[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacological activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibit growth of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro and in xenograft models. Because these agents engage off-target pathways, we have assessed the effects of PPARgamma by overexpressing the protein in NSCLC cells. We reported previously that increased PPARgamma inhibits transformed growth and invasiveness and promotes epithelial differentiation in a panel of NSCLC expressing oncogenic K-Ras. These cells express high levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and produce high levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The goal of these studies was to identify the molecular mechanisms whereby PPARgamma inhibits tumorigenesis. Increased PPARgamma inhibited expression of COX-2 protein and promoter activity, resulting in decreased PGE(2) production. Suppression of COX-2 was mediated through increased activity of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog, leading to decreased levels of phospho-Akt and inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activity. Pharmacological inhibition of PGE(2) production mimicked the effects of PPARgamma on epithelial differentiation in three-dimensional culture, and exogenous PGE(2) reversed the effects of increased PPARgamma activity. Transgenic mice overexpressing PPARgamma under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter had reduced expression of COX-2 in type II cells and were protected against developing lung tumors in a chemical carcinogenesis model. These data indicate that high levels of PGE(2) as a result of elevated COX-2 expression are critical for promoting lung tumorigenesis and that the antitumorigenic effects of PPARgamma are mediated in part through blocking this pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wnt signaling pathway is critical in normal development, and mutation of specific components is frequently observed in carcinomas of diverse origins. However, the potential involvement of this pathway in lung tumorigenesis has not been established. In this study, analysis of multiple Wnt mRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and primary lung tumors revealed markedly decreased Wnt-7a expression compared with normal short-term bronchial epithelial cell lines and normal uninvolved lung tissue. Wnt-7a transfection in NSCLC cell lines reversed cellular transformation, decreased anchorage-independent growth, and induced epithelial differentiation as demonstrated by soft agar and three-dimensional cell culture assays in a subset of the NSCLC cell lines. The action of Wnt-7a correlated with expression of the specific Wnt receptor Frizzled-9 (Fzd-9), and transfection of Fzd-9 into a Wnt-7a-insensitive NSCLC cell line established Wnt-7a sensitivity. Moreover, Wnt-7a was present in Fzd-9 immunoprecipitates, indicating a direct interaction of Wnt-7a and Fzd-9. In NSCLC cells, Wnt-7a and Fzd-9 induced both cadherin and Sprouty-4 expression and stimulated the JNK pathway, but not beta-catenin/T cell factor activity. In addition, transfection of gain-of-function JNK strongly inhibited anchorage-independent growth. Thus, this study demonstrates that Wnt-7a and Fzd-9 signaling through activation of the JNK pathway induces cadherin proteins and the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sprouty-4 and represents a novel tumor suppressor pathway in lung cancer that is required for maintenance of epithelial differentiation and inhibition of transformed cell growth in a subset of human NSCLCs.
Preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacological activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR(gamma)) have been shown to inhibit growth of lung tumors largely through growth inhibition and induction of apopotosis. However, since many of these agents engage other effectors, the role of (PPAR(gamma) in lung tumorigenesis remains poorly defined. To specifically examine PPAR(gamma)-mediated events, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells overexpressing PPAR(gamma) were established. Overexpression of PPAR(gamma) in H2122 adenocarcinoma cells (H2122-PPAR(gamma)) blocked anchorage-independent growth compared to cells transfected with empty vector (H2122-LNCX), but had no significant effect on cell proliferation or apoptosis under standard tissue culture conditions. Orthotopic implantation of H2122-PPAR(gamma) cells into the lungs of nude rats inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and prolonged survival compared to implantation of H2122-LNCX cells. Consistent with these findings, H2122-PPAR(gamma) cells had an impaired invasiveness as assessed in Transwell assays. In a three-dimensional culture system, H2122-PPAR(gamma) cells formed polarized spheroid structures similar to those observed with normal lung epithelial cells. H2122-LNCX cells formed nonpolarized aggregate structures and did not show any of these epithelial properties. These data indicate that inhibitory effects of PPAR(gamma) on lung tumorigenesis involve selective inhibition of invasive metastasis, and activation of pathways that promote a more differentiated epithelial phenotype.