[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prompted by the 20th anniversary of the 1993 World Development Report, a Lancet Commission revisited the case for investment in health and developed a new investment framework to achieve dramatic health gains by 2035. The Commission's report has four key messages, each accompanied by opportunities for action by national governments of low-income and middle-income countries and by the international community. First, there is an enormous economic payoff from investing in health. The impressive returns make a strong case for both increased domestic financing of health and for allocating a higher proportion of official development assistance to development of health. Second, modeling by the Commission found that a "grand convergence" in health is achievable by 2035-that is, a reduction in infectious, maternal, and child mortality down to universally low levels. Convergence would require aggressive scale up of existing and new health tools, and it could mostly be financed from the expected economic growth of low- and middle-income countries. The international community can best support convergence by funding the development and delivery of new health technologies and by curbing antibiotic resistance. Third, fiscal policies -such as taxation of tobacco and alcohol- are a powerful and underused lever that governments can use to curb non-communicable diseases and injuries while also raising revenue for health. International action on NCDs and injuries should focus on providing technical assistance on fiscal policies, regional cooperation on tobacco, and funding policy and implementation research on scaling-up of interventions to tackle these conditions. Fourth, progressive universalism, a pathway to universal health coverage (UHC) that includes the poor from the outset, is an efficient way to achieve health and financial risk protection. For national governments, progressive universalism would yield high health gains per dollar spent and poor people would gain the most in terms of health and financial protection. The international community can best support countries to implement progressive UHC by financing policy and implementation research, such as on the mechanics of designing and implementing evolution of the benefits package as the resource envelope for public finance grows.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Salud publica de Mexico
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prompted by the 20th anniversary of the 1993 World Development Report, a Lancet Commission revisited the case for investment in health and developed a new investment framework to achieve dramatic health gains by 2035. The Commission's report has four key messages, each accompanied by opportunities for action by national governments of low-income and middle-income countries and by the international community. First, there is an enormous economic payoff from investing in health. The impressive returns make a strong case for both increased domestic financing of health and for allocating a higher proportion of official development assistance to development of health. Second, modeling by the Commission found that a "grand convergence" in health is achievable by 2035-that is, a reduction in infectious, maternal, and child mortality down to universally low levels. Convergence would require aggressive scale up of existing and new health tools, and it could mostly be financed from the expected economic growth of low- and middle-income countries. The international community can best support convergence by funding the development and delivery of new health technologies and by curbing antibiotic resistance. Third, fiscal policies-such as taxation of tobacco and alcohol-are a powerful and underused lever that governments can use to curb non-communicable diseases and injuries while also raising revenue for health. International action on NCDs and injuries should focus on providing technical assistance on fiscal policies, regional cooperation on tobacco, and funding policy and implementation research on scaling-up of interventions to tackle these conditions. Fourth, progressive universalism, a pathway to universal health coverage (UHC) that includes the poor from the outset, is an efficient way to achieve health and financial risk protection. For national governments, progressive universalism would yield high health gains per dollar spent and poor people would gain the most in terms of health and financial protection. The international community can best support countries to implement progressive UHC by financing policy and implementation research, such as on the mechanics of designing and implementing evolution of the benefits package as the resource envelope for public finance grows.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths.
We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics.
Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP.
Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization).
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disease simulation models of the health and economic consequences of different prevention and treatment strategies can guide policy decisions about cancer control. However, models that also consider health disparities can identify strategies that improve both population health and its equitable distribution.
We devised a typology of cancer disparities that considers types of inequalities among black, white, and Hispanic populations across different cancers and characteristics important for near-term policy discussions. We illustrated the typology in the specific example of cervical cancer using an existing disease simulation model calibrated to clinical, epidemiological, and cost data for the United States. We calculated average reduction in cancer incidence overall and for black, white, and Hispanic women under five different prevention strategies (Strategies A1, A2, A3, B, and C) and estimated average costs and life expectancy per woman, and the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy.
