[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The head-up tilt test (HUTT) is a useful diagnostic tool for syncope.
We sought to investigate the outcome of the HUTT in syncope patients and identify the relationship between age and different hemodynamic outcomes.
Patients and methods:
In this cross-sectional study, we prospectively enrolled consecutive patients who presented with syncope and underwent the HUTT with a clinical suspicion of neurocardiogenic syncope after the exclusion of orthostatic hypotension cases. The HUTT consisted of consecutive passive and active phases. In the passive phase, the patients were tilted at 70 degrees for 20 minutes; and if negative, the test was repeated with 400 micrograms of sublingual nitroglycerin for another 20 minutes. Positive responses were classified according to the classification of the vasovagal syncope international study (VASIS) and compared for age and gender.
A total of 498 patients were enrolled (age = 44.93 ± 18.77 years; male = 271 [54.4%]). Overall, 291 (58.4%) patients had a positive HUTT, while 256 (88.5%) patients had a positive result during the active phase. The test results were as follows: 107 (36.7%) mixed type (VASIS I), 103 (35.3%) cardioinhibitory (VASIS IIA = 44 [15.1%]; VASIS IIB = 59 [20.2%]), and 80 (27.4%) vasodepressive (VASIS III). There was no relationship between gender and syncope type. The trend of the HUTT result significantly changed with age, and the rate of cardioinhibitory syncope decreased after middle ages (P value for trend = 0.02).
Hemodynamic response to the HUTT was associated with age. Cardioinhibitory response became less frequent with age due to exaggerated vagal activity in the younger patients as compared with the older subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in most countries and also in Iran. Among novel prognostic markers suggested in recent studies for coronary heart disease, red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been found to be associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between RDW and 6-month mortality and cardiovascular events after the initial attack of myocardial infarction (MI).
Medical records of 642 patients with MI were investigated for basic and clinical characteristics, as well as patients' first hemoglobin, RDW, and mean corpuscular volume at the time of admission. Then based on patients' time of hospitalization, they were followed up by telephone for readmission and mortality 6 months later.
Mean ± SD age of patients was 62.7 ± 12.7 years. In 6-month telephone follow-up, 443 patients (69%) had readmission. Six-month mortality occurred in 70 patients (10.9%). Patients with RDW level of 14.6% and higher were significantly older (P < 0.001). Three percent of patients with low RDW and 14.8% in high RDW group had renal failure (P < 0.001). Six-month mortality was observed in 24.3% of patients with high RDW and 7.9% of those with low RDW (P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, RDW (odds ratio: 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.68, P = 0.03), age, and ejection fraction were significant independent prognostic factors for mortality.
Six-month mortality was significantly higher in patients with MI with high RDW. Thus given that RDW is an inexpensive and available laboratory test, it could be used for mortality risk assessment and follow up the patients for stricter control of other modifiable risk factors.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Critical pathways in cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on premature coronary artery disease (CAD) are scarce. The Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort Study (THC-PAC) is the first study of its kind in the Middle East to assess major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in young CAD patients.
The cohort consists of CAD patients, males ≤ 45 years old and females ≤ 55 years old. The participants are residents of Tehran or its suburbs and underwent coronary angiography between June 2004 and July 2011. A 10-year follow-up, via either clinical visits or telephone calls at least once a year, was commenced in August 2012. The end point is considered MACE, encompassing death, myocardial infarction, stroke, new coronary involvement, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting.
The cohort comprises 1232 eligible patients (613 [49.8%] males) at a mean age of 45.1 years (SD = 5.8). High frequencies of conventional risk factors, including hyperlipidemia (884 [71.8%]), hypertension (575 [46.7%]), positive family history (539 [43.8%]), cigarette smoking (479 [38.8%]), and diabetes mellitus (390 [31.7%]), were seen in the participants. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the enrolled patients was high (29.2 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)), and 532 (43.3%) and 440 (35.8%) of them were overweight and obese, respectively. The females' BMI was higher (30.4 ± 5.3 vs. 28.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2; P < 0.001) and they had a greater mean abdominal circumference (99.9 ± 13.5 vs. 98.1 ± 9.3 cm; P = 0.035). Between August 2012 and August 2013, follow-up was successful in 1173 (95.2%) patients (median follow-up duration = 55.3 months, 95%CI: 53.5-57.0 months).
