[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Sandblasting particles which remain on the surfaces of dental restorations are removed prior to cementation. It is probable that adhesive strength between luting material and sandblasting particle remnants might exceed that with restorative material. If that being the case, blasting particles adhere to sandblasted material surface could be instrumental to increasing adhesive strength like underlying bonding mechanism between luting material and silanized particles of tribochemical silica coating-treated surface. We hypothesize that ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces, which were pretreated with sandblasting, may affect adhesive strength of a resin luting material to dental restorative materials.
We therefore observed adhesive strength of resin luting material to aluminum oxide was greater than those to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy beforehand. To measure the shear bond strengths of resin luting material to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, forty specimens of each restorative material were prepared. Bonding surfaces were polished with silicon abrasive paper and then treated with sandblasting. For each restorative material, 40 sandblasted specimens were equally divided into two groups: ultrasonic cleaning (USC) group and non-ultrasonic cleaning (NUSC) group. After resin luting material was polymerized on bonding surface, shear test was performed to evaluate effect of ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces pretreated with sandblasting on bond strength.
For both zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, NUSC group showed significantly higher shear bond strength than USC group.
Ultrasonic cleaning of dental restorations after sandblasting should be avoided to retain improved bonding between these materials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High flexural properties are needed for fixed partial denture or implant prosthesis to resist susceptibility to failures caused by occlusal overload. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the effects of four different kinds of fibers on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced composites.
Polyethylene fiber, glass fiber and two types of carbon fibers were used for reinforcement. Seven groups of specimens, 2 × 2 × 25 mm, were prepared (n = 10 per group). Four groups of resin composite specimens were reinforced with polyethylene, glass or one type of carbon fiber. The remaining three groups served as controls, with each group comprising one brand of resin composite without any fiber. After 24-h water storage in 37°C distilled water, the flexural properties of each specimen were examined with static three-point flexural test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min.
Compared to the control without any fiber, glass and carbon fibers significantly increased the flexural strength (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the polyethylene fiber decreased the flexural strength (p < 0.05). Among the fibers, carbon fiber exhibited higher flexural strength than glass fiber (p < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for flexural modulus and fracture energy. However, there was no significant difference in fracture energy between carbon and glass fibers (p > 0.05).
Fibers could, therefore, improve the flexural properties of resin composite and carbon fibers in longitudinal form yielded the better effects for reinforcement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate oropharyngeal pressure flow dynamics during dry swallowing in ten healthy subjects. Tongue pressure (TP) was measured using a sensor sheet system with five measuring points on the hard palate, and pharyngeal pressure (PP) was measured using a manometric catheter with four measuring points. The order and correlations of sequential events, such as onset, peak, and offset times of pressure production, at each pressure measuring point were analyzed on the synchronized waveforms. Onset of TP was earlier than that of PP. The peak of TP did not show significant differences with the onset of PP, and it was earlier than that of PP. There was no significant difference between the offset of TP and PP. The onset of PP was temporally time-locked to the peak of TP, and there was an especially strong correlation between the onset of PP and TP at the posterior-median part on the hard palate. The offset of PP was temporally time-locked to that of TP. These results could be interpreted as providing an explanation for the generation of oropharyngeal pressure flow to ensure efficient bolus transport and safe swallowing.
Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wave analysis of swallowing sounds has been receiving attention because the recording process is easy and non-invasive. However, up until now, an expert has been needed to visually examine the entire recorded wave to distinguish swallowing from other sounds. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to automatically distinguish the sound of swallowing from sound data recorded during a meal in the presence of everyday ambient sound. Seven healthy participants (mean age: 26·7 ± 1·3 years) participated in this study. A laryngeal microphone and a condenser microphone attached to the nostril were used for simultaneous recording. Recoding took place while participants were taking a meal and talking with a conversational partner. Participants were instructed to step on a foot pedal trigger switch when they swallowed, representing self-enumeration of swallowing, and also to achieve six additional noise-making tasks during the meal in a randomised manner. The automated analysis system correctly detected 342 out of the 352 self-enumerated swallowing events (sensitivity: 97·2%) and 479 out of the 503 semblable wave periods of swallowing (specificity: 95·2%). In this study, the automated detection system for swallowing sounds using a nostril microphone was able to detect the swallowing event with high sensitivity and specificity even under the conditions of daily life, thus showing potential utility in the diagnosis or screening of dysphagic patients in future studies.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Velopharyngeal incompetence is known as a contributing factor to speech disorders. Suwaki et al. reported that nasal speaking valve (NSV) could improve dysarthria by regulating nasal emission utilising one-way valve. However, disease or condition which would be susceptible to treatment by NSV has not been clarified yet. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of NSV by questionnaire survey using ready-made NSV. Subjects were recruited through the internet bulletin, and NSV survey set was sent to the applicant. Sixty-six participants, who agreed to participate in this study, used NSV and mailed back the questionnaire which included self-evaluation and third-party evaluation of speech intelligibility. Statistical analysis revealed that the use of NSV resulted in significant speech intelligibility improvement in both self-evaluation and third-party evaluation (P < 0·01). Regarding the type of underlying disease of dysarthria, significant effect of NSV on self-evaluation of speech intelligibility could be observed in cerebrovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease (P < 0·01) and that on third-party evaluation in neurodegenerative disease (P < 0·01). Eighty-six percent of subjects showed improvement of speech intelligibility by shutting up nostrils by fingers, and the significant effect of NSV on both self-evaluation and third-party evaluation of speech intelligibility was observed (P < 0·001). From the results of this study, it was suggested that NSV would be effective in cerebrovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease, as well as in subjects whose speech intelligibility was improved by closing nostrils.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental loss of occlusal support caused by the extraction or grinding of molar teeth has been reported to foment the impairment of learning and memory in laboratory animals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of occlusal reconstruction after long-term loss of molars on spatial memory by using 8-arm radial maze and by assessing histopathological changes of neuron density in the hippocampus. Experimental dentures were inserted into the oral cavities of molarless rats to recover the occlusal support. Age-matched groups of control, molarless and denture-wearing rats were trained to perform the maze tasks. The difference of the error incidence in the maze task was evaluated between three groups. The difference of neuron density between three groups was also evaluated at the end of the maze task. Serum corticosterone levels were also measured to estimate the chronic stress, which could be caused by extraction, insertion of the experimental denture or any experimental procedure. The error incidence in the denture-wearing group was significantly higher than that of the control group, but significantly lower than that of the molarless group. Significant differences of neuron density were observed between three groups in each of the hippocampal CA1, CA3 and DG subfields. No significant difference of the serum corticosterone levels between three groups could be observed. From the results of this study, it was suggested that the recovery of occlusal support would bring amelioration of cognitive impairment concomitant with long period loss of molars in rats.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the adaptation of the denture base to the mucosa using a non-setting pressure-indicating paste and to examine the relationship between quality of fit and the need for denture relining. A total of 123 dentures from 70 partially edentulous patients were studied. Examination paste extruded from the tip of the 18-G needle was applied to those denture surfaces contacting the alveolar crest. The denture was manually positioned with all clasps engaged on abutment teeth, and adaptation was assessed through paste distribution. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse variables associated with diagnosing the need for a denture reline, producing odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The spread width was inversely proportional to the gap between the denture and mucosa. Regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between the need for a denture reline and both the paste spread width and the duration of denture use. According to ROC curve analysis of the ‘reline’ and ‘non-reline’ groups, the need for a denture reline was indicated at a paste spread width of 2·0 mm or less. At this 2·0-mm threshold, the sensitivity was 85·1% and the specificity was 75·0%. The fit of removable denture bases was quantitatively evaluated by measuring the spread width of non-setting pressure-indicating paste extruded onto denture fit surfaces. The results suggest that the paste spread width is a useful parameter for discriminating the need for a denture reline.