- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TNFα plays an important role in autoimmune pathogenesis and is the main therapeutic target of rheumatoid arthritis. However, its underlying mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, we described that Th17 cells were accumulated in synovial fluid, which was attributable to TNFα aberrantly produced in rheumatoid synovium. Interestingly, TNFα cannot induce IL-17 production of CD4(+) T cells directly, but through the monocytes high levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in a TNFRI and TNFRII dependent manner from the active RA patients are produced. TNFα was shown to enhance the phosphorylation level of STAT3 and the expression level of transcription factor RORC of CD4(+) T cells when cultured with CD14(+) monocytes. Treatment with an approved TNFα blocking antibody showed marked reduction in the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-17 and the expression level of STAT3 phosphorylation in relation to Th17 cell differentiation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study provides new evidence supporting the critical role of TNFα in the pathogenic Th17 cell differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibody development is one of the fastest growing areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies against a given therapeutic target is crucial for successful drug development. However, due to immune tolerance, making it difficult to generate antibodies using conventional approaches. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Mixed four human gastric cancer (GC) cell lines were used as the immunogen in A/J mice; sixteen highly positive hybridoma colonies were selected via fluorescence-activated cell sorting-high throughput screening (FACS-HTS) using a total of 20,000 colonies in sixty-seven 96-well plates against live cells (mixed human GC cells versus human PBMC controls). MS17-57 and control commercial Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) mAbs were used to confirm the target antigens (Ags), which were identified as ALPs expressed on the GC cell surface through a combination of western blot, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (MS). MS identified the Ags recognized by MS17-57 to be two variants of a secreted ALP, PALP and IALP (Placental and intestinal ALP). These proteins belong to a hydrolase enzyme family responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules. Immunofluorescence staining using MS17-57 demonstrated higher staining of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer tissues compared to normal GI tissues (P
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EGCG is one of the major catechins in green tea. In this study, we investigated the novel regulatory mechanism of EGCG on amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The data showed that EGCG reduced disease severity in EAE by decreasing brain inflammation and demyelination damage, accompanied by decreased encephalitogenic T cell responses and reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The effect of EGCG was attributable to its selective inhibition of interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 production in CD4+ T cells, mediated via alteration of the STAT pathway and the transcription factors T-bet and retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR) gammat/ROR alpha. More important, EGCG has been found novel properties of directly inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation in this study. On the other hand, EGCG-treated antigen presenting cells (APC) exhibited reduced co-stimulatory function as a result of altered expression of CD80 and CD86. The results of this study indicate that EGCG is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that could act as a useful drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other neuroinflammatory diseases in the further.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a well-studied β-herpesvirus virus, which adopts a variety of strategies to evade immune surveillance. It has been reported that in HCMV-infected cells, classical major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules are down-regulated, but the MHC class Ib molecule human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is normally expressed or even overexpressed on the cell surface. HLA-E has been first described to interact with CD94/NKG2 receptors expressed mainly on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, thus confining its role to the regulation of NK-cell function. The engagement of CD94/NKG2A with HLA-E, with a signal peptide of the HCMV glycoprotein UL40, usually induces inhibitory signals. However, HLA-E also serves as a ligand for the TCR expressed by αβCD8+ T cells. Recognition of peptides presented by HLA-E may result in CD8+ effector T-cell activation. These findings will help to understand more on both pathogenic and protective roles of HLA-E in HCMV infection. In this review, we discussed recent studies about the roles of HLA-E in HCMV infection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we detected the viral DNA of Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) in the sera and cell-free cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Chinese multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The results revealed that the copy numbers of serum HHV-6 viral DNA were higher in MS than in normal subjects (NS) or in other neurologic diseases (OND). We also found that in the MS subjects, most T cells recognizing myelin basic protein (MBP) were cross-reactive and could be activated by a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues of HHV-6 or