Our younger patients with CAD had a high frequency of risk factors compared to the same-age general population and all-age CAD patients, which may predispose them to higher incidence of recurrent MACE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute coronary syndromes are considered as a global major health-care problem, and Iran as a developing country is of no exception. We aimed to investigate the degree of adherence to American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline for the management of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in patients who presented to the emergency department at Tehran Heart Center. Data of the patients who presented with acute chest pain to the emergency department of Tehran Heart Center within 1 year and were diagnosed as NSTEMI by the cardiologist in charge were included. The details of the initial managements based on the ACC/AHA guideline for NSTEMI of the patients were recorded from the patients' files in the emergency department for this study. Then, the frequency of guideline-related management in the study population was calculated and reported. A total of 684 patients [mean age = 62.95 ± 12.19 years; male gender = 460 (67.3%)] were diagnosed as NSTEMI at the emergency department of our center. Initial management based on the current guideline including administration of aspirin and clopidogrel was performed in 98.4% and 95.0%, respectively. Intravenous heparin was administered in 67.0% of the patients, whereas 30.8% of patients received enoxaparin. Following the initial management, coronary angiography was performed in 563 (82.3%) patients within 48 hours from the admission. Adherence to ACC/AHA guideline for the management of NSTEMI in patients who presented to a tertiary health-care center was in a high degree.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Critical Pathways in Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimWe compare the early and mid-term outcomes of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in patients with and without syncope in our single-center registry.Method
Between December 2006 and May 2013, 351 consecutive patients (mean age=60.21±16.91 years, 55.3% male) with confirmed acute symptomatic PTE were divided in with and without syncope groups. Groups were compared in terms of the effect of syncope on 30-day mortality and adverse events, and mortality in a median follow-up time of 16.9 months.ResultsFrom 351 patients, 39(11.1%) had syncope and 312(88.9%) did not. Syncope group had less frequently chest pain (30.8% vs. 51.4%; p value=0.015). Also, the rates of 30-day adverse events and mortality were 12.8% and 5.1% for the group with syncope and 14.4% and 10.3% for the group without syncope, respectively, with no significant difference. At follow up, 65 patients died and mortality was 18.5% for 351 patients (5.1% in the group with syncope and 20.2% for the other group). After adjustment for confounding factors, the effect of syncope on 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant and on the mid-term mortality was significant, showing that the presence of syncope was associated with lower long-term mortality (p value=0.038).Conclusion
Among PTE patients in our registry, 11.1% presented with syncope. Relationship between syncope and 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant after adjustments for other factors. However, in mid-term follow-up, patients with syncope were significantly at decreased risk of mortality compared to those without syncope.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Clinical Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Muscle fibers overlying the intramyocardial segment of an epicardial coronary artery are termed myocardial bridge (MB). The aim of this study was to analyze the mid-term outcome of MB and to examine its possible association with angiographic findings and concomitant cardiac pathologies such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: From a total of 3218 patients admitted for coronary angiography during 9 consecutive months, 28 (0.9%) were diagnosed with MBs with stenoses ≥50%. Of these, 19 referred for follow-up with a median duration of 18 months. Results: HCM was present in 5 patients (26.3%), of whom 4 had MB as the sole finding in angiography. Of the 19 patients, 14 had diastolic dysfunction. In follow-up, 2 patients were treated with revascularization strategies due to the concomitant coronary artery disease and in 2, syncope occurred. For two patients, an intra-cardiac device and a permanent pacemaker were implanted. Three patients with MB as the sole finding in angiography were readmitted because of chest pain. Conclusion: Diastolic dysfunction may contribute to the presentation of symptoms of muscle bridging. Also, myocardial bridging as the only finding in coronary angiography is highly associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and may help to detect this group of patients. The mid-term outcome of myocardial bridges is favorable.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Tehran University Heart Center
