[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Less than 20 % of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation. Methods The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center. Results Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98 % of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97 % provided a blood sample, and 76 % were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified. Conclusions The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several population-based and family-based studies have demonstrated that germline mutations of the PALB2 gene (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Distinct mutation frequencies and spectrums have been described depending on the population studied. Here we describe the first complete PALB2 coding sequence screening in the French population. We screened the complete coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of PALB2, using the EMMA technique, to assess the contribution of pathogenic mutations in a set of 835 familial breast cancer cases and 662 unrelated controls from the French national study GENESIS and the Paul Strauss Cancer Centre, all previously tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutations. Our analysis revealed the presence of four novel deleterious mutations: c.1186insT, c.1857delT and c.2850delC in three cases, c.3418dupT in one control. In addition, we identified two in-frame insertion/deletion, 19 missense substitutions (two of them predicted as pathogenic), 9 synonymous variants, 28 variants located in introns and 2 in UTRs, as well as frequent variants. Truncating PALB2 mutations were found in 0.36 % of familial breast cancer cases, a frequency lower than the one detected in comparable studies in other populations (0.73-3.40 %). This suggests a small but significant contribution of PALB2 mutations to the breast cancer susceptibility in the French population.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast Cancer is a complex multifactorial disease for which high-penetrance mutations have been identified. Approaches used to date have identified genomic features explaining about 50% of breast cancer heritability. A number of low- to medium penetrance alleles (per-allele odds ratio < 1.5 and 4.0, respectively) have been identified, suggesting that the remaining heritability is likely to be explained by the cumulative effect of such alleles and/or by rare high-penetrance alleles. Relatively few studies have specifically explored the mitochondrial genome for variants potentially implicated in breast cancer risk. For these reasons, we propose an exploration of the variability of the mitochondrial genome in individuals diagnosed with breast cancer, having a positive breast cancer family history but testing negative for BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of 436 index breast cancer cases from the GENESIS study. As expected, no pathogenic genomic pattern common to the 436 women included in our study was observed. The mitochondrial genes MT-ATP6 and MT-CYB were observed to carry the highest number of variants in the study. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the structure of the mitochondrial respiration chain, and variants in these genes may impact reactive oxygen species production contributing to carcinogenesis. More functional and epidemiological studies are needed to further investigate to what extent variants identified may influence familial breast cancer risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals from different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen species production, leading to cancer risk. Here we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
We genotyped 22214 (11421 affected, 10793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched for affected or unaffected individuals.
We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers than the rest of clade T, (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.55 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.34-0.88, p-value = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population i.e. H and T clade, the T1a1 haplogroup has an HR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.40-0.95, p-value = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk.
This study illustrates how original approaches like the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Breast cancer research: BCR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists.
OBJECTIVE:To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk.
EXPOSURES:Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast and ovarian cancer risks.
RESULTS:Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.69-3.16; P = .00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 × 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 - 1.15, p = 1.9 x 10-4 (false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p = 0.043). Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 - 1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045). Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05) for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients' survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
PMID: 25830658 [PubMed - in process]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gestational choriocarcinoma (CC) represents the most aggressive form of gestational tumours. In Europe and North America, gestational CC occurs in approximately 1/50 000 deliveries.1 We report the detection, in a gestational CC developed in a female partner of a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) (MIM #151623), of the germline TP53 mutation initially detected in this LFS patient. In the French LFS series, we identified 78 fathers who were carriers of a germline TP53 mutation. Among the 213 corresponding pregnancies, we found two other cases of gestational CC in their partners. We estimate that gestational CC occurs in approximately 1% of the deliveries in female partners of TP53 mutation carriers. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which can occur after either abnormal or normal fertilisation, is characterised by the uncontrolled proliferation of trophoblastic cells normally producing the placenta. GTD includes premalignant (complete and partial hydatidiform moles) and malignant (invasive mole, gestational CC, placental-site trophoblastic and epithelioid trophoblastic tumours) lesions.1 We considered the diagnosis of LFS, a remarkable cancer predisposition characterised by the extent of tumour spectrum,2 in the family described in figure 1. The male index case had developed a cholangiocarcinoma at 37 years of age, … [Full text of this article]
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
We aimed to study the relationships between educational level, women's knowledge about cervical cancer (CC), and acceptance of HPV vaccination for their daughters.
We analysed data from a quantitative (self-administrated questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) cross-sectional study performed in 2008 among 1,229 French 18–65-year-old women recruited by general practitioners. Women were categorized into three educational level groups: low (LEL: 43.9%), medium (MEL: 33.4%) and high (HEL: 22.6%).