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One obstacle to placing artificial posterior teeth in manufacturing complete dentures is a reduction of the space between the maxilla and the mandible. Occasionally, second molar placement is not performed, as it does not affect aesthetics, phonetics or comfort. The aim of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency between patients wearing maxillary and mandibular complete dentures with reduced dental arches (without second molars) (WSM) and with full dental arches (FDA). Twenty subjects were divided into two groups and randomly received new complete dentures. Patients in Group 1 were given dentures WSM, and those in Group 2 were given dentures with FDA. After the post-placement visits, an initial masticatory efficiency test was performed with Optocal, an artificial test food. Fifteen days later, second molars were placed in Group 1 and removed from Group 2, and a new test was performed. Comminuted material was treated and sieved under vibration. The mean and standard deviation of masticatory efficiency with FDA were 10·4 and 8·1, respectively. In the tests WSM, the mean and standard deviation were 8·4 and 3·3, respectively. After removing the second molars in Group 2 and adding them in Group 1, the mean and standard deviation were 15·7 and 14·7 for Group 1 and 12·5 and 10·4 for Group 2, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, placing artificial teeth up to the first molars can be performed when needed without compromising masticatory efficiency.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work suggests a relationship between sustained low-level tooth clenching and the aetiology of myogenous temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. This study aimed to establish a reliable system with which to evaluate low-level electromyographic (EMG) activity related to low-level tooth clenching while discriminating speech activity, which is one of the most common facial muscle activities to be discriminated from low-level clenching. This device should facilitate the clinical evaluation of awake muscle activity in TMD patients. Eight female and eight male subjects (38·9 ± 11·3 years) participated in the study to evaluate the validity of estimation of speech duration. Actual speech duration was defined by one examiner by pointing out the timing of beginning and end point of each speech on wave-editing software. Speech duration, as detected by a voice sensor system, which was activated by a voice loudness of 54·71 ± 5·00 dB, was significantly correlated with the above actual speech duration (P < 0·01, R2 = 0·9935). An actual recording with the system was carried out in one TMD patient and one healthy volunteer and revealed that the duration of diurnal EMG activity higher than 5% MVC was 1649·16 s and 95·99 s, respectively. As the voice sensor system adopted in this study could define the exact onset and offset of each segment of speech, EMG activity during speech could be precisely discriminated. The results of this study demonstrate that the EMG system with voice sensor system would be an effective tool for the evaluation of low-level masticatory muscle activity.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Although body posture in relation to the dental condition has been of great interest in the dental profession, rumination bias has been a substantial obstacle to achieving a reliable objective evaluation of the intrinsic body posture. The aim of this study was to establish a posture control protocol that would minimize the effect of bias.
Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23-33 years of age) participated in this study. The posture movement was recorded for 10 seconds by a three-dimensional motion capture system. The experiment was performed on four different days.
The posture was most stable at 4-5 seconds after the start of the front bulb gaze (the mean coefficient of variation ranged from 0.1 to 44.1). The intraclass correlation coefficients for four days were 0.871-0.975 (P < or = 0.001).
It was concluded that the use of this measurement method helped in producing a reliable intrinsic standing posture where unbiased evaluation of the effect of any intervention on the body posture is researched.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: One of the major concerns with composite restorations is the marginal sealability in the restorative cavity (Dent Mater 2010; 26: 608-615). The purpose of this study was to investigate immediate no marginal-gap incidence and shear bond-strength to tooth of composite restorations (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Noritake) with modern self-etched adhesives: (Prime & Bond Elect, Dentsply/Caulk (PB); Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE (SU); OptiBond XTR, Kerr (OX); G-aenialBond, GC (GA); BeautiBond Multi, Shofu (BB); Bond Force, Tokuyama (BF); Clearfil SE Bond 2 (SE2)
Method:Cylindrical Class I cavities were placed in premolars, having diameter: 3.5 mm and depth: 1.5 mm. A restorative procedure was performed according to manufacturers’ instructions. A restored tooth was polished immediately after light-activation, the absence of marginal-gap was inspected by a microscope (x 400), and was expressed by percentage of measured teeth (No-MG, N=10 per group). Similarly the shear bond strength to enamel (SBS-E) and to dentin (SBS-D) were measured. Possible correlations between No-MG vs. SBS-E and No-MG vs. SBS-D were analyzed. Statistical analyses (SBS-E vs. SBS-D) were performed by t-Test (p<0.05).
Summary: SBS: Mean (S.D., N=10), S: significant difference, NS: Not significant difference.