Strategies that may provide greater aggregate health benefit than existing options may also exacerbate disparities. Combining human papillomavirus vaccination (Strategy A2) with current cervical cancer screening patterns (Strategy A1) resulted in an average reduction of 69% in cancer incidence overall but a 71.6% reduction for white women, 68.3% for black women, and 63.9% for Hispanic women. Other strategies targeting risk-based screening to racial and ethnic minorities reduced disparities among racial subgroups and resulted in more equitable distribution of benefits among subgroups (reduction in cervical cancer incidence, white vs. Hispanic women, 69.7% vs. 70.1%). Strategies that employ targeted risk-based screening and new screening algorithms, with or without vaccination (Strategies B and C), provide excellent value. The most effective strategy (Strategy C) had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $28,200 per year of life saved when compared with the same strategy without vaccination.
We identify screening strategies for cervical cancer that provide greater aggregate health benefit than existing options, offer excellent cost-effectiveness, and have the biggest positive impact in worst-off groups. The typology proposed here may also be useful in research and policy decisions when trade-offs between fairness and cost-effectiveness are unavoidable.
Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to quantify the benefits (life expectancy gains) and risks (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA.
We used data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women.
Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women.
Use of non-efavirenz-based initial ART in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a trade-off between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although gastric cancer incidence is declining in China, trends may differ from historical patterns in developed countries. Our aim was to (1) retrospectively estimate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and smoking on past gastric cancer incidence and (2) project how interventions on these two risk factors can reduce future incidence.
We used a population-based model of intestinal-type gastric cancer to estimate gastric cancer incidence between 1985 and 2050. Disease and risk factor data in the model were from community-based epidemiological studies and national prevalence surveys.
Between 1985 and 2005, age-standardized gastric cancer incidence among Chinese men declined from 30.8 to 27.2 per 100,000 (12%); trends in H. pylori and smoking prevalences accounted for >30% of overall decline. If past risk factor trends continue, gastric cancer incidence will decline an additional 30% by 2050. Yet, annual cases will increase from 116,000 to 201,000 due to population growth and aging. Assuming that H. pylori prevention/treatment and tobacco control are implemented in 2010, the decline in gastric cancer incidence is projected to increase to 33% with universal H. pylori treatment for 20-year-olds, 42% for a hypothetical childhood H. pylori vaccine, and 34% for aggressive tobacco control.
The decline in gastric cancer incidence has been slower than in developed countries and will be offset by population growth and aging. Public health interventions should be implemented to reduce the total number of cases. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9397-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Cancer Causes and Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the comparative health and economic outcomes associated with three alternative first-trimester abortion techniques in Mexico City and to examine the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion modalities within a restrictive setting.
Reproductive-aged women with unintended pregnancy seeking first-trimester abortion.
Synthesising the best available data, a computer-based model simulates induced abortion and its potential complications and is used to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative safe modalities for first-trimester pregnancy termination: (1) hospital-based dilatation and curettage (D&C), (2) hospital-based manual vacuum aspiration (MVA), (3) clinic-based MVA and (4) medical abortion using vaginal misoprostol.
Number of complications, lifetime costs, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy.
In comparison to the magnitude of health gains associated with all safe abortion modalities, the relative differences between strategies were more pronounced in terms of their economic costs. Assuming all options were equally available, clinic-based MVA was the least costly and most effective. Medical abortion with misoprostol provided comparable benefits to D&C, but cost substantially less. Enhanced access to safe abortion was always more influential than shifting between safe abortion modalities.
This study demonstrates that the provision of safe abortion is cost-effective and will result in reduced complications, decreased mortality and substantial cost savings compared with unsafe abortion. In Mexico City, shifting from a practice of hospital-based D&C to clinic-based MVA and enhancing access to medical abortion will have the best chance to minimise abortion-related morbidity and mortality.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent decades, extensive resources have been invested to develop cellular, molecular and genomic technologies with clinical applications that span the continuum of cancer care.
In December 2006, the National Cancer Institute sponsored the first workshop to uniquely examine the state of health services research on cancer-related cellular, molecular and genomic technologies and identify challenges and priorities for expanding the evidence base on their effectiveness in routine care.