EBV. The estimated precursor frequency of these cross-reactive T cells recognizing both peptides, MBP and HHV-6 or EBV, was significantly elevated in MS compared with that in controls. More significant was the presence of CD8+ cytotoxic cross-reactive T cells, as they could directly induce injury to oligodendrocytes that are known to express both MBP and MHC class I molecules. The study provides important evidence for understanding the potential role of HHV-6 or EBV infection in the pathogenesis of MS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects the limbs, but the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. γδ T cells, a T-cell subpopulation, are characterized by multiple biological functions and associated with a variety of diseases. This study investigated the antigen-presenting effects of γδ T cells and their relationship with rheumatoid arthritis development. We found that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells (the predominant subtype of γδ T cells in peripheral blood) were activated by isopentenyl pyrophosphate to continuously proliferate and differentiate into effector memory cells. The effector memory Vγ9Vδ2 T cells exhibited phenotypic characteristics of specific antigen-presenting cells, including high HLA-DR and CD80/86 expression. These Vγ9Vδ2 T cells could present soluble antigens and synthetic peptides to CD4(+) T cells. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with different phenotypes showed different cytokine secretion patterns. Effector memory Vγ9Vδ2 T cells simultaneously secreted not only interferon (IFN)-γ but also IL-17. The peripheral blood and joint synovial fluid from RA patients contained numerous heterogeneous γδ T cells that were predominantly effector memory Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with the ability to secrete inflammatory factors. We also found that γδ T cells had a similar antigen-presenting capability to B cells. These results suggest that during the development of rheumatoid arthritis, γδ T cells can aggravate immune dysfunction and produce abnormal immune damage by secreting cytokines and inducing inflammatory cells to participate in synergistic inflammatory responses. Furthermore, γδ T cells can behave similarly to B cells to present viral peptides and autoantigen peptides to CD4(+) T cells, thus sustaining CD4(+) T-cell activation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg and IL-10(+) Tr1 cells play a major role in controlling autoimmunity by suppressing self-reactive T cells. Dysfunction of Tregs appears to be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of CNS, where CD4(+) T cells result in nervous tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of Treg and Tr1 cells in a mimic model of human MS in Cynomolgus monkeys. This study indicated the suppressive capacity of Tregs from MS monkeys was impaired compared with naive controls. The population of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs was decreased in acute stage of MS. However, they showed a restored function and percentage in remitting monkeys. In stable phase, CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs differentially expressed elevated level of CD62P cell adhesion molecule which contributes to the mechanism by which Treg cells inhibit CD4(+) T cell responses. On the other hand, the percentage of CD4(+)IL-10(+) Tr1 and suppressive function of Tr1 cells were found reduced in MS monkeys. IL-10 secretion was diminished almost 9-fold in active MS, and recovered in active MS. This deficit in IL-10 secretion was specific to CD3/CD46, but not to CD3/CD28 stimulation. The concentrations of IFN-gamma secreted by CD3/CD46-activated T cells were also not affected. These results demonstrate that Tregs are dysfunctional in Cynomolgus monkey with MS. Loss of regulatory function appears to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of MS. Hence, to develop new approaches for induction of Tregs in vivo may be beneficial for the clinical treatment in autoimmune diseases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, a mistletoe lectin (ML) was purified from Chinese mistletoe and the effect of this 60 kDa Chinese ML on human gammadelta T cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis and modulation of the cytokine network was studied. The cytotoxic properties of delta T cells was evaluated by using a (51)Cr release test and employed fluorescence-activated cell sorting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis to quantify translocation of the cell membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylserine and nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. It was found that: (i) ML effectively stimulated gammadelta T cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner; (ii) ML increased gammadelta T cell cytotoxicity; (iii) ML could modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release in a pro-inflammatory manner by increasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release and inhibiting the release of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10; (iv) ML induced apoptosis in caspase-dependent and CD95-independent manner. The results indicated that ML is a potent immunomodulator to human gammadelta T cell cytotoxicity, apoptos is and cytokine production.