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Restenosis after angioplasty remains a serious complication in clinical cardiology. This study aims to investigate the stealth colloidal systems for local intra-arterial drug delivery. Micelles from polyethylene glycol conjugated with phosphatidylethanolamine and PEGylated liposomes loaded with sirolimus were prepared and characterized with regard to their loading efficiency, particle size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, drug release profile and stability. The antirestenotic effects of the sirolimus-loaded micelles (14nm) and liposomes (90nm) were evaluated and compared in the rat carotid injury model following local intravascular delivery. In comparison to control groups, treatment of balloon injured rats with drug loaded micelles and nanoliposomes significantly reduced vascular stenosis by 42% and 19%, respectively (P<0.05). In addition, the luminal area was significantly enlarged by 39% and 60% following treatment with sirolimus-loaded liposomes and micelles, respectively (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry revealed that sirolimus-loaded nanocarriers suppressed cell proliferation (Ki67-positive cells) as compared to control groups without affecting the density of smooth muscle actin staining. These results suggest that both colloidal nanocarriers could serve as effective intramural drug delivery systems for the treatment of restenosis; however, phospholipid based micelles provided better antirestenotic effects than PEGylated liposomes.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Possible myocardial damage caused by defibrillation threshold (DFT) control and its extent after insertion of implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICD) is still a matter for debate. This study aimed to identify the effect of DFT checking during ICD implantation, compared with permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation, on the magnitude of myocardial damage as assessed by cardiac troponin-T (cTNT) and CK-MB.
A total of 133 candidates for ICD implantation were enrolled in the ICD group (mean age 60.66 +/- 12.25 years; males 111 [83.5%]) as well as 130 candidates in the PPM group (mean age 69.56 +/- 12.86 years; males 64 [49.2%]). DFT was controlled in all of the ICD patients. Serum levels of cTNT and CK-MB were measured at baseline plus 8 and 24 hours following the procedure. The results were adjusted for age, gender, and other confounding factors. The amount of cTNT rise after 8 and 24 hours in the ICD group was significantly higher than in the PPM group (p < 0.001 for both). These differences remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors. The level of CK-MB rise after 8 and 24 hours was also significantly higher in the ICD group, although it lost its significance after adjustment for age, gender and other confounding variables. There was no significant relationship between the amount of energy delivered and enzyme elevation.
Elevation of cTNT and CK-MB after the ICD implantation was significantly higher than that after the PPM implantation and may be attributed to the DFT testing shock and resulting myocardial injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a critical complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive tool to assess cardiac autonomic function. We aimed to evaluate whether CAN is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis in T2DM.
A total of 57 diabetic and 54 nondiabetic subjects, free of coronary heart disease, were recruited. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), coronary calcium score (CAC), and brachial Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD) were measured. Heart rate variability and vagal components of autonomic function were determined. Significant reduction of normalized HF power (P < 0.05) and total power (P < 0.01) was observed in T2DM. CIMT and CAC scores were significantly higher while FMD was significantly lower in diabetics (P < 0.01 for all). Median HbA1c levels were significantly higher in diabetics. CIMT was inversely and independently associated with total power both in diabetics and controls (P < 0.01 for both groups). There was also an inverse association between total power and median HbA1c. Autonomic dysfunction, especially parasympathetic neuropathy, was present since early-stage T2DM. This was related to subclinical atherosclerosis.
Early detection of cardiac autonomic neuropathy can help us detect the development of atherosclerosis earlier in T2DM to prevent unfavorable outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes has been shown to be independent predictor of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a pre- and post-procedural glycaemic control in diabetic patients was related to major advance cardiovascular events (MACE) during follow up.
We evaluated 2884 consecutive patients including 2181 non-diabetic patients and 703 diabetics who underwent coronary stenting. Diabetes mellitus was defined as the fasting blood sugar concentration ≥ 126 mg/dL, or the use of an oral hypoglycemic agent or insulin at the time of admission. Diabetic patients were categorized into two groups based on their mean HbA1c levels for three measurements (at 0, 1, and 6 months following procedure): 291 (41.4%) diabetics with good glycaemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7%) and 412 (58.6%) diabetics with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c > 7%).