PB SU OX GA BB BF SE2
No-MG (%) 40 60 60 40 50 30 70
SBS-E (MPa) 17.2(4.2) 16.5(3.5) 16.3(2.8) 19.9(4.8) 20.4(4.4) 15.5(3.1) 25.6(2.6)
S NS NS NS NS NS NS
SBS-D (MPa) 22.4(5.1) 21.0(6.5) 17.1(3.7) 15.3(3.5) 20.9(5.0) 15.9(1.6) 26.9(4.4)
No relationships were found between No-MG vs. SBS-E (p=0.22, r=0.53, N=7) and No-MG vs. SBS-D (p=0.12, r=0.64, N=7).
Conclusion:No-MG of resin composites had no effect on SBS-E and SBS-D. There was no significant difference between SBS-E and SBS-D, except PB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to identify the effect of memory-related genes on male rats tested for spatial memory with either molar teeth extraction or its restoration by occlusal support using experimental dentures.
Memory-related genes were detected from hippocampi of male Wistar rats (exposed to teeth extraction with or without dentures, or no extraction (control)) (7-week old) after behavioural testing (via the radial maze task) using a DNA microarray. The time course of the expression of these genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (on 49-week-old rats).
In preliminary experiments, to determine which memory genes are affected by spatial memory training, DNA microarray analysis revealed that thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh) and tenascin XA (Tnxa) were up-regulated and neuronatin (Nnat) and S100a9 were down-regulated after the maze training. The expression of Tnxa, Nnat and S100a9 of 49-week-old rats (during the time course) via quantitative real-time PCR was consistent with the results of microarrays of the preliminary experiment. Expression of Trh that was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR did not agree with the results for this gene from the microarray for all groups. Therefore, expression of Trh may have increased in only young, trained rats. The expression of S100a9 prior to the maze task was down-regulated in only the extraction group.
These results demonstrated that Trh, Tnxa and Nnat genes were affected according to the degree of memory in male rats. This study also indicated that S100a9 is a memory-related gene, which is affected by the presence of occlusal support.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Archives of oral biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because food texture is regarded as an important factor for smooth deglutition, identification of objective parameters that could provide a basis for food texture selection for elderly or dysphagic patients is of great importance. We aimed to develop an objective evaluation method of mastication using a mixed test food comprising foodstuffs, simulating daily dietary life. The particle size distribution (>2 mm in diameter) in a bolus was analysed using a digital image under dark-field illumination. Ten female participants (mean age ± s.d., 27·6 ± 2·6 years) masticated a mixed test food comprising prescribed amounts of rice, sausage, hard omelette, raw cabbage and raw cucumber with 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the number of their masticatory strokes. A single set of coefficient thresholds of 0·10 for the homogeneity index and 1·62 for the particle size index showed excellent discrimination of deficient masticatory conditions with high sensitivity (0·90) and specificity (0·77). Based on the results of this study, normal mastication was discriminated from deficient masticatory conditions using a large particle analysis of mixed foodstuffs, thus showing the possibility of future application of this method for objective decision-making regarding the properties of meals served to dysphagic patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although mastication has long been studied in the field of dentistry, it was reported that only few dentists play a part of decision making in food preparation level for elderly people in nursing home. Needless to say, serving denture prosthesis to a patient might not result in the improvement of his/her food intake level. For this purpose, the masticatory efficiency would be needed to be evaluated using daily consumption natural food to provide a medical background to decide the food preparation level. This review highlights issues identified in the literature to date that influence the property of the evaluation methods for masticatory efficiency. Knowledge gaps and considerations that need to be taken into account when conducting research are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of the masticatory area in the cerebral cortex in the masticatory-salivary reflex, we investigated submandibular salivary secretion, jaw-movement trajectory and electromyographic activity of the jaw-opener (digastric) and jaw-closer (masseter) muscles evoked by repetitive electrical stimulation of the cortical masticatory area in anesthetized rats. Rats have two cortical masticatory areas: the anterior area (A-area) in the orofacial motor cortex, and the posterior area (P-area) in the insular cortex. Our defined P-area extended more caudally than the previous reported one. P-area stimulation induced vigorous salivary secretion (about 20µl/min) and rhythmical jaw movements (3-4Hz) resembling masticatory movements. Salivary flow persisted even after minimizing jaw movements by curarization. A-area stimulation induced small and fast rhythmical jaw movements (6-8Hz) resembling licking of solutions, but not salivary secretion. These findings suggest that P-area controls salivary secretion as well as mastication, and may be involved in the masticatory-salivary reflex.