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, a mistletoe lectin (ML) was purified from Chinese mistletoe and the effect of this 60 kDa Chinese ML on human γδ T cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis and modulation of the cytokine network was studied. The cytotoxic properties of δ T cells was evaluated by using a 51Cr release test and employed fluorescence-activated cell sorting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis to quantify translocation of the cell membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylserine and nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. It was found that: (i) ML effectively stimulated γδ T cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner; (ii) ML increased γδ T cell cytotoxicity; (iii) ML could modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release in a pro-inflammatory manner by increasing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release and inhibiting the release of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10: (iv) ML induced apoptosis in caspase-dependent and CD95-independent manner. The results indicated that ML is a potent immunomodulator to human γδ T cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cytokine production.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This pilot clinical study was undertaken to investigate the role of T cell vaccination in the induction of regulatory immune responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Autologous synovial T cells were selected for pathologic relevance, rendered inactive by irradiation, and used for vaccination. Fifteen patients received T cell vaccination via 6 subcutaneous inoculations over a period of 12 months. T cell vaccination led to induction of CD4+ Tregs and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells specific for T cell vaccine. There was selective expansion of CD4+,V(beta)2+ Tregs that produced interleukin-10 (IL-10) and expressed a high level of transcription factor Foxp3, which coincided with depletion of overexpressed BV14+ T cells in treated patients. CD4+ IL-10-secreting Tregs induced by T cell vaccination were found to react specifically with peptides derived from IL-2 receptor alpha-chain. The expression level of Foxp3 in CD4+ T cells and increased inhibitory activity of CD4+,CD25+ Tregs were significantly elevated following T cell vaccination. The observed regulatory immune responses collectively correlated with clinical improvement in treated patients. In an intent-to-treat analysis, a substantial response, defined as meeting the American College of Rheumatology 50% improvement criteria, was shown in 10 of the 15 patients (66.7%) and was accompanied by a marked improvement in RA-related laboratory parameters. These findings suggest that T cell vaccination induces regulatory immune responses that are associated with improved clinical and laboratory variables in RA patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein of pleiotropic properties and has been recently recognized as a potential inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that overexpression of OPN in synovial T cells is associated with local inflammatory milieu and that OPN acts as an important mediator in amplification and perpetuation of rheumatoid synovitis. The study revealed that mRNA expression of OPN was highly elevated in CD4(+) synovial T cells derived from patients with RA, which correlated with increased OPN concentrations in synovial fluid (SF). The pattern of OPN overexpression was confined to rheumatoid synovium and correlated with coexpression of selected OPN receptors in synovial T cells, including integrins alphav and beta1 and CD44. RA-derived SF stimulated the expression of OPN in T cells, which was attributable to IL-10 present in SF and abrogated by anti-IL-10 antibody. Among the more than 300 autoimmune and inflammatory response genes examined, OPN selectively induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines known to promote migration and recruitment of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, it was evident that OPN activated transcription factor NF-kappaB in mononuclear cells. The study has important implications for understanding the role of OPN in rheumatoid synovitis and other inflammatory conditions.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is thought to play an important role in rheumatoid synovitis. We investigated the expression of OPN in rheumatoid synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC) and its potential association with genetic polymorphism of the OPN gene and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 1. The expression of OPN mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and SFMC of patients with RA was analyzed quantitatively by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results were analyzed in paired PBMC and SFMC and control PBMC. 2. Six single nuclear acid polymorphisms of the OPN gene were genotyped in a cohort of 192 Chinese patients with RA and controls (n = 288) by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or direct DNA sequencing. 3. SF derived from RA patients was examined for the stimulating effect on mRNA expression of the OPN gene in PBMC. The expression of OPN gene was significantly increased in SFMC and, to a lesser degree, in PBMC of patients with RA compared to control PBMC (p < 0.01). However, the prevalence of OPN genotype and allele frequencies at the selected positions did not differ significantly between RA patients and the control group (p > 0.05). Further characterization indicated that SF known to contain a variety of proinflammatory factors significantly stimulated mRNA expression of OPN in PBMC obtained from RA patients or healthy controls. Overexpression of OPN mRNA in SFMC is associated with proinflammatory factors produced in inflamed joints, but not with OPN genetic polymorphisms. OPN gene polymorphisms do not correlate with susceptibility to RA.
Renji HospitalShanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
Second Military Medical University, ShanghaiShanghai, Shanghai Shi, China