The adjusted risk of MACE in diabetic patients with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c > 7%) was 2.1 times of the risk in non-diabetics (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.10 to 3.95, p = 0.02). However, the risk of MACE in diabetics with good glycaemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7%) was not significantly different from that of non-diabetics (adjusted HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.38 to 4.68, p = 0.66).
Our data suggest that there is an association between good glycaemic control to obtain HbA1c levels ≤7% (both pre-procedural glycaemic control and post-procedural) with a better clinical outcome after PCI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The use of cardiac surgical database is necessary for evaluating and improving the quality of care. The aim of this report was to provide useful information for surgeons in Iran and other countries for their daily practice. Methods: We analyzed data from 14288 consecutive patients in four different types of procedures, namely isolated coro-nary artery bypass grafting (CABG), combined CABG and valve (CABG-V), only valve (V), and other adult cardiac surgical operations from 2002 to 2006. Results: The activity load increased from 1765 in 2002 to 3309 surgical operations in 2006 with almost 87.2% of activity being isolated CABG. The mortality rate for CABG was 1%, which decreased from 1.7% to 0.9% over the five years. The mortality rates for CABG-V and V were 5.8% and 4.8% in the last year of the study, respectively. Over the 5 yr period, the proportion of urgent operations increased substantially from 4% to 24.5% (P< 0.0001), causing a reduction in elective op-erations. The mean length of hospital stay for the entire population was 8.38±5.74 d, which remained almost steady during the study period. Conclusion: This database can serve as a valuable resource of preoperative measurers and surgical outcomes for surgeons and researchers with a view to improving overall surgical performance.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Iranian journal of public health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While long-term exposure to air pollutants is associated with an increase in heart diseases and mortality, little information is available about the short-term effects of air pollution. This case-crossover study assessed the relationship of particulate matter (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels with hospital admission for acute coronary syndrome in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. We interviewed 250 patients with a first episode of acute coronary syndrome and obtained data from hospital records and Tehran Air Quality Control Company. The risk of acute coronary syndrome was significantly associated with elevated concentrations of CO the day before the event (OR 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.34) but not significantly with PM10 (OR 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.02). Stratification by age, sex, diabetes, hypertension and smoking status did not affect the results, but women were more susceptible than men to CO levels (OR for women/men 1.68; 95% CI: 1.25-2.26).
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that statins reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac operations. Statin therapy at intensive doses, however, has yet to be thoroughly investigated.
We retrospectively studied 1,839 consecutive patients (1,177 men [73.2%]) who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and had no history of previous AF, pacemaker implantation, or antiarrhythmic medication. Data recorded included the atorvastatin dose during hospitalization, demographic, echocardiographic, and angiographic data, medical history, drug treatment, and procedural characteristics. Continuous telemonitoring during the first 72 postoperative hours assessed for AF, which was defined as episodes lasting more than 5 minutes. The dose-related effect of atorvastatin on postoperative AF was investigated by logistic analysis in 1,607 patients: 75 (4.7%) did not receive atorvastatin vs 1,047 (65.1%) and 485 (30.2%) who received 40 mg/d or 80 mg/d, respectively, for at least 3 days before the operation.
The study population was a mean age of 60.6 ± 9.5 years. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that a lack of atorvastatin pretreatment along with older age, enlarged left atrium, and male sex, and not taking β-blockers, tended to be associated with an increased risk of postoperative AF. There was no significant difference between the effect of a higher (80 mg/d) and a lower dose (40 mg/d) in reducing postoperative AF.
Atorvastatin pretreatment significantly reduced the occurrence of AF after bypass grafting; nonetheless, the difference between the beneficial effects of intensive and routine atorvastatin treatments on postoperative AF was not significant.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences in the quantity and distribution of coronary veins between patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy might affect the potential for the left ventricular (LV) lead targeting in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In the current study, we assessed and compared the suitability of the coronary venous system for the LV lead placement in ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy.