This article summarizes the workshop outcomes, which included development of a comprehensive research agenda that incorporates health and safety endpoints, utilization patterns, patient and provider preferences, quality of care and access, disparities, economics and decision modeling, trends in cancer outcomes, and health-related quality of life among target populations.
Ultimately, the successful adoption of useful technologies will depend on understanding and influencing the patient, provider, health care system and societal factors that contribute to their uptake and effectiveness in 'real-world' settings.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Public Health Genomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) estimates that 16,000 deaths occur annually in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) due to rotavirus diarrhea; each year, another 22,000 children die from invasive pneumococcal disease and 32,000 women die from cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus. Vaccines against these priority diseases present opportunities for substantial gains in health, contributing to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The relative value of these vaccines depends on disease burden, vaccine price, effective delivery strategies, and available resources for their introduction into National Immunization Programs. As these elements vary between countries, the decision to introduce new and more costly vaccines requires that policy decisions are grounded in high-quality evidence that reflects national conditions and programmatic capacity. This strategic approach departs from a history of policy driven by less formal regional and global mechanisms.
Since 2004, PAHO has spearheaded the ProVac Initiative, striving to enhance national evidenced-based capacity to make informed policy decisions on new vaccine introduction. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and the PneumoADIP and Rotavirus Vaccine Project of GAVI have been critical supporters. The work plan for 20082013 will continue to address the following objectives: strengthening policy infrastructure and process; developing and enhancing tools for economic analysis; collecting data and conducting analyses; making evidence-based decisions; effectively planning for vaccine introduction when appropriate; developing strategies to iteratively assess progress and periodically revisit key decisions; and promoting scientific, technical, and policy-relevant partnerships.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in low-income countries, with approximately 25% of cases worldwide occurring in India. We estimated the potential health and economic impact of different cervical cancer prevention strategies. After empirically calibrating a cervical cancer model to country-specific epidemiologic data, we projected cancer incidence, life expectancy, and lifetime costs (I$2005), and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$/YLS) for the following strategies: pre-adolescent vaccination of girls before age 12, screening of women over age 30, and combined vaccination and screening. Screening differed by test (cytology, visual inspection, HPV DNA testing), number of clinical visits (1, 2 or 3), frequency (1 x , 2 x , 3 x per lifetime), and age range (35-45). Vaccine efficacy, coverage, and costs were varied in sensitivity analyses. Assuming 70% coverage, mean reduction in lifetime cancer risk was 44% (range, 28-57%) with HPV 16,18 vaccination alone, and 21-33% with screening three times per lifetime. Combining vaccination and screening three times per lifetime provided a mean reduction of 56% (vaccination plus 3-visit conventional cytology) to 63% (vaccination plus 2-visit HPV DNA testing). At a cost per vaccinated girl of I$10 (per dose cost of $2), pre-adolescent vaccination followed by screening three times per lifetime using either VIA or HPV DNA testing, would be considered cost-effective using the country's per capita gross domestic product (I$3452) as a threshold. In India, if high coverage of pre-adolescent girls with a low-cost HPV vaccine that provides long-term protection is achievable, vaccination followed by screening three times per lifetime is expected to reduce cancer deaths by half, and be cost-effective.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Syphilis continues to be an important public health problem among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence rates as high as 17%. Pregnant women are a critical population to screen to prevent the devastating consequences of infection to their unborn children. Although screening and appropriate treatment of infected pregnant women can prevent fetal and maternal complications, traditional screening algorithms requiring multiple tests have proven to be difficult to implement in resource-poor settings. We assess the cost-effectiveness of on-site prenatal syphilis screening with newly available rapid point-of-care screening tests in sub-Saharan Africa.
Data from the literature were used to model the acquisition and subsequent natural history of syphilis in pregnant sub-Saharan African women over the course of their lifetime. We assessed the health and economic outcomes associated with screening strategies that differed by the initial test [rapid plasma reagin (RPR), immunochromographic strip (ICS)], need for confirmation with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay, and number of visits required. Model outcomes include adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, low birth weight, congenital syphilis, stillbirth, and neonatal death), life expectancy, lifetime costs (2004 US dollars), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.
