[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secretory protein folding is monitored by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control mechanisms. Misfolded proteins are retained and targeted to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways. At their core are E3 ubiquitin ligases, which organize factors that recognize, ubiquitinate, and translocate substrates. Of these, we report that the Hrd1 complex manages three distinct substrate classes. A core complex is required for all classes and is sufficient for some membrane proteins. The accessory factors Usa1p and Der1p adapt the complex to process luminal substrates. Their integration is sufficient to process molecules bearing glycan-independent degradation signals. The presence of Yos9p extends the substrate range by mediating the recognition of glycan-based degradation signals. This modular organization enables the Hrd1 complex to recognize topologically diverse substrates. The Hrd1 system does not directly evaluate the folding state of polypeptides. Instead, it does so indirectly, by recognizing specific embedded signals displayed upon misfolding.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During protein synthesis, the orderly progression of folding, modification, and assembly is paramount to function and vis-à-vis cellular viability. Accordingly, sophisticated quality control mechanisms have evolved to monitor protein maturation throughout the cell. Proteins failing at any step are segregated and degraded as a preventative measure against potential toxicity. Although protein quality control is generally poorly understood, recent research advances in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways have provided the most detailed view so far. The discovery of distinct substrate processing sites established a biochemical basis for genetic profiles of model misfolded proteins. Detailed mechanisms for substrate recognition were recently uncovered. For some proteins, sequential glycan trimming steps set a time window for folding. Proteins still unfolded at the final stage expose a specific degradation signal recognized by the ERAD machinery. Through this mechanism, the system does not in fact know that a molecule is "misfolded". Instead, it goes by the premise that proteins past due have veered off their normal folding pathways and therefore aberrant.
No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control mechanisms monitor the folding of nascent polypeptides of the secretory pathway. These are dynamic processes that retain folding proteins, promote the transport of conformationally mature proteins, and target misfolded proteins to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways. Aided by the identification of numerous ERAD factors, late functions that include substrate extraction, ubiquitination, and degradation are fairly well described. By contrast, the mechanisms of substrate recognition remain mysterious. For some substrates, a specific N-linked glycan forms part of the recognition code but how it is read is incompletely understood. In this study, systematic analysis of model substrates revealed such glycans mark structural determinants that are sensitive to the overall folding state of the molecule. This strategy effectively generates intrinsic folding sensors that communicate with high fidelity to ERAD. Normally, these segments fold into the mature structure to pass the ERAD checkpoint. However, should a molecule fail to fold completely, they form a bipartite signal that comprises the unfolded local structure and adjacent enzymatically remodeled glycan. Only if both elements are present will the substrate be targeted to the ERAD pathway for degradation.
Preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Molecular biology of the cell