[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Febrile urinary tract infections are common in children and associated with the risk for renal scarring and long-term complications. Antimicrobial prophylaxis has been used to reduce the risk for recurrence. We performed a study to determine whether no prophylaxis is similar to antimicrobial prophylaxis for 12 months in reducing the recurrence of febrile urinary tract infections in children after a first febrile urinary tract infection.
The study was a controlled, randomized, open-label, 2-armed, noninferiority trial comparing no prophylaxis with prophylaxis (co-trimoxazole 15 mg/kg per day or co-amoxiclav 15 mg/kg per day) for 12 months. A total of 338 children who were aged 2 months to <7 years and had a first episode of febrile urinary tract infection were enrolled: 309 with a confirmed pyelonephritis on a technetium 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan with or without reflux and 27 with a clinical pyelonephritis and reflux. The primary end point was recurrence rate of febrile urinary tract infections during 12 months. Secondary end point was the rate of renal scarring produced by recurrent urinary tract infections on technetium 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan after 12 months.
Intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences in the primary outcome between no prophylaxis and prophylaxis: 12 (9.45%) of 127 vs 15 (7.11%) of 211. In the subgroup of children with reflux, the recurrence of febrile urinary tract infections was 9 (19.6%) of 46 on no prophylaxis and 10 (12.1%) of 82 on prophylaxis. No significant difference was found in the secondary outcome: 2 (1.9%) of 108 on no prophylaxis versus 2 (1.1%) of 187 on prophylaxis. Bivariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard model showed that grade III reflux was a risk factor for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections. Whereas increasing age was protective, use of no prophylaxis was not a risk factor.
For children with or without primary nonsevere reflux, prophylaxis does not reduce the rate of recurrent febrile urinary tract infections after the first episode.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for febrile infants and young children suspected of having a urinary tract infection is early antibiotic treatment, given parenterally if necessary. In support of this recommendation, data suggesting that delay in treatment of acute pyelonephritis increases the risk of kidney damage are cited. Because the risk was not well defined, we investigated renal scarring associated with delayed versus early treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children.
The research findings are derived from 2 multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled studies, Italian Renal Infection Study 1 and 2, whose primary outcomes dealt with initial antibiotic treatment and subsequent prophylaxis, respectively. From the 2 studies, we selected the 287 children with confirmed pyelonephritis on acute technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scans who underwent repeat scanning to detect scarring 12 months later. The children were 1 month to <7 years of age when they presented with their first recognized episode of acute pyelonephritis in northeast Italy.
Progressive delay in antibiotic treatment of acute pyelonephritis from <1 to >/=5 days after the onset of fever was not associated with any significant increase in the risk of scarring on technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scans obtained 1 year later. The risk of scarring remained relatively constant at 30.7 +/- 7%. Clinical and laboratory indices of inflammation were comparable in all groups, as was the incidence of vesicoureteric reflux.
Early treatment of acute pyelonephritis in infants and young children had no significant effect on the incidence of subsequent renal scarring. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the rate of scarring after acute pyelonephritis when infants and young children were compared with older children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy of oral antibiotic treatment alone with treatment started parenterally and completed orally in children with a first episode of acute pyelonephritis.
Multicentre, randomised controlled, open labelled, parallel group, non-inferiority trial.
28 paediatric units in north east Italy.
502 children aged 1 month to <7 years with clinical pyelonephritis.
Oral co-amoxiclav (50 mg/kg/day in three doses for 10 days) or parenteral ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg/day in a single parenteral dose) for three days, followed by oral co-amoxiclav (50 mg/kg/day in three divided doses for seven days). Main outcomes measures Primary outcome was the rate of renal scarring. Secondary measures of efficacy were time to defervescence (<37 degrees C), reduction in inflammatory indices, and percentage with sterile urine after 72 hours. An exploratory subgroup analysis was conducted in the children in whom pyelonephritis was confirmed by dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 10 days after study entry.