With no screening, for a cohort of 1000 women with an average of 6 pregnancies in their lifetime, there were 256 cases of congenital syphilis, 583 low birth weight infants, and 170 stillbirths or neonatal deaths. The most effective and least costly strategy was one-visit rapid testing with ICS, which averted 178 cases of congenital syphilis, 43 low birth weight infants, and 37 perinatal deaths, and saved $170,030 per 1000 women compared with no screening. The choice between ICS and RPR was most influenced by test kit, labor and supply costs, and test sensitivity. RPR was preferred when the ICS cost more than doubled or ICS test sensitivity fell below 88%.
Universal prenatal syphilis screening using rapid point-of-care tests will improve both maternal and infant outcomes and is cost-effective.
No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Sexually transmitted diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was (1) to estimate the direct medical costs of 7 major noncervical human papillomavirus (HPV)-related conditions that include genital cancers, mouth and oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and (2) to approximate the economic burden of noncervical HPV disease.
For each condition, we synthesized the best available secondary data to produce lifetime cost per case estimates, which were expressed in present value. Using an incidence-based approach, we then applied these costs to develop an aggregate measure of economic burden.
The economic burden that was associated with noncervical HPV-6-, -11-, -16-, and -18-related conditions in the US population in the year 2003 approximates $418 million (range, $160 million to $1.6 billion).
The economic burden of noncervical HPV disease is substantial. Analyses that assess the value of investments in HPV prevention and control programs should take into account the costs and morbidity and mortality rates that are associated with these conditions.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of including boys vs girls alone in a pre-adolescent vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 in Brazil. Using demographic, epidemiological, and cancer data from Brazil, we developed a dynamic transmission model of HPV infection between males and females. Model-projected reductions in HPV incidence under different vaccination scenarios were applied to a stochastic model of cervical carcinogenesis to project lifetime costs and benefits. We assumed vaccination prevented HPV-16 and -18 infections in individuals not previously infected, and protection was lifelong. Coverage was varied from 0-90% in both genders, and cost per-vaccinated individual was varied from IUSD 25 to 400. At 90% coverage, vaccinating girls alone reduced cancer risk by 63%; including boys at this coverage level provided only 4% further cancer reduction. At a cost per-vaccinated individual of USD 50, vaccinating girls alone was <USD 200 per year of life saved (YLS), while including boys ranged from USD 810-18,650 per YLS depending on coverage. For all coverage levels, increasing coverage in girls was more effective and less costly than including boys in the vaccination programme. In a resource-constrained setting such as Brazil, our results support that the first priority in reducing cervical cancer mortality should be to vaccinate pre-adolescent girls.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance testing in HIV disease may provide long-term benefits that are not evident from short-term data. Our objectives were to estimate the long-term effectiveness, cost and cost-effectiveness of genotype testing in patients with extensive antiretroviral exposure.
We used an HIV simulation model to estimate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of genotype testing. Clinical data incorporated into the model were from NARVAL, a randomized trial of resistance testing in patients with extensive antiretroviral exposure, and other randomized trials. Each simulated patient was eligible for up to three sequential regimens of antiretroviral therapy (i.e. two additional regimens beyond the trial-based regimen) using drugs not available at the time of the study, such as lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir and enfuvirtide.
In the long term, projected undiscounted life expectancy increased from 132.2 months with clinical judgement alone to 147.9 months with genotype testing. Median survival was estimated at 11.9 years in the resistance testing arm vs 10.4 years in the clinical judgement alone arm. Because of increased survival, the projected lifetime discounted cost of genotype testing was greater than for clinical judgement alone (euro313,900 vs euro263,100; US$399,000 vs US$334,400). Genotype testing cost euro69,600 (US$88,500) per quality-adjusted life year gained compared with clinical judgement alone.
