Virginia Carbone

INRAN - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (42)89.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Onions (Allium cepa) are consumed worldwide and represent an important source of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, thiosulfinates and anthocyanins. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that a regular consumption of onions is associated with a reduced risk of degenerative disorders. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological properties of different varieties of onions. Here, we characterized for the first time a variety of onion, called "Ramata di Montoro" (coppery onion from Montoro) grown in a niche area in Southern Italy and compared its phenolic profile and antioxidant properties to a commercial ecotype of red onion, namely Tropea, also present in Southern Italy. An analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector and mass spectrometry was used to separate and characterize the phenolic fraction (anthocyanins and flavonols) extracted from both coppery and red types. The main compounds detected in the two ecotypes were: quercetin and quercetin glucosides, isorhamnetin glucosides, kaempferol glucoside and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin glucosides. Tropea ecotype onion showed a higher content of flavonols (632.82 mg/kg fresh weight) than the Montoro type onion (252.91 mg/kg fresh weight). Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of the former was 2.8-fold higher compared to the latter. More pronounced were the differences existing between the 4 anthocyanins detected in the two ecotypes, with those in the Tropea ecotype onion present at concentrations between 20 and 230-fold higher than in the Montoro type onion. Both extracts reduced LDL oxidation of about 6-fold and protected human erythrocytes from oxidative damage induced by HClO of about 40%. In addition, as a consequence of HClO treatment, GSH concentration in erythrocytes was reduced of about 50% and pre-treatment with onion extracts induced a recovery of GSH level of about 15-22%. Qualitative differences highlighted in the chemical composition of the two phenolic extracts, especially the total content of anthocyanins which was 30-fols higher in Montoro type onion compared to Tropea ecotype can be associated to the protective effects measured against oxidative damage induced in human erythrocytes.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Hazelnuts exhibit functional properties due to their content in fatty acids and phenolic compounds that could positively affect human health. Food industry requires precise traits for morphological, chemical and physical kernel features so that some cultivars could be more suitable for specific industrial processing. In this study, agronomical and morphological features of 29 hazelnut cultivars were evaluated and a detailed structural characterization of kernel polyphenols was performed, confirming the presence of protocatechuic acid, flavan-3-ols such as catechin, procyanidin B2, six procyanidin oligomers, flavonols and one dihydrochalcone in all the analyzed cultivars. In addition, an innovative methodology based on the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of peptide/protein components extracted from kernels was developed for the authentication of the most valuable cultivars. The proposed method is rapid, simple and reliable, and holds the potential to be applied in quality control processes. These results could be useful in hazelnut cultivar evaluation and choice for growers, breeders and food industry.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido extraer y aislar los alcaloides de las hojas de Croton baillonianus, desde el extracto metanólico, mediante cromatografía de exclusión, con Sephadex LH-20 seguida de una purificación en cromatografía líquida de alta performance (HPLC); se aislaron no menos de seis alcaloides. Dos alcaloides de baja polaridad y dos alcaloides en la forma de glicósidos fueron analizados por espectrometría de masa de impacto electrónico (ESI-MS); estos alcaloides pertenecen al tipo bencilisoquinolínico. El estudio tiene conexión con la determinación de sus propiedades como antioxidante, antiulcerosa y citotóxica.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012
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    ABSTRACT: In Annurca apples, a southern Italian variety, polyphenols were studied. The phenolic composition of Annurca apple peel was determined by HPLC coupled with electrospray negative ionisation multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI–ITMSn). In addition, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of peel extracts enriched in polyphenols and prepared from Annurca (APE), Red Delicious (RDPE) and Golden Delicious (GPE) varieties were evaluated on an HL-60 cell line. APE exhibited the highest total phenol content among the three apple cultivars tested, as determined by Folin–Ciocalteau’s procedure and HPLC–UV analysis. APE also showed higher amounts of chlorogenic acid, procyanidins, flavonols, dihydrochalcones and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside than GPE or RDPE. All three apple extracts were able to significantly decrease cell viability, from 50% to 80%, with APE appearing the most effective, while GPE was the least cytotoxic among the three samples. Similarly, APE and RDPE induced a significant increase of caspase-3 activity, whose activation represents a hallmark of apoptosis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) was used to analyze the secondary metabolites in the methanol extract of the capitulae of Eriocaulon ligulatum. The major components were mono- and diglycosides of flavonoids and naphthopyranones. Eleven compounds, including four new flavonol glycosides, were identified based on their fragmentation patterns in MS experiments and on NMR analysis of the isolated compounds. The described data may contribute to a better understanding of the taxonomic classification of the Eriocaulaceae family.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Natural product communications
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    ABSTRACT: Hb Cardarelli [β86(F2)Ala→Pro] is a new unstable and high oxygen affinity variant found in several members of a family from Naples, Southern Italy. A detailed structural and functional characterization of the variant was performed on two subjects, at both the protein and DNA level. The first patient exhibited 43% of the variant hemoglobin (Hb) without major hematological problems. The proband showed 82% of the abnormal Hb in association with β+‐thalassemia (thal) that caused relevant erythrocytosis requiring frequent phlebotomies. Structural investigation of the Hb variant by mass spectrometric methodologies identified the amino acid replacement as Ala→Pro at β86. The corresponding DNA mutation GCC→CCC at codon 86 of the β‐globin gene was assessed by both DNA sequencing and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) techniques. Functional studies carried out on whole blood and diluted hemolysates from both patients demonstrated increased oxygen affinity, decreased Bohr effect, reduced heme–heme interaction and nearly halved 2,3‐diphosphoglycerate (2,3‐DPG) and chloride effects.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Hemoglobin
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    ABSTRACT: The simultaneous presence of two hemoglobin variants has been detected in a 14-month-old patient affected by thalassemia intermedia. The two variants were characterized by a combination of allele-specific amplification methods and mass spectrometric procedures carried out on isolated globins. These were identified as Hb Lepore-Boston and Hb Neapolis (also known as Hb Dhonburi) or β126(H4)ValàGly. Hb Lepore-Boston is the most common hybrid variant detected in Campania and several cases of Hb Neapolis which causes a mild hypochromic microcytic anemia have been identified in this region in the last few years. This is the first report of a double heterozygosity involving Hb Lepore-Boston and Hb Neapolis.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Hemoglobin
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    ABSTRACT: Hb Villejuif [β123(H1)Thr→Ile] is a silent and asymptomatic variant described in 1989 in an 87-year-old woman of French origin suffering from coincidental polycythemia vera. This paper reports the second observation of Hb Villejuif in three related subjects from Montesarchio, Southern Italy. All routine techniques for hemoglobin analysis yielded normal results with the exception of a slight increase in the Hb A2 value. The occurrence of a variant β-globin was rapidly assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis and the abnormal chain purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid replacement Thr→Ile at β123 was determined by tandem electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of the tryptic digest of the variant β chain. The corresponding DNA mutation was established as C→T at the second position of codon 123 (ACC → ATC) by polymerase chain reaction amplification techniques.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Hemoglobin
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    ABSTRACT: Four novel oxylipins (1-4) were isolated from the n-butanol extract of the corms of Dracontium loretense. Their structures were assigned by 1D and 2D NMR analyses and electrospray ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (ESIITMSn) data. Relative configurations were assigned on the basis of combined analysis of homonuclear and heteronuclear 2,3J couplings, along with ROE data. Oxylipin 2 exhibited an immunostimulatory effect on human PBMC proliferation. © 2009 American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Natural Products
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro interaction of the antineoplastic drug 1, 3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and acrolein with model peptides has been investigated in order to provide a detailed description of their electrophilic reactivity towards biological macromolecules. Following incubation with these substances, the modified species were separated by HPLC and identified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, whereas the reactive amino acids within the peptide structure were assigned by tandem mass spectrometry. Incubation with BCNU led essentially to the formation of an N-terminal carbamoyl derivative that slowly decomposed to form three isomeric structures and a very minor ethylated adduct. Alkylation with acrolein gave rise to a mixture of different adducts due to the reaction of both the double bond and the carbonyl group. Two species containing intramolecular cross-links were also observed. These results constitute the prerequisite for in vitro and in vivo studies on the modification of haemoglobin in patients following treatment with antineoplastic drugs. © Munksgaard 1997.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Phytochemical investigation from the stems of Alibertia edulis led to the isolation and identification of a new iridoid 6β-hydroxy-7-epigardoside methyl ester (1) and a new saponin 3β-O-[-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside pomolate (2), along with three known compounds, shanzhiside methyl ester (3), ixoside (4), and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl 1-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Iridoid 1 and saponin 2 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against Candida albicans and C. krusei in a dilution assay.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Helvetica Chimica Acta

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Planta Medica
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    ABSTRACT: The possibility of altering the unsaturation level of fatty acids in plant lipids by genetic transformation has implications for the stress tolerance of higher plants as well as for their nutritional value and industrial utilisation. While the integration and expression of transgenes in the plastome has several potential advantages over nuclear transformation, very few attempts have been made to manipulate fatty acid biosynthesis using plastid transformation. We produced transplastomic tobacco plants that express a Delta(9) desaturase gene from either the wild potato species Solanum commersonii or the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans, using PEG-mediated DNA uptake by protoplasts. Incorporation of chloroplast antibiotic-insensitive point mutations in the transforming DNA was used to select transformants. The presence of the transcript and the Delta(9) desaturase protein in transplastomic plants was confirmed by northern and western blot analyses. In comparison with control plants, transplastomic plants showed altered fatty acid profiles and an increase in their unsaturation level both in leaves and seeds. The two transgenes produced comparable results. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of using plastid transformation to engineer lipid metabolic pathways in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and suggest an increase of cold tolerance in transplastomic plants showing altered leaf fatty acid profiles. This is the first example of transplastomic plants expressing an agronomically relevant gene produced with the "binding-type" vectors, which do not contain a heterologous marker gene. In fact, the transplastomic plants expressing the S. commersonii gene contain only plant-derived sequences, a clear attraction from a public acceptability perspective.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Transgenic Research
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    ABSTRACT: Sixteen novel and ten known galactolipids have been isolated and characterized from the leaves of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) using an analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Using this technique, the structures and regiochemistries of the fatty acyl groups and the positions of the double bonds on the acyl chains were determined. Sugar moieties were identified by analysis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The positions of the double bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids were confirmed, and in some cases their geometries determined, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first report of galactolipids in the leaves of sweet potato.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Dry olive mill residue (DOR) from the olive oil production by two phase centrifugation system was fractionated by a consecutive continuous solid-liquid extraction obtaining the EAF, PF, MF and WF fractions with ethyl acetate, n-propanol, methanol and water, respectively. The chemical, chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed EAF, PF and MF to be mainly composed of simple phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and glycosilated phenols (glycosides of phenols, secoiridoids and flavonoids), whereas WF was mainly consisting of polymerin, the metal organic polymeric mixture previously identified in olive oil mill waste waters and composed of carbohydrates, melanin, proteins and metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Fe). The identification in DOR of oleoside, 6'-beta-glucopyranosyl-oleoside and 6'-beta-rhamnopyranosyl-oleoside, and of its organic polymeric component, known as polymerin, are reported for the first time in this paper. The inoculation of the previously mentioned fractions with saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cynnabarinus or Trametes versicolor indicated these fungi to be able to metabolize both the phenols and glycosilated phenols, but not polymerin. In correspondence, EAF, PF, MF and WF, which proved to be toxic on Lepidium sativum, decreased their toxicity after incubation with the selected fungi, WF showing to be also able to stimulate the growth of the selected seeds. The phytotoxicity appeared mainly correlated to the monomeric phenols and, to a lesser extent, to the glycosilated phenols, whereas polymerin proved to be non toxic. However, the laccase activity was not associated with the decrease of phytotoxicity. The valorization of DOR as a producer of high added value substances of industrial and agricultural interest in native form and after their bioremediation for a final objective of the total DOR recycling is also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Chemosphere
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    ABSTRACT: We report here the characterization of the first mammalian-like purine nucleoside phosphorylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PfPNP). The gene PF0853 encoding PfPNP was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. PfPNP is a homohexamer of 180 kDa which shows a much higher similarity with 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) than with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) family members. Like human PNP, PfPNP shows an absolute specificity for inosine and guanosine. PfPNP shares 50% identity with MTAP from P. furiosus (PfMTAP). The alignment of the protein sequences of PfPNP and PfMTAP indicates that only four residue changes are able to switch the specificity of PfPNP from a 6-oxo to a 6-amino purine nucleoside phosphorylase still maintaining the same overall active site organization. PfPNP is highly thermophilic with an optimum temperature of 120 degrees C and is characterized by extreme thermodynamic stability (T(m), 110 degrees C that increases to 120 degrees C in the presence of 100 mm phosphate), kinetic stability (100% residual activity after 4 h incubation at 100 degrees C), and remarkable SDS-resistance. Limited proteolysis indicated that the only proteolytic cleavage site is localized in the C-terminal region and that the C-terminal peptide is not necessary for the integrity of the active site. By integrating biochemical methodologies with mass spectrometry we assigned three pairs of intrasubunit disulfide bridges that play a role in the stability of the enzyme against thermal inactivation. The characterization of the thermal properties of the C254S/C256S mutant suggests that the CXC motif in the C-terminal region may also account for the extreme enzyme thermostability.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · FEBS Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid analytical approach suitable to achieve a comprehensive characterization of the compounds present in the infusion prepared from the leaves of Byrsonima fagifolia Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae), a Brazilian plant used as an infusion to treat gastric disorders, was developed. The method was based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray negative ionisation multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-ITMSn). The main ions in the ESI-ITMS spectra were attributed to a quinic acid core containing from one to five galloyl units. Quercetin derivatives containing one and two sugar moieties as well as galloyl esterification were also detected. These results indicated that HPLC/ESI-ITMSn is easily applicable to infusions of this plant and allows the rapid and direct identification of these compounds in crude plant extracts.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
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    ABSTRACT: Some saprobe fungi (Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Fomes sclerodermus or Pleurotus pulmonarius) were able to bioconvert the ethyl acetate fraction (DEAF) and the corresponding aqueous exhausted fraction (EAF) of dry olive mill residue (DOR), reducing their phytotoxicity on Lepidium sativum seeds. Large amount of hydroxytyrosol together with other eight monomeric phenols were found in the native DEAF fraction, which represents a good source of antioxidants. P. radiata, T. versicolor and F. sclerodermus caused an effective phytotoxicity reduction of EAF in the concentration range of 25-3 gl(-1). In particular, in the range between 12.5 and 3 gl(-1), the EAF samples inoculated with P. radiata and F. sclerodermus surprisingly stimulated the germinability of L. sativum, suggesting their use as a potential biofertilizer. This is the first report which showed the bioconversion of the above fractions in shorter time with respect to the previous findings concerning DOR. The possible implications of laccase in the decrease of DEAF and EAF phytotoxicity was also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Chemosphere
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to compare/contrast the colostrum lipid composition of 53 Burkinabe women, collected in 2005 at the Maternity of Centre Medical Saint Camille in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), with similar data obtained in breast milk, five years ago and then to show the evolution of this important aliment. The fatty acid composition of colostrum samples was determined by Gas-liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Saturated lipids (C8:0-C:14-0) showed a progressive increasing trend in the Burkinabe woman colostrum with respect those already measured five years ago. The C15:0-C24:0 fractions were found costantly higher, but their trends were in progressive decrement. The 18:2n-6 fraction (linoleic acid) reached the highest value in the third day post partum. The 18:3n-3 was constantly higher in the second and third days. The 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid) and LC n-6 PUFA were lower ever since the first day, but with a trend to increase. Also 22: 6n-3 and LC n-3 PUFA were costantly lower. The 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 and LC n-6/LC n-3 ratios were lower and higher, respectively, if compared with those already measured five years ago. These results suggest the need to improve alimentary habits of mothers in order to restore the balanced n-6/n3 PUFA ratio in their colostrums.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Eight new 14,15-secopregnane glycosides, namely argelosides C-J, possessing two ketal functions involved in three five-membered rings, have been isolated from the hairy seeds of Solenostemma argel. Their structures have been established by MS and NMR experiments, combined with quantum mechanical calculations of the C-13 chemical shifts for the interpretation of the experimental data. On the basis of the obtained results, the structures of argelosides A and B have been revised. Additionally, the effect of these compounds on the VEGF-induced in Kaposi’s sarcoma cell proliferation was evaluated. Results indicated that all the compounds reduced the cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Tetrahedron

Publication Stats

552 Citations
89.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • INRAN - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2014
    • INO - Istituto Nazionale di Ottica
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2012
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1999-2009
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • International Centre of Mass Spectrometry Services
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1996
    • American Society for Mass Spectrometry
      Неаполь, Florida, United States
  • 1992
    • Naples Eastern University
      Napoli, Campania, Italy