Intention to treat analysis showed no significant differences between oral (n=244) and parenteral (n=258) treatment, both in the primary outcome (scarring scintigraphy at 12 months 27/197 (13.7%) v 36/203 (17.7%), difference in risk -4%, 95% confidence interval -11.1% to 3.1%) and secondary outcomes (time to defervescence 36.9 hours (SD 19.7) v 34.3 hours (SD 20), mean difference 2.6 (-0.9 to 6.0); white cell count 9.8x10(9)/l (SD 3.5) v 9.5x10(9)/l (SD 3.1), mean difference 0.3 (-0.3 to 0.9); percentage with sterile urine 185/186 v 203/204, risk difference -0.05% (-1.5% to 1.4%)). Similar results were found in the subgroup of 278 children with confirmed acute pyelonephritis on scintigraphy at study entry.
Treatment with oral antibiotics is as effective as parenteral then oral treatment in the management of the first episode of clinical pyelonephritis in children.
Clinical Trials NCT00161330 [ClinicalTrials.gov].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated 38 newborns with acute renal failure (plasma creatinine (Pcr) concentration greater than = 1.5 mg/dl), measured between the 2nd and 5th days. We used renal ultrasound to exclude the possibility of congenital renal anomalies, obstructive pathology or vascular disorders. We calculated the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using Schwartz' formula and the maximal concentrating capacity using intranasal administration of desamino-cis-1-D-arginine-8-vasopressin (DDAVP test). Two newborns were treated with peritoneal dialysis and died during the first month of life. Thirty-six had a follow-up blood sample drawn: 24 preterm babies between 1 and 12 months, and 12 full-term babies between 1 and 36 months of life. From this sampling 4 babies (11.1%) showed defective maximal concentrating ability. Our data reveal the persistence of altered concentrating ability in newborns affected by renal failure and shows that this problem needs a longitudinal study and further diagnostic investigations.
No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · Child nephrology and urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten children with renal failure (age range 2 years 6 months to 18 years 9 months; median 11 years 10 months), maintained by long-term hemodialysis, had successful correction of their anemia after intravenous administration of recombinant human erythropoietin in a dosage escalating every 2 weeks (75 to 150 to 300 to 450 IU/kg/wk). Mean hemoglobin concentration increased from 6.4 +/- 0.9 to 11.5 +/- 1.0 gm/dl. Blood cell counts used to evaluate the correction of anemia were done after dialysis; this was especially important for children less compliant with water restriction. The higher hemoglobin concentration resulted in improvement of the quality of life, a greater tolerance for physical effort (exercise tolerance doubled and the ventilatory anaerobic threshold increased significantly), correction of some subclinical central nervous system abnormalities detected by evoked potentials testing, and reduction of bleeding time. Few side effects were noted; severe hypertension developed in one patient when postdialysis hematocrit was only 28%, and there were two episodes of hypertransaminasemia with no other evidence of liver dysfunction. We conclude that in children with renal failure the use of recombinant human erythropoietin to correct anemia is safe and strongly advisable, because of the resolution of many of the symptoms correlated with anemia.
No preview · Article · Nov 1990 · Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of a controlled trial to ascertain the usefulness of plasma infusion for the treatment of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) are reported. Criteria for admission were (1) observation within 8 days from first symptoms, (2) dialysis treatment required, and (3) no special treatments and no more than 25 ml blood/kg previously received. Children were subdivided according to age (less than or more than 3 years) and then randomly assigned to treatment with plasma or symptomatic therapy. Thirty-two children ranging in age from 4 months to 6 years entered this study; 17 received plasma (P+ group) and 15 only symptomatic therapy (P- group). The mean follow-up period was 16 months in both groups. Surgical renal biopsy was performed 29 to 49 days after onset in 11 P+ and 11 P- children, and 33 histologic findings were semiquantitatively evaluated. No death occurred in either group. No differences were found in blood pressure, proteinuria, or hematuria at the end of the follow-up period; in no case were severe arteriolar lesions found. There were no significant differences for the scores of the individual histologic measurements; on electron microscopy, no vascular changes were observed in seven children of the P+ group, whereas in five of seven of the P- group, thickening of the lamina rara interna and arteriolar damage were present. The ability of plasma to stimulate prostacyclin (PGI2) production, measured as its stable derivative 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, was within the normal range for all patients. In our patients with predominant glomerular involvement who were treated in a very early phase of HUS, infusions of plasma did not significantly influence the short- and medium-term clinical outcome and were not effective in severe HUS when given later in the course of the disease. A longer follow-up is needed to ascertain whether the presence of endothelial damage, demonstrated by electron microscopy in children who were not given plasma, is of clinical relevance.