Knowledge about CC and its prevention was lower among LEL women. In the 180 mothers of 14–18-year-old daughters (99 LEL, 54 MEL, 45 HEL), acceptance of HPV vaccine was higher in LEL (60.4%) and MEL (68.6%) than in HEL mothers (46.8%). Among LEL mothers, those who were favourable to HPV vaccination were more likely to be young (OR = 8.44 [2.10–34.00]), to be vaccinated against hepatitis B (OR = 4.59 [1.14–18.52]), to have vaccinated their children against pneumococcus (OR = 3.52 [0.99–12.48]) and to present a history of abnormal Pap smear (OR = 6.71 [0.70–64.01]).
Although LEL women had poorer knowledge about CC and its prevention, they were more likely to accept HPV vaccination than HEL mothers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Due to underestimation, surgical excision is recommended for atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) diagnosed on directional vacuum-assisted biopsies (DVAB). The following guidelines have been established according to our retrospective study published in 2008: excision for lesions ≥ 21 mm, follow-up for lesions < 6 mm with complete removal of microcalcifications, follow-up or excision for 6-21 mm lesions with respectively less or more than 2 ADH foci.
Methods and Results
These guidelines were assessed in a prospective series of 124 patients with a median follow-up of 30 months. Conformity rate was 92%. Upgrading was 28% (15 patients out of 53) for conformed surgery and absent for surgery performed beyond the scope of guidelines. For the patients with benign surgery (n=38) or just followed (n=61), 3 cancers occurred in either breast at 1 to 3 years.
These convenient guidelines can safely spare surgery for a subset of patients. However, annual mammographic follow-up is recommended since the risk of subsequent cancer remains high for both breasts.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · American journal of surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This study aimed to measure patients' smoking patterns for 5 years after BRCA1/2 test result disclosure.
A national cohort consisting of 621 French cancer-free women from families with BRCA1/2 mutations (mean age (SD): 40.5 years (11.5 years)) were included from December 1999 to January 2006, before disclosure of genetic test results, and followed for 5 years. They completed self-administered questionnaires about their cigarette smoking behaviors before receiving their test results (baseline) and 6, 12, 24, and 60 months after disclosure. Multivariate statistical analyses of the changes in participants' smoking behaviors were performed using a zero-inflated Poisson mixed model.
Baseline smoking was found to depend on age, educational level, marital status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and cancer risk perception. The zero-inflated part of the model showed the occurrence of no significant changes in the percentage of smokers during the 5 years after disclosure of the BRCA1/2 test results; however, daily smoking among BRCA1/2 carriers decreased significantly compared with that of noncarriers (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.83; (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.99); P = 0.04) after adjusting for baseline smoking behavior.
It would be worth investigating the possibility of counseling women during the genetic testing process about the multiple risk factors involved in cancer, such as genetic and lifestyle factors.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although greater attention is currently being paid to participants in research, no studies have dealt so far with the issue of returning aggregate psychosocial results to cohort participants.Objective(i) To explore participants’ views about disclosure of the aggregate results of a French national psychosocial cohort survey on the epidemiology of preventive behaviour in women from families with a hereditary breast cancer risk. (ii) To assess whether it is worth consulting participants before designing the disclosure process.DesignA qualitative study using semi-structured face-to-face interviews and a thematic analysis based on Grounded Theory methods.ParticipantsNineteen interviews were conducted with cancer-free female BRCA mutation carriers/non-carriers aged 31-79 who had participated in a cohort survey by answering self-administered questionnaires.ResultsParticipants showed considerable interest in the issue of result disclosure. The preferences expressed about disclosure were rarely relevant to the topic investigated, however, as they often focused on medical knowledge about BRCA and not on the psychosocial findings obtained. This confusion may have been due to the participants’ experience of the survey procedures, including its longitudinal nature, the occurrence of very few interactions with the investigators and the wide range of topics addressed in the questionnaires.Conclusion
Investigators should ascertain participants’ expectations and preferences by consulting them before disclosing the results obtained. Although the disclosure process may not meet participants’ expectations completely, consultation is the key to preventing them from having irrealistic expectations about the information they are going to receive.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Health expectations: an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To use both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the evolution of practices and opinions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among French general practitioners.
A cross-sectional study (self-questionnaires) was performed in 2007 and repeated in 2010 among 271 general practitioners. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on 27 voluntary participants by a sociologist and analyzed according to content analysis.
Acceptability of HPV vaccination had increased from 2007 to 2010 (79.9 vs. 87.1 %, respectively), just as the practice of HPV vaccination among 14-year-old girls (19.0 vs. 49.1 %, respectively). Though about 60 % reported complications associated with HPV vaccination, irrespective of year, the types of difficulties have varied: difficulties related to "questions asked by patients" had decreased, though concerns about side effects had remained stable. During interviews, difficulties related to "the reason for medical consultation" and "the target age" were often associated with addressing the issue of sexuality, especially when the parents were present.
Although the high level of acceptability of HPV vaccination among general practitioners, which increased from 2007 to 2010, there remain difficulties in addressing this practice.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · International Journal of Public Health