[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the modifying effect of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC), which has antioxidative ability, on hepatocarcinogenesis promoted by fenofibrate (FF), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist , male F344/N rats were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiator followed by administration of a diet containing 3,000 ppm of FF for 16 weeks. Two-thirds partial hepatectomy was performed 1 week after the FF treatment. Additionally, NAC treatments for 14 weeks from 2 weeks after the FF treatment were performed. Although the expression level of tumor protein p53 (Tp53) mRNA decreased in the DEN+FF+NAC group as compared with that in the DEN+FF group, no significant differences between the DEN+FF and DEN+FF+NAC groups were observed in the number of hepatocellular altered foci and activities of hepatocellular proliferation. In addition, the results of an antioxidant enzyme assay and measurement of the amounts of total glutathione in the liver revealed no significant difference between the DEN+FF and DEN+FF+NAC groups; although no significant differences were observed in many genes between the DEN+FF and DEN+FF+NAC groups, only glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2) mRNA increased in the DEN+FF+NAC group as compared with the DEN+FF group. The results under the present experimental conditions indicate no obvious modifying effect of NAC on liver tumor promotion by FF in rats.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of copper (Cu)-related cellular responses on thyroid carcinogenesis, the expression of ceruloplasmin (Cp) and metallothionein (MT)-1/2 were examined in relation to the activities of cell proliferation/apoptosis in the thyroid of rats at an early stage of tumor promotion under different dietary Cu levels. Male F344 rats were initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine by single subcutaneous injection at 2800 mg/kg body weight, and 1 week later promoted with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil at 12 ppm in the drinking water for 4 weeks. Animals were fed a diet containing Cu at 0.6, 6 or 60 ppm from the time point of initiator-treatment to create marginally deficient, normal, or non-toxic supplementary levels of Cu. At both 0.6 and 60 pm, the multiplicity of preneoplastic focal follicular cell hyperplasias (FFCHs) was decreased as compared with 6 ppm Cu, while adenomas also decreased at 0. 6 ppm Cu. Both 0.6 and 60 ppm Cu levels revealed decreased Ki-67-immunoreactive proliferating cells in both FFCHs and surrounding follicles accompanied by mRNA downregulation of Cdc2a and Ccnb1, while TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were unaltered with change of dietary Cu. Both Cp and MT-1/2 were immunolocalized in FFCHs and adenomas, with higher distribution in the latter. At both 0.6 and 60 ppm, the immunoreactivities and/or thyroidal mRNA levels of Cp and MT-1/2 were also decreased. Transcript levels of several antioxidant enzymes were up- or downregulated in the same direction at both Cu levels. Serum levels of thyroid-related hormones were unaltered at both Cu levels, except for non-significant reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone at 0.6 ppm. These results suggest an involvement of Cp and MT-1/2 on the thyroid tumor promotion that can be suppressed by dietary Cu level through inhibition of cell proliferation associated with altered redox balance.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Chemico-biological interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of cerebellar neuroblastoma in a 19-week-old p53 null mutation mouse. A white and soft mass was observed at the cerebellar vermis. Histologically, the tumor consisted of solid growth of round to oval pleomorphic cells with frequent mitotic figures. While there were no typical cellular arrangements of embryonic neurogenic tumors, such as Homer-Wright rosette, perivascular pseudorosette, or streaming of neoplastic neurocytes, small populations of the neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for synaptophysin, microtubule-associated protein 2, S-100 and nestin. Both glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin were entirely negative in the neoplastic cells. Based on the biological characteristics of neoplastic cells, this tumor was diagnosed as neuroblastoma of the cerebellar origin.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between fenofibrate (FF) and oxidative stress, enzymatic, histopathological, and molecular biological analyses were performed in the liver of male F344 rats fed 2 doses of FF (Experiment 1; 0 and 6000 ppm) for 3 weeks and 3 doses (Experiment 2; 0, 3000, and 6000 ppm) for 9 weeks. FF treatment increased the activity of enzymes such as carnitine acetyltransferase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, fatty acyl-CoA oxidizing system, and catalase in the liver. However, it decreased those of superoxide dismutase in the liver in both experiments. Increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in liver DNA and lipofuscin accumulation were observed in the treated rats of Experiment 2. In vitro measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat liver microsomes revealed a dose-dependent increase due to FF treatment. Microarray (only Experiment 1) or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression levels of metabolism and DNA repair-related genes such as Aco, Cyp4a1, Cat, Yc2, Gpx2, Apex1, Xrcc5, Mgmt, Mlh1, Gadd45a, and Nbn were increased in FF-treated rats. These results provide evidence of a direct or indirect relationship between oxidative stress and FF treatment. In addition, increases in the expression levels of cell cycle-related genes such as Chek1, Cdc25a, and Ccdn1; increases in the expression levels of cell proliferation-related genes such as Hdgfrp3 and Vegfb; and fluctuations in the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes such as Casp11 and Trp53inp1 were observed in these rats. This suggests that cell proliferation induction, apoptosis suppression, and DNA damage due to oxidative stresses are probably involved in the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis due to FF in rats.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Toxicological Sciences