No preview · Article · Mar 1988 · Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized the lipid-lipoprotein abnormalities encountered in a series of 45 nonnephrotic uremic children with various degrees of chronic renal insufficiency. A mild hypertriglyceridemia associated with decreased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was confirmed. The correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance showed a power behavior with a marked decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol below a creatinine clearance value of 40 ml/min/1.73 m2. A number of uremic children accumulate an abnormal population of very low-density lipoprotein particles in their plasma. On agarose gel electrophoresis these particles migrate as a slow moving pre-beta band and are clearly distinguished from the regular fast moving pre-beta very low-density lipoprotein band. This electrophoretic phenomenon has been called double pre-beta lipoproteinemia. The prevalence of double pre-beta lipoproteinemia increased significantly with the degree of impairment of renal function, reaching highest figures in patients on hemodialysis. Accordingly, the very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/triglyceride ratio also was significantly increased. The double pre-beta lipoproteinemia phenomenon was not detected in any of the control, nonuremic subjects. The clinical importance of double pre-beta lipoproteinemia in uremic plasma is related to its possible atherogenic role.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The case of a 11 year old boy with medullary sponge Kidney and nephrolithiasis discovered because of abdominal pain is described. Functional tubular impairment (concentrating defect, distal tubular acidosis) was present. No hypercalciuria nor hyperparathyroidism was detected. The diagnosis of medullary sponge Kidney was confirmed histopathologically. The pediatric cases described in the literature are characterized by a higher incidence of concentrating defect and acidosis, while the adults subjects often show hypercalciuria and or hyperparathyroidism. The careful study of tubular functions in the pediatric cases appears to be very useful to understand which are primary tubular disturbances and which are only secondary.
No preview · Article · May 1986 · La Pediatria medica e chirurgica: Medical and surgical pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2 children with upper urinary tract obstruction from Candida fungus balls are reported. A presumptive diagnosis, made on the basis of clinical and radiological findings, was confirmed by microscopic examination of urinary sediment. Medical treatment was successful in both patients. Since Candida infections can occur in patients with altered host resistance, this should alert clinicians to the possibility of fungal involvement when radiolucent filling defects are found in the renal pelvis. Such a presumptive diagnosis can then lead to a correct approach with conservation of renal function.
No preview · Article · Feb 1985 · European Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary excretion of the most widely studied renal stone promoting (calcium, oxalate, uric acid and phosphate) and inhibiting (citrate, magnesium, pyrophosphate and glycosaminoglycans) factors, as well as the Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein, was evaluated in 14 children with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, 6 children with renal stone disease secondary to excretory malformations and 19 normal controls. No statistically significant differences in urinary excretion of promoting and inhibiting factors were found in children with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis but the relationship between promoting and inhibiting factors was changed as shown by an abnormal ratio of oxalate/citrate X glycosaminoglycans. This finding suggests that there is an imbalance between promoting and inhibiting factors in children with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, and it is not detected by assay of each single substance.
No preview · Article · Jan 1984 · The Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 7 children, 20 months to 11 years old, with cystinuria and renal calculi were studied. Surgical treatment and alpha-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) gave satisfactory results in 5 children. The causes of the recurrences in the other 2 children are discussed. MPG therapy is effective but can cause a nephrotic syndrome at a dose of more than 50 mg/kg/day. A cystinuria of less than 200 mg/day cannot always be considered safe in children. The alkalinization and dilution of urine remain extremely important in the treatment of cystinuria.
No preview · Article · Feb 1981 · European Urology