[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Open surgery for patellar tendinopathy allows patients with unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy to return to high levels of physical activity.
Two groups of 23 athletes each underwent open surgical exploration for management of patellar tendinopathy. One group suffered from unilateral patellar tendinopathy (unilateral group), and the other group had bilateral (bilateral group) patellar tendinopathy. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction and anthropometric measures were assessed pre-operatively and at an average follow-up of seven years. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA)-P scoring system was also administered; functional outcomes were classified from excellent to poor according to a modification of Kelly's criteria.
At the final follow-up, in both groups, VISA-P scores were significantly improved compared with preoperative values, with no intergroup differences. Clinical results were excellent or good in 21 patients in the unilateral and 19 in the bilateral group. Twenty of 23 patients in the unilateral group and 17 of 23 in the bilateral group were still active in sports (p = 0.2). In the unilateral group, at the last follow-up, thigh volume and strength were significantly improved compared with baseline, with significant difference between operated and nonoperated limbs. In the bilateral group, there were no significant differences in thigh volume and strength between the dominant and nondominant limbs both before and after the index procedure.
This procedure is not technically demanding and provides a high rate of good and excellent outcomes in the long term.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Orthopaedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Currently, there is no generally agreed measure available to quantify a subject's perceived severity of exercise-induced leg pain symptoms. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire that measures the severity of symptoms that impact on function and sports ability in patients with exercise-induced leg pain.
Methods The exercise-induced leg pain questionnaire for German-speaking patients (EILP-G) was developed in five steps: (1) initial item generation, (2) item reduction, (3) pretesting, (4) expert meeting and (5) validation. The resulting EILP-G was tested for reliability, validity and internal consistency in 20 patients with exercise-induced leg pain, 20 asymptomatic track and field athletes serving as a population at risk and 33 asymptomatic sport students.
Results The patient group scored the EILP-G questionnaire significantly lower than both control groups (each p<0.001). Test–retest demonstrates an excellent reliability in all tested groups (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC=0.861–0.987). Concurrent validity of the EILP-G questionnaire showed a substantial agreement when correlated with the chronic exertional compartment syndrome classification system of Schepsis (r=−0.743; p<0.001). Internal consistency for the EILP-G questionnaire was 0.924.
Conclusions EILP-G questionnaire is a valid and reliable self-administered and disease-related outcome tool to measure the severity of symptoms that impact on function and sports ability in patients with exercise-induced leg pain. It can be recommended as a robust tool for measuring the subjectively perceived severity in German-speaking patients with exercise-induced leg pain.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · British Journal of Sports Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pivot shift test is a cornerstone in the clinical diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. It can be difficult to perform in overweight patients or in those with long or bulky legs. We present an alternative method to perform the pivot shift test that recalls the judo technique of figure-of-four knee lock and eases the examination of the patient with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. This modality of execution also makes the surgeon able to perform varus-valgus tests with small changes in hand positions. The surgeon, embracing with one arm the tibia of the affected limb, grasps with this hand the wrist of his free arm opposite to the affected limb. Then the surgeon hooks onto the posterior surface of the leg with his free hand. In this way, the surgeon can exert a moment on the limb of the patient, and can apply combined internal rotation, flexion, and valgus stress to perform the pivot shift test or simply varus or valgus force to perform the varus-valgus tests.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Bulletin of the NYU hospital for joint diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) usually refers to myoneural ischemia from a reversible increase in tissue pressure within a myofascial compartment. CECS of the leg is well documented, as its first description by Mavor in 1956. CECS of the foot remains underdiagnosed, and has been reported in the literature only on an anecdotal basis. Wood Jones proposed that there were 4 compartments in the foot, but Manoli and Weber suggest that there are 9 separate compartments. Clinical signs and symptoms of CECS of the foot remain vague, diverse, and lack the consistency of its counterpart in the leg. The most effective treatment is a fasciotomy. We present a literature review of the condition to increase the awareness and high index of suspicion among the clinicians as the symptoms are often vague and, to consider the condition as part of the differential diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Sports medicine and arthroscopy review
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated differences in the intracompartmental pressures (ICP) of the leg in relation to various positions of the ankle joint in patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS).
The study included 16 patients (10 males, 6 females; mean age 30+/-9 years, range 16 to 48 years) actively involved in various sports. Intracompartmental pressures were monitored with the use of slit catheters connected to a pressure transducer in 28 anterior and 14 deep posterior compartments before and after exercise during the following positions of the ankle joint: relaxed-resting, passive plantar flexion, neutral, and passive dorsiflexion. Alterations in ICP were assessed with reference to that measured in the relaxed-resting position of the ankle.
Significant increases in ICP were observed in both anterior and deep posterior compartments during dorsiflexion of the ankle, being 9.1+/-10.6 mmHg (p=0.0001) and 8+/-10.3 mmHg (p=0.001) in the anterior compartment, and 6.4+/-4.4 mmHg (p=0.0001) and 7.2+/-4.3 mmHg (p=0.001) in the deep posterior compartment before and after exercise, respectively. No significant increases were found in other positions of the ankle (p>0.05). While the lowest values of ICP were noted in the relaxed-resting position, plantar flexion of the ankle was associated with decreased ICP pressures.