In patients with extensive prior antiretroviral exposure, genotype testing is likely to increase life expectancy in the long term as a result of the increased likelihood of receiving two active new drugs. Genotype testing is associated with cost-effectiveness comparable to that of strategies accepted in patients with advanced HIV disease, such as enfuvirtide use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer, the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries, is caused by persistent infection with "high-risk" genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPV). The most common oncogenic HPV genotypes are 16 and 18, causing approximately 70% of all cervical cancers. Types 6 and 11 do not contribute to the incidence of high-grade dysplasias (precancerous lesions) or cervical cancer, but do cause laryngeal papillomas and most genital warts. HPV is highly transmissible, with peak incidence soon after the onset of sexual activity.
A quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) HPV vaccine has recently been licensed in several countries following the determination that it has an acceptable benefit/risk profile. In large phase III trials, the vaccine prevented 100% of moderate and severe precancerous cervical lesions associated with types 16 or 18 among women with no previous infection with these types. A bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine has also undergone extensive evaluation and been licensed in at least one country. Both vaccines are prepared from non-infectious, DNA-free virus-like particles produced by recombinant technology and combined with an adjuvant. With three doses administered, they induce high levels of serum antibodies in virtually all vaccinated individuals. In women who have no evidence of past or current infection with the HPV genotypes in the vaccine, both vaccines show > 90% protection against persistent HPV infection for up to 5 years after vaccination, which is the longest reported follow-up so far. Vaccinating at an age before females are exposed to HPV would have the greatest impact. Since HPV vaccines do not eliminate the risk of cervical cancer, cervical I screening will still be required to minimize cancer incidence. Tiered pricing for HPV vaccines, innovative financing mechanisms and multidisciplinary partnerships will be essential in order for the vaccines to reach populations in greatest need.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Bulletin of the World Health Organisation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death among women living in low-resource settings. In the last 3 decades, cytologic screening has -in theory -been available and yet more than 6 million women have died of this preventable disease. The necessary resources, infrastructure, and technological expertise, together with the need for repeated screenings at regular intervals, make cytologic screening difficult to implement in poor countries. As noncytologic approaches for the detection of HPV, simple visual screening methods for anogenital lesions caused by HPV, and the availability of an HPV-16/18 vaccine will enhance the linkage between screening and treatment, multiple factors will need to be considered when designing new, or modifying existing prevention strategies. Countryspecific decisions regarding the best strategy for cervical cancer control will need to rely on data from many sources and take into account complex epidemiologic, economic, social, political, and cultural factors, and be made despite uncertainty and incomplete information. A rigorous decision analytic approach using computerbased modeling methods enables linkage of the knowledge gained from empirical studies to real-world situations. This chapter provides an introduction to these methods, reviews lessons learned from cost-effectiveness analyses of cervical cancer screening in developed and developing countries, and emphasizes important qualitative themes to consider in designing cervical cancer prevention policies.
Preview · Article · Dec 2006 · International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate incidence rates of opportunistic diseases (ODs) and mortality for patients with and without a history of OD among HIV-infected patients in Côte d'Ivoire.
Using incidence density analysis, we estimated rates of ODs and chronic mortality by CD4 count in patients in a cotrimoxazole prophylaxis trial in Abidjan before the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Chronic mortality was defined as death without a history of OD or death more than 30 days after an OD diagnosis. We used Poisson's regression to examine the effect of OD history on chronic mortality after adjusting for age, gender, and current CD4 count.
Two hundred and seventy patients (40% male, mean age 33 years, median baseline CD4 count 261 cells/microl) were followed up for a median of 9.5 months. Bacterial infections and tuberculosis were the most common severe ODs. Of 47 patients who died, 9 (19%) died within 30 days of an OD, 26 (55%) died more than 30 days after an OD, and 12 (26%) died with no OD history. The chronic mortality rate was 31.0/100 person-years for those with an OD history, and 11.1/100 person-years for those with no OD history (rate ratio (RR) 2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43 - 5.54). Multivariate analysis revealed that OD history remained an independent predictor of mortality (RR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.07 - 4.33) after adjusting for CD4 count, age and gender.
Before the HAART era, a history of OD was associated with increased chronic HIV mortality in Côte d'Ivoire, even after adjusting for CD4 count. These results provide further evidence supporting OD prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde