- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The expanding number of targeted therapeutics for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) necessitates real-time tumor genotyping, yet tissue biopsies are difficult to perform serially and often yield inadequate DNA for next-generation sequencing (NGS). We evaluated the feasibility of using cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) NGS as a complement or alternative to tissue NGS. Experimental design: 112 plasma samples obtained from a consecutive study of 102 prospectively enrolled patients with advanced NSCLC were subjected to ultra-deep sequencing of up to 70 genes and matched with tissue samples, when possible. Results: We detected 275 alterations in 45 genes, and at least one alteration in the ctDNA for 86 of 102 patients (84%), with EGFR variants being most common. ctDNA NGS detected 50 driver and 12 resistance mutations, and mutations in 22 additional genes for which experimental therapies, including clinical trials, are available. While ctDNA NGS was completed for 102 consecutive patients, tissue sequencing was only successful for 50 patients (49%). Actionable EGFR mutations were detected in 24 tissue and 19 ctDNA samples, yielding concordance of 79%, with a shorter time interval between tissue and blood collection associated with increased concordance (p=0.038). ctDNA sequencing identified 8 patients harboring a resistance mutation who developed progressive disease while on targeted therapy, and for whom tissue sequencing wasn't possible. Conclusions: Therapeutically targetable driver and resistance mutations can be detected by ctDNA NGS, even when tissue is unavailable, thus allowing more accurate diagnosis, improved patient management, and serial sampling to monitor disease progression and clonal evolution.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with platinum-refractory, recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (RM-SCCHN) have limited options. Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is a type I receptor of the transforming growth factor ? superfamily expressed on activated endothelial cells. Dalantercept is an ALK1 receptor fusion protein that acts as a ligand trap to block signaling through ALK1 and inhibits stages of angiogenesis involved in blood vessel maturation and stabilization. In a phase 1 study, dalantercept demonstrated clinical activity in patients with RM-SCCHN. The objective of the current study was sought to evaluate the activity of dalantercept in RM-SCCHN. Forty-six patients received dalantercept at doses of 80?mg (n?=?2), 0.6?mg/kg (n?=?13), or 1.2?mg/kg (n?=?31) subcutaneously every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST version 1.1). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival and overall survival, safety and tolerability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments. Forty patients were evaluable for response (13 who received dalantercept 0.6?mg/kg and 27 who received dalantercept 1.2?mg/kg). The overall response rate was 5% (n?=?2), and 35% of patients had stable disease; 44% of patients who received 1.2?mg/kg and 30.8% of those who received 0.6?mg/kg achieved disease control (partial response or stable disease). The median progression-fee survival was 1.4 months (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.2 months), and the median overall survival was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval, 5.5-11.1 months). Drug-related adverse events (>15%) were anemia, fatigue, peripheral edema, headache, and hyponatremia. In an unselected, heavily pretreated population of patients with RM-SCCHN, dalantercept monotherapy resulted in a favorable safety profile but only modest dose-dependent activity, and it did not meet the primary efficacy objective of the study. Cancer 2016.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Risk of nodal involvement in patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus has not been well defined, especially by risk factors beyond local T-stage. Additional criteria defining patients at highest risk, as well as specific nodal levels at highest risk, has been limited in small retrospective series. We describe a population-based assessment of specific nodal involvement in this group. Material and methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from 2004 to 2010 identified 1283 eligible patients with SCC of the nasal cavity or maxillary sinus. Neck involvement and individual nodal level involvement at presentation were assessed, and comparison made with a contemporaneous cohort of patients with a borderline clinically significant risk of nodal involvement and recurrence. Results: Among 1283 patients, 182 (14.2%) had nodal involvement at presentation (4-27% by site and local extension). T-stage alone was associated with higher rates of nodal involvement in maxillary sinus SCC, while higher T-stage and size >2 cm were associated with higher rates of nodal involvement in nasal cavity SCC on multivariable analysis. Facial nodes and cervical nodes at levels 1 and 2 have the highest rates of involvement in T4a nasal cavity SCC, whereas nodal levels 1, 2, and/or 3 have the highest rates of involvement in T2 or higher maxillary sinus SCC when compared with a clinical reference standard. Conclusion: In this population-based study, there are high rates of initial nodal involvement when stratified by local extent determined by T-stage in nasal cavity SCC and maxillary sinus SCC, and independently by size in nasal cavity SCC. Involvement of the facial and nodal levels 1-3 varies depending on site and local extent of tumor involvement. These observations may help guide treatment decision making in the inclusion of and extent of elective nodal treatment fields.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Diagnostic imaging may be a major source of cancer-related distress, a condition known as “scanxiety”. Scant scholarly work has been performed to evaluate scan-associated distress in cancer. We sought to characterize risk factors for scan-associated distress among patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), and to evaluate the impact of scan-associated distress on quality of life. Materials and methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of patients with recurrent/metastatic NSCLC treated at an academic medical center. Clinical and demographic variables were obtained through chart abstraction and patient self-report. We used a modified version of the Impact of Event Scale 6 (IES-6) to specifically assess distress associated with scans, and quality of life was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy − Lung (FACT-L). Results Among 103 participants (survey response rate 76.3%), median age was 67, 61.2% were women, and 82.5% were white. At the study visit, 72.8% of subjects discussed a recent scan, and 83% reported some scan-associated distress. Scan-associated distress was not associated with whether the patient had a recent scan, progressive disease or time from diagnosis. Scan-associated distress was associated with impaired quality of life (p = 0.004); each unit increase in IES-6 corresponded to an approximately one-unit decrease in FACT-L score. Conclusion Scan-associated distress is a common problem among patients with NSCLC, and is associated with impaired quality of life. Scan-associated distress severity was not associated with time since diagnosis or whether a recent scan was discussed at the study visit, which implies scan-associated distress may be a persistent problem.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The combination of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab is a standard treatment for patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer, with a high rate of toxicity. Identifying less toxic, equally effective regimens is imperative. Therefore, in the current study, the authors investigated first-line treatment with an all-oral regimen of capecitabine and lapatinib. Methods: Patients were required to have incurable head and neck cancer of any primary site other than the nasopharynx, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 0 to 2, and no prior exposure to capecitabine or lapatinib. Subjects were treated with capecitabine at a dose of 1000 mg/m(2) twice daily and lapatinib at a dose of 1250 mg daily. Capecitabine was administered for 14 days of each 21-day cycle for 4 cycles. Lapatinib was administered daily until disease progression. The primary outcome was overall survival. Results: A total of 44 subjects were accrued between November 13, 2009 and April 29, 2014. Approximately 38.6% of the sample had an ECOG PS of 0, 52.3% had an ECOG PS of 1, and 9.1% had an ECOG PS of 2. Approximately 81.8% were male and the median age of the patients was 62 years. Prior attempts at curative treatment with chemotherapy had been used in 68.2% of patients (platinum was used in 55.8%). There was no grade 5 toxicity noted (toxicity was graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 3.0]). The most common adverse events were diarrhea (18.2% of patients with grade 3) and rash (13.6% of patients with grade 3). The primary objective was met; the median overall survival was 10.7 months (90% confidence interval [90% CI], 8.7-12.9 months). The overall response rate was 25% (90% CI, 15%-38%). The median progression-free survival was 4.2 months (90% CI, 3.6-5.1 months). The results were not substantially different when subdivided by p16 status. Only 2 patients were positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions: The current study met its primary objective of survival comparable to the combination of cisplatin, 5-FU and cetuximab regimen, and the toxicity of this all-oral regimen was tolerable. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Dyspnea is a common and distressing symptom for patients with lung cancer (LC) because of disease burden, therapy toxicity, and comorbid illnesses. Acupuncture is a centuries-old therapy with biological plausibility for relief of dyspnea in this setting. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of acupuncture for dyspnea among patients with LC. Methods: Eligible patients had a diagnosis of LC and clinically significant dyspnea without a clear organic cause. The treatment consisted of 10 weekly acupuncture sessions, with a follow-up visit 4 weeks after therapy. The primary outcome was dyspnea severity as measured using a validated Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of 0 to 10 (10 being "most severe shortness of breath imaginable"). Results: We enrolled 12 patients in the study. The median age was 64.5 years; 66.7% of the patients were female, and 66.7% were Caucasians. Among those enrolled, 10 (83.3%) were able to complete all 10 acupuncture sessions. Acupuncture was well tolerated; adverse events were mild and self-limited. Mean (SD) dyspnea scores on the NRS improved from 6.3 (1.7) at baseline to 3.6 (1.9; P = .003) at the end of treatment and 3.2 (2.3; P = .008) at follow-up. Fatigue and quality of life also improved significantly with acupuncture (P < .05). Conclusion: Among patients with LC, acupuncture was well tolerated and exhibited promising preliminary beneficial effects in the treatment of dyspnea, fatigue, and quality of life. Performing a trial in this population appears feasible.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective use of Twitter might be one way to communicate with the public about cancer clinical trials and increase awareness and enrollment.Twitter, a social networking site, is transforming communication.1 Effective use of Twitter might be one way to communicate with the public about cancer clinical trials and increase awareness and enrollment.2 Studies3 have described cancer content on Twitter but, to our knowledge, none have examined the use of Twitter to share information about cancer clinical trials or to recruit patients for studies. We conducted a content analysis of tweets about lung cancer, described dialogues specific to lung cancer clinical trials, and examined where links embedded in tweets about therapeutic trials are leading the public.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is a malignancy with a rapidly changing demographic profile, given the recent epidemic of human papilloma virus related cancers. Most patients present with locally advanced disease and receive combination therapeutic approaches with curative potential, albeit with significant toxicity. Up to a third of patients, however, will eventually develop recurrent or metastatic disease. The prognosis of such patients is dismal, as palliative treatment options remain limited. Immune-directed therapies offer a novel therapeutic strategy beyond cytotoxic chemotherapy and are currently being evaluated in a wide variety of malignancies. HNSCC is a particularly favorable disease for immunotherapy, as immune evasion and dysregulation have been shown to play a key role in the initiation and progression of HNSCC. This review focuses on the latest developments in immunotherapy in HNSCC, with a particular focus on checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cellular therapies, and vaccines.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Objectives of this dose-finding study were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of the first-in-class anti-activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) monoclonal antibody PF-03446962, and assess safety and antitumor activity in patients with advanced solid tumors. Experimental design: This open-label, multicenter study was based on a 3+3 design. PF-03446962 was administered biweekly by intravenous infusion, at doses ranging 0.5 to 15 mg/kg. Results: Forty-four patients received treatment with PF-03446962. Dose-limiting toxicities observed during dose escalation included grade 3 increased amylase, grade-3/4 increased lipase, and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. The MTD was determined to be 10 mg/kg. The RP2D was set at 7 mg/kg for patients with advanced solid tumors, based on the observed safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity. The most-frequent treatment-related, all-grade adverse events included thrombocytopenia (20.5%), fatigue (15.9%), and nausea, increased amylase, and increased lipase (each 11.4%). Treatment-related telangiectasia was noted in 7% of patients, suggesting in vivo inhibition of the ALK-1 pathway. None of the deaths was deemed to be treatment-related. Three (6.8%) patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, or non-small-cell lung cancer achieved a partial response and 12 (27.3%) patients had stable disease, across dose levels. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound analysis of tumor vascularity showed reduction in tumor perfusion in 2 patients with stable disease following treatment with PF-03446962. Conclusions: The clinical activity demonstrated in this study points to PF-03446962 as a novel approach to antiangiogenic therapy, with manageable safety profile and single-agent, antitumor activity in patients with advanced solid tumors.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Risk of nodal involvement in patients with sinonasal small cell and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas has not been well defined due their rarity. We describe a population-based assessment of specific nodal level involvement in this group of rare neuroectodermal tumors. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from 2004-2011 identified patients with sinonasal undifferentiated (SNUC) and small cell carcinomas. Overall neck involvement and individual nodal level involvement at presentation were assessed, and comparison made with a contemporaneous cohort of patients with a borderline clinically significant risk of nodal involvement and recurrence. Results: Of 141 patients, 31 (22%) had gross nodal involvement at presentation (range 14-33% by site and histology). Non-nasal, non-ethmoid site with SNUC histology has the highest rates of initial nodal involvement, whereas higher stage and size do not predict for higher nodal involvement rates. Bilateral levels 2-3 for all sinonasal small cell, levels 2-3 for nasal or ethmoid SNUC, and bilateral levels 1-3 in non-nasal/non-ethmoid SNUC have the highest rates of involvement compared to a clinical reference standard. Conclusions: We find high rates of initial nodal involvement in all SNUC and sinonasal small cell carcinoma. We find higher initial involvement of levels 2 and 3 and in certain cases to the level 1 nodal levels, hypothesizing benefit for elective treatment to those levels. Advances in Knowledge: With small single-institution series reporting conflicting nodal involvement rates, our data supports high rates of nodal presentation at diagnosis, hypothesizing benefit for elective nodal treatment in this cohort.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the investigational NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor pevonedistat (TAK-924/MLN4924), and to investigate pevonedistat pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in patients with advanced non-hematological malignancies Experimental Design: Pevonedistat was administered via 60-minute intravenous infusion on Days 1-5 (schedule A, n=12), or Days 1, 3, and 5 (schedules B, n=17, and C, n=19) of 21-day cycles. Schedule B included oral dexamethasone 8 mg prior to each pevonedistat dose. Dose escalation proceeded using a Bayesian continual reassessment method. Tumor response was assessed by RECIST 1.0 Results: Schedule A MTD was 50 mg/m2; based on the severity of observed hepatotoxicity, this schedule was discontinued. Schedules B and C MTDs were 50 and 67 mg/m2, respectively. DLTs on both these schedules included hyperbilirubinemia and elevated aspartate aminotransferase. There were no grade ≥3 treatment-related serious adverse events reported on schedules B or C. Twenty-three (74%) evaluable patients on schedules B and C had stable disease. Intermittent dexamethasone use did not significantly influence pevonedistat pharmacokinetics. NAE inhibition by pevonedistat was demonstrated in multiple tumor types via immunohistochemical detection of pevonedistat-NEDD8 adduct and accumulation of Cullin-RING ligase substrates CDT1 and NRF2 in tumor biopsies. Conclusions: Pevonedistat was generally well tolerated on a Day 1, 3, 5 schedule every 3 weeks with an MTD between 50 and 67 mg/m2. DLTs were predominantly hepatic enzyme elevations. Pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated pevonedistat tumor NAE inhibition. Clinical trials are ongoing.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background This Phase-I-study aimed to determine the recommended Phase-II-dosing-schedule of LY2334737, an oral gemcitabine prodrug, in patients with advanced/metastatic solid tumors. Pharmacokinetics, cytokeratin-18 (CK18) levels, genetic polymorphisms, and antitumor activity were additionally evaluated. Methods Patients received escalating doses of LY2334737 either every other day for 21 days (d) followed by 7 days-drug-free period (QoD-arm) or once daily for 7 days every other week (QD-arm). The 28 days-cycles were repeated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation was succeeded by a dose-confirmation phase (12 additional patients to be enrolled on the maximum tolerated dose [MTD]). Results Forty-one patients received QoD- (40-100 mg) and 32 QD-dosing (40-90 mg). On QoD, 3/9 patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) on the 100 mg dose (2 × G3 diarrhea, 1 × G3 transaminase increase); 1 additional DLT (G3 diarrhea) occurred during dose confirmation at 90 mg (12 patients). On QD, 1 patient each experienced DLTs on 60 mg (G3 transaminase increase) and 80 mg (G3 prolonged QTcF-interval); 2/7 patients had 3 DLTs on the 90 mg dose (diarrhea, edema, liver-failure; all G3). The MTD was established at 90 mg for the QoD-arm. Seven patients on QoD and 4 on QD achieved SD (no CR + PR). Pharmacokinetics showed a dose-proportional increase in exposure of LY2334737 and dFdC without accumulation after repeated dosing. Significant increases in CK18 levels were observed. Genetic polymorphism of the cytidine deaminase gene (rs818202) could be associated with ≥ G3 hepatotoxicity. Conclusions Both schedules displayed linear pharmacokinetics and acceptable safety profiles. The recommended dose and schedule of LY2334737 for subsequent Phase-II-studies is 90 mg given QoD for 21 day.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The classical model for identification and clinical development of anticancer agents was based on small molecules, which were often quite toxic. Early studies in small groups of patients would seek to identify a maximum tolerated dose and major dose-limiting toxicities. Tumor response (shrinkage) would be assessed after a minimum number of doses in phase II testing. The decision to take the drug into the randomized phase III clinical setting was usually based on the proportion and duration of objective tumor responses, along with overall survival compared with historical controls. Immune-oncologics that are designed to fight cancer by direct CD8 T-cell priming and activation or by blocking a negative regulatory molecule have a number of sharp distinctions from cytotoxic drugs. These include cytoreductive effects that may be very different in timing of onset from traditional chemotherapy and the potential for inducing long-term durable remissions even in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic disease. In this paper we review the different classes of immune-oncologic drugs in clinical development with particular attention to the biostatistical challenges associated with evaluating efficacy in clinical trials. Confronting these issues upfront is particularly important given the rapidly expanding number of clinical trials with both monotherapy and combination trials in immunooncology.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Mutations (MT) of the KRAS gene are the most common mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), seen in about 20–25% of all adenocarcinomas. Effect of KRAS MT on response to cytotoxic chemotherapy is unclear. Methods We undertook a single-institution retrospective analysis of 93 consecutive patients with stage IV NSCLC adenocarcinoma with known KRAS and EGFR MT status to determine the association of KRAS MT with survival. All patients were treated between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 with standard platinum based chemotherapy at the University of Pennsylvania. Overall and progression free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard methods. Results All patients in this series received platinum doublet chemotherapy, and 42 (45%) received bevacizumab. Overall survival and progression free survival for patients with KRAS MT was no worse than for patients with wild type KRAS. Median overall survival for patients with KRAS MT was 19 months (mo) vs. 15.6 mo for KRAS WT, p = 0.34, and progression-free survival was 6.2 mo in patients with KRAS MT vs. 7mo in patients with KRAS WT, p = 0.51. In multivariable analysis including age, race, gender, and ECOG PS, KRAS MT was not associated with overall survival (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.58–2.16, p = 0.74) or progression free survival (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.48–1.34, p = 41). Of note, receipt of bevacizumab was associated with improved overall survival only in KRAS WT patients (HR 0.34, p = 0.01). Conclusions KRAS MT are not associated with inferior progression-free and overall survival in advanced NSCLC patients treated with standard first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score-adjusted and inverse probability of treatment-weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment-weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not apply to T4a disease, and patients should be counseled accordingly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dataset: SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taxane–gemcitabine combinations have demonstrated antitumor activity. This phase I study (NCT01001221) aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of cabazitaxel plus gemcitabine and to assess the preliminary efficacy of this combination. The patients included had metastatic or unresectable solid tumors and had exhausted standard treatment. Cohorts of three to six patients received cabazitaxel (15–20 mg/m2) before (part 1a) or after (part 1b) gemcitabine (700–1000 mg/m2) on Day 1 and gemcitabine alone on Day 8. Prophylactic growth factors were not allowed in cycle 1. In part 1a (n=12), five patients received 20 mg/m2 cabazitaxel plus 1000 mg/m2 gemcitabine (20/1000), five received 15/900, two received 15/700. In part 1b, all six patients received the lowest dose (700/15). At all doses, two or more patients experienced a DLT, regardless of administration sequence, including febrile neutropenia (n=4), grade 4 neutropenia (n=2), grade 4 thrombocytopenia (n=2), and grade 3 aspartate transaminase increase (n=1). The MTD was not established as all cohorts exceeded the MTD by definition. All patients experienced an adverse event; the most frequent all-grade nonhematologic events were fatigue (66.7%), decreased appetite (50.0%), and diarrhea (44.4%). The most frequent grade 3–4 hematologic abnormalities were neutropenia (83.3%), leukopenia (77.8%), and lymphopenia (72.2%). Toxicity was sequence-independent but appeared worse with gemcitabine followed by cabazitaxel. Durable partial responses were observed in three patients (prostate cancer, appendiceal cancer, and melanoma). The unacceptable DLTs with cabazitaxel plus gemcitabine, at doses reduced more than 25% from single-agent doses, preclude further investigation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combination therapy with trabectedin and docetaxel was evaluated in patients with advanced malignancies. In this open-label phase 1 study, docetaxel (60 or 75 mg/m(2); 1-h intravenous infusion) was given on day 1 of a 21-day cycle in combination with escalating doses of trabectedin (0.4-1.3 mg/m(2) by 3-h intravenous infusion, 1 h after docetaxel) and prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) as primary objective and safety, plasma pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity as secondary objectives were assessed. Patients (N = 49) received a median of four cycles of treatment. MTD was 1.3 mg/m(2) trabectedin and 60 mg/m(2) docetaxel for patients with limited and 1.1 mg/m(2) trabectedin and 60 mg/m(2) docetaxel for patients with unlimited prior chemotherapy. Dose-limiting toxicities (during cycle 1) included elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and fatigue in patients with limited prior chemotherapy and elevated ALT and febrile neutropenia in those with unlimited prior chemotherapy. The most common drug-related adverse events were nausea (65 %), fatigue (63 %), and neutropenia (53 %). One patient achieved a complete response. Thirty patients had stable disease, and 11 had stable disease for ≥6 months. Pharmacokinetic results for trabectedin plus docetaxel were similar to those previously reported for the single agents. In patients with previously treated, advanced malignancies, the combination of therapeutic doses of trabectedin and docetaxel showed clinical activity and was tolerable with prophylactic G-CSF, with no evidence of clinically important drug interactions.
Fox Chase Cancer CenterFiladelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, AL, United States
- Department of Medicine