Dorsiflexion of the ankle increases ICP significantly in both anterior and deep posterior compartments. The results of this study may have clinical implications for the conservative management of both CECS and tibial fractures.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the middle term outcome in male and female patients who underwent surgery for chronic recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy.
We tried to match each of the 58 female patients with a diagnosis of tendinopathy of the main body of the Achilles tendon with a male patient with tendinopathy of the main body of the Achilles tendon who was within two years of age at the time of operation. A match accordingly was possible for 41 female subjects.
Female patients were shorter and lighter than male patients. They had similar BMI, lower calf circumference, similar side-to-side calf circumference differences, and greater subcutaneous body fat than men. Of the 41 sedentary patients, only 25 reported an excellent or good result. Of these, three had undergone a further exploration of the Achilles tendon. The remaining patients could not return to their normal levels of activity despite prolonged supervised post-operative physiotherapy, with cryotherapy, massage, ultrasound, pulsed magnetic, and laser therapy.
Females experience more prolonged recovery, more complications, and a greater risk of further surgery than males with recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Disability and Rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the outcome of surgery for chronic recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy in nonathletic and athletic subjects.
University teaching hospitals.
We matched each of the 61 nonathletic patients with a diagnosis of tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon with an athletic patient with tendinopathy of the main body of the Achilles tendon of the same sex and age (+/-2 years). A match was possible for 56 patients (23 males and 33 females). Forty-eight nonathletic subjects and 45 athletic subjects agreed to participate.
Open surgery for Achilles tendinopathy.
Outcome of surgery, return to sport, complication rate.
Nonathletic patients were shorter and heavier than athletic patients. They had greater body mass index, calf circumference, side-to-side calf circumference differences, and subcutaneous body fat than athletic patients. Of the 48 nonathletic patients, 9 underwent further surgery during the study period, and only 25 reported an excellent or good result. Of the 45 athletic subjects, 4 underwent further surgery during the study period, and 36 reported an excellent or good result. The remaining patients could not return to their normal levels of activity. In all of them, pain significantly interfered with daily activities.
Nonathletic subjects experience more prolonged recovery, more complications, and a greater risk of further surgery than athletic subjects with recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To ascertain whether there are differences in the histopathological appearance of tendinopathic Achilles and patellar tendons.
In males, we studied biopsies from tendinopathic Achilles (N = 28; average age 34.1 yr) and patellar tendons (N = 28; average age 32.1), Achilles tendons (N = 21; average age 61.8 yr) from deceased patients with no known tendon pathology, and patellar tendons (N = 15; average age 28.3) from patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Hematoxylineosin stained slides were interpreted using a semiquantitative grading scale (0: normal to 3: maximally abnormal) for fiber structure, fiber arrangement, rounding of the nuclei, regional variations in cellularity, increased vascularity, decreased collagen stainability, and hyalinization. All slides were assessed blindly twice, the agreement between two readings ranging from 0.170 to 0.750 (kappa statistics).
The highest mean score of tendinopathic Achilles tendons was not significantly different from that of tendinopathic patellar tendons (11.6 +/- 5 and 10.4 +/- 3, respectively). The ability to differentiate between an Achilles tendon and a patellar tendon was low.
Tendinopathic Achilles and patellar tendons show a similar histological picture. It was not possible to identify whether a specimen had been harvested from an Achilles or a patellar tendon on the basis of histological examination. The general pattern of degeneration was common to both tendinopathic Achilles and patellar tendons. A common, as yet unidentified, etiopathological mechanism may have acted on both these tendon populations.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the study was to report the prevalence of the lesions of the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles and tibial plateau in patients with a symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee undergoing day-case arthroscopy.
Case series study.
We studied 378 skeletally mature patients (average age, 27.3 years; range, 16-50 years; 282 men and 84 women), part of a sample of 1,978 patients undergoing a primary knee arthroscopy between January 1986 and August 1993. The articular cartilage lesions were classified according to Outerbridge by a single observer. We assessed the relationship between time of injury and articular cartilage lesions and between meniscal lesions and articular cartilage lesions.
A complete ACL tear was found in all 378 knees. Of these, 157 showed at least one lesion of the articular cartilage. The medial femoral condyle (MFC) showed the highest frequency of articular cartilage lesions, especially in the weight-bearing portion. Patients with a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus had greater degeneration of the MFC than those with other meniscal tears. A meniscal tear was associated with a greater degree of articular damage. The second most common lesion was a combined lesion of the medial and lateral compartments, followed by isolated lateral compartment lesion. A time-dependent pattern of development of articular cartilage lesions was identified.