This single-centre study, performed at our hospital, retrospectively studied 173 patients with the New York Heart Association class III or IV who underwent CRT. The study population was comprised of 74 patients with an ischemic underlying etiology and 99 patients with a non-ischemic etiology. The distribution of the veins as well as the final lead positions was recorded.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the position of the available suitable vein with the exception of the posterior position, where the ischemic group had slightly more suitable veins than did the dilated group (48.4% versus 32.1%, p value = 0.049). There was also no significant difference with respect to the final vein, through which the LV lead was inserted. Comparative analysis showed that the patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) had significantly fewer suitable veins in the posterolateral position than did the non-CABG group (16.3% versus 38.7%, p value = 0.029). There was, however, no significant difference between the two subgroups regarding the final vein position in which the leads were inserted.
The final coronary vein position suitable and selected for the LV lead insertion was not different between the cases with cardiomyopathy with different etiologies, and nor was it different between the ischemic cases with and without a history of CABG. Patients with a history of procedures around the coronary vessel may have an intact or recovered venous system and may, therefore, benefit from transvenous LV lead placement for CRT.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Tehran University Heart Center
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Differences in the quantity and distribution of coronary veins between patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy might affect the potential for the left ventricular (LV) lead targeting in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). In the current study, we assessed and compared the suitability of the coronary venous system for the LV lead placement in ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Methods: This single-centre study, performed at our hospital, retrospectively studied 173 patients with the New York Heart Association class III or IV who underwent CRT. The study population was comprised of 74 patients with an ischemic underlying etiology and 99 patients with a non-ischemic etiology. The distribution of the veins as well as the final lead positions was recorded.
Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the position of the available suitable vein with the exception of the posterior position, where the ischemic group had slightly more suitable veins than did the dilated group. There was also no significant difference with respect to the final vein, through which the LV lead was inserted. Comparative analysis showed that the patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) had significantly fewer suitable veins in the posterolateral position than did the non-CABG group. There was, however, no significant difference between the two subgroups regarding the final vein position in which the leads were inserted.
Conclusion: The final coronary vein position suitable and selected for the LV lead insertion was not different between the cases with cardiomyopathy with different etiologies, and nor was it different between the ischemic cases with and without a history of CABG. Patients with a history of procedures around the coronary vessel may have an intact or recovered venous system and may, therefore, benefit from transvenous LV lead placement for CRT.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Tehran University Heart Center
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was directed towards the preparation and optimization of PEGylated (PEG, poly(ethylene glycol)) estradiol benzoate (ESB)-loaded liposomes to be used for the treatment of restenosis by local vascular delivery. Various liposomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method followed by sonication. Response surface methodology was applied to study the influence of three different independent variables, on the response of entrapment efficiency (%EE). Liposomes were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, %EE and release profile. Incorporation of ESB was higher in egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) liposomes, whereas the drug was displaced from liposomes, as the cholesterol (Chol) content of liposome increased. The optimum formulation composed of EPC/dioleyloxy trimethylammonium propane/distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEG2000 with a molar proportion of 8.5:1:0.5 had the highest EE. In vivo studies in the balloon-injured rat carotid arteries revealed the potential of ESB-loaded liposomes as efficient local and controlled drug delivery systems to reduce restenosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Microencapsulation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In order to benefit from a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, patients must adhere to medical recommendations and health advices. Despite the importance of adherence in CABG patients, adherence rates are disappointingly low. Despite the low adherence rates, very few articles regarding adherence-enhancing intervention among heart patients have been published.
The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills (IMB) model-based intervention on the IMB model constructs among patients undergoing CABG and to evaluate the relationship of information, motivation, and behavioral skills with adherence.
A total of 152 CABG patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or to a standard care control group. Participants completed pretest measures and were reassessed 1 month later.
Findings showed mixed support for the effectiveness of the intervention. There was a significant effect of IMB intervention on information and motivation of patients, but no significant effect on behavioral skills. Furthermore, the results revealed that intervention constructs (information, motivation, and behavioral skills) were significantly related to patients’ adherence.
Findings provided initial evidence for the effectiveness of IMB-based interventions on the IMB constructs and supported the importance of these constructs to improve adherence; however, there are additional factors that need to be identified in order to improve behavioral skills more effectively.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · International Journal of Behavioral Medicine