a universal hepatitis B vaccine supply policy, are not covered by health insurance, and have only 1 vaccination provider are significantly associated with non-receipt of the birth dose hepatitis B vaccination. Children who reside in states without a universal hepatitis B vaccine supply policy, and are not covered by health insurance are two important modifiable risk factors for not receiving the birth dose hepatitis B vaccination, future intervention studies could be needed to help control those modifiable risk factors.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Preventive Medicine

Publication Stats

3k Citations
522.86 Total Impact Points


  • 2011-2015
    • Center for HIV/AIDS Educational Studies and Training
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2001-2015
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Viral Hepatitis
      • • Division of Bacterial Diseases
      • • National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
      • • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Surveillance and Epidemiology
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2009
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2005
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • Malawi Centers of Disease Control and Prevention
      Lilongwe, Central Region, Malawi