In patients with more advanced degenerative changes, the time from injury to arthroscopy was significantly longer than in patients with lesser articular surface abnormalities, and the presence of a meniscal tear was associated with a greater degree of articular cartilage damage. Patients with a symptomatic ACL-deficient knee and an associated tear of the medial meniscus are at high risk of having a lesion of the articular surface of the weight bearing area of the knee.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and predictive value of palpation of the painful arc sign and of the Royal London Hospital test in 10 patients with Achilles tendinopathy and in 14 asymptomatic subjects.
University teaching hospital.
Ten male athletes on the waiting list for exploration of one of their Achilles tendons for tendinopathy of the main body of the tendon attended a special clinic. Each was invited to bring at least one athlete of the same sex in the same discipline aged within 2 years of themselves with no history and no symptoms of Achilles tendinopathy. A total of 14 controls were thus recruited.
Pain and tenderness following performance of palpation, the painful arc sign, and the Royal London Hospital test.
There were no statistically significant differences at the 5% level among the effects of investigator or between morning and afternoon measurements for any of the three measurement methods. There was no evidence of a difference of the three assessment methods (p > 0.05). When the three methods were combined, the overall sensitivity was 0.586 (confidence interval [CI], 0.469-0.741), and the overall specificity was 0.833 (CI, 0.758-0.889).
In patients with tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon with a tender area of intratendinous swelling that moves with the tendon and whose tenderness significantly decreases or disappears when the tendon is put under tension, a clinical diagnosis of tendinopathy can be formulated, with a high positive predictive chance that the tendon will show ultrasonographic and histologic features of tendinopathy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patellar tendon injuries constitute a significant problem in a wide variety of sports. Despite the morbidity associated with patellar tendinopathy, its management is often anecdotal, with no evidence-based protocols available. This article summarizes the clinical features, describes recent advances in investigation of this condition, and outlines conservative and surgical treatment options.
(C) 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the results of surgery for tendinopathy of the main body of the patellar tendon.
A teaching hospital of the University of London.
Twenty-eight patients reviewed at an average follow-up of 42 months from surgery for tendinopathy of the main body of the patellar tendon after failed conservative treatment.
Exploration of the affected patellar tendon, stripping of the paratenon, excision of pathological areas, and multiple longitudinal tenotomies.
Postoperative complications, ability to return to sport, and subjective satisfaction, as measured by formal clinical assessment or telephone questionnaire.
At follow-up, 23 patients were completely free of pain and had resumed full sporting activity at the same preoperative level. Three patients were improved enough to have returned to their preoperative sporting level or just below it. In two patients, the initial operation failed. In the patients who resumed sport, the average time from surgery to resuming full sporting activity was 7 months (range 6 weeks to 12 months). The most common early postoperative complications were wound hematoma and superficial infection. The most common late complications were related to the incision, with anterior knee pain on kneeling and skin dysesthesia.
Surgical decompression of the patellar tendon with multiple longitudinal tenotomies is an effective treatment for patellar tendinopathy. In the middle term, patients do not seem to relapse once they have recovered, whereas those who do not respond to surgery do not recover at all and may need a new operation.
No preview · Article · May 1999 · Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report three athletes with symptomatic isolated ganglion of the anterior cruciate ligament. The symptoms consisted of anteromedial knee pain, worse when changing direction while running, and on squatting. All gave a history of repeated minor knee trauma without a single episode of serious injury. At day-case arthroscopy, a unilobulated cystic mass arising from a clinically and arthroscopically intact anterior cruciate ligament was noted and removed in each case. No further intra- or extra-articular knee lesion was seen. Histology revealed a cystic ganglion in each case. With early physiotherapy, the patients could start gentle training 3 wk after arthroscopy, and, at 6-month review, were fully asymptomatic. A review of the literature shows that an isolated ganglion arising from the anterior cruciate ligament is exceedingly rare, with only three such ganglia having been previously reported.
No preview · Article · Jun 1993 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sporting activities impose on the skeletal system forces of a high intensity and frequency. Ligaments, bone and tendons behave in a time-dependent load-extension fashion, and it is important for both scientists and clinicians to consider, for example, the alterations in failure properties shown by ligaments, tendons and bone at different rates of deformation. Whether the ability of the skeletal system to withstand stress can be improved with appropriate training is still controversial. The effects of physical exercise depend on the modality, intensity and duration with which the exercise itself is performed. Moreover, genetic factors, also influencing growth and hormonal status, may exert a significant influence on the response of a given tissue to an external load. Overloading may cause a lesion, and this may decrease or annihilate performance capability. The skeletal system may not be resistant enough, and so it may prove limiting to intensive physical activity. In vitro studies on resistance of a single tissue have not taken into consideration the specific resistance of that structure in vivo, and the results so obtained cannot be readily extrapolated to sporting activities, as in vivo muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and cartilage act as one. This article reviews some of the possible beneficial and detrimental effects of intense exercise on various components of the skeletal system, focusing on its ability to withstand and adapt to stresses and allow maximal performance.