[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate the effect of combined prophylactic ramosetron and total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), compared with sevoflurane anaesthesia without prophylactic antiemetics, in female patients undergoing thyroidectomy.
Female patients were randomized between the sevoflurane group (anaesthesia maintained with sevoflurane) or TIVA + ramosetron group (TIVAR; 0.3 mg ramosetron just before anaesthesia induction, remifentanil and propofol anaesthesia). Incidence and severity of PONV and use of rescue antiemetics were recorded during the first 24 h after surgery.
In the early postoperative period (0-6 h), the incidence of PONV, severe emesis and rescue antiemetic use were significantly lower in the TIVAR group (n = 36) than in the sevoflurane group (n = 36). In the late postoperative period (6-24 h), the incidence of severe emesis was significantly lower in the TIVAR group than in the sevoflurane group.
A combination of TIVA and prophylactic ramosetron decreases early PONV and late postoperative severe emesis compared with sevoflurane anaesthesia.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of international medical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study was designed to compare the quality assurance (QA) results of four dosimetric tools used for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to suggest universal criteria for the passing rate in QA, irrespective of the dosimetric tool used.
Materials and methods:
Thirty fields of IMRT plans from five patients were selected, followed by irradiation onto radiochromic film, a diode array (Mapcheck), an ion chamber array (MatriXX) and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for patient-specific QA. The measured doses from the four dosimetric tools were compared with the dose calculated by the treatment planning system. The passing rates of the four dosimetric tools were calculated using the gamma index method, using as criteria a dose difference of 3% and a distance-to-agreement of 3 mm.
The QA results based on Mapcheck, MatriXX and EPID showed good agreement, with average passing rates of 99.61%, 99.04% and 99.29%, respectively. However, the average passing rate based on film measurement was significantly lower, 95.88%. The average uncertainty (1 standard deviation) of passing rates for 6 intensity modulated fields was around 0.31 for film measurement, larger than those of the other three dosimetric tools.
QA results and consistencies depend on the choice of dosimetric tool. Universal passing rates should depend on the normalization or inter-comparisons of dosimetric tools if more than one dosimetric tool is used for patient specific QA.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Radiology and Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Friction in a post-tensioning system has a significant effect on the distribution of the prestressing force of tendons in prestressed concrete structures. However, attempts to derive friction coefficients using conventional electrical resistance strain gauges do not usually lead to reliable results, mainly due to the damage of sensors and lead wires during the insertion of strands into the sheath and during tensioning. In order to overcome these drawbacks of the existing measurement system, the Smart Strand was developed in this study to accurately measure the strain and prestressing force along the strand. In the Smart Strand, the core wire of a 7-wire strand is replaced with carbon fiber reinforced polymer in which the fiber Bragg grating sensors are embedded. As one of the applications of the Smart Strand, friction coefficients were evaluated using a full-scale test of a 20 m long beam. The test variables were the curvature, diameter, and filling ratio of the sheath. The analysis results showed the average wobble and curvature friction coefficients of 0.0038/m and 0.21/radian, respectively, which correspond to the middle of the range specified in ACI 318-08 in the U.S. and Structural Concrete Design Code in Korea. Also, the accuracy of the coefficients was improved by reducing the effective range specified in these codes by 27–34 %. This study shows the wide range of applicability of the developed Smart Strand system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prestressed concrete (PSC) is one of the most reliable, durable and widely used construction materials, which overcomes the weakness of concrete in tension by the introduction of a prestress force. Smart strands enabling measurement of the prestress force have recently been developed to maintain PSC structures throughout their lifetime. However, the smart strand cannot give a representative indication of the whole prestress force when used in multi-strand systems since each strand sustains a different prestress force. In this paper, the actual distribution of the prestress force in a multi-strand system is examined using elastomagnetic (EM) sensors to develop a method for tracking representative indicators of the prestress force using smart strands.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We develop a regenerable anti-fouling membrane via the formation of a dynamic peel-and-stick of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) layer onto the surface of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane, using thermo-responsive reversible covalent bonding. In order to attach a peelable-and-stickable hydrophlilic layer onto a membrane surface, a maleimide end-modified PEG layer is coupled with a furan-modified PTFE membrane by reversible Diels–Alder (DA) cycloaddition reaction. The combined results of attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) measurements clearly reveal that the maleimide end-modified PEG is successfully coupled with the furan-modified PTFE membrane surface by DA reaction. In addition, the hydrophilic PEG layer is readily and repeatedly reformed on the membrane surface by a thermally driven dynamic peel-and-stick process. The PEG-coupled PTFE membrane shows effective anti-fouling performance against a highly concentrated silica colloidal aqueous solution. In particular, the anti-fouling property is remarkably recovered after regeneration of the hydrophilic layer through the peel-and-stick process.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Membrane Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We develop an anti-scaling ultrafiltration/microfiltration (UF/MF) membrane by introducing a high-density positive charge to a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane to suppress membrane scaling in Ca2+/silica-rich wastewater. Positively charged modifiers are synthesized by conjugating an amphiphilic polymer (Brij S10) and branched poly(ethylene imine) (b-PEI) at various molar ratios, and these are then implanted to PVDF membranes during the phase-inversion process. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectra reveal that the positive modifiers successfully anchors onto the surface of the membrane by hydrophilic-hydrophobic phase recognition. As introducing the positive charge on the membrane surface, the membranes show positive surface charge and their pure water permeability (PWP) increases due to the protonation of b-PEI. Anti-scaling properties are also confirmed to be improved by filtration tests using a metal ions/silica-rich feed solution, which results from the repulsion of metal ion by the positively charged branch on the membrane. In addition, the water flux recovery by simple membrane backwashing of the modified membrane is double that of the neat PVDF membrane.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Membrane Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Locking of metacarpophalangeal joint (MPJ) of the index finger occurs when volar radial osteophytes of the metacarpal head catch the accessory collateral ligament. We devised a ligament-preserving approach to quickly restore the MPJ motion while protecting the radial collateral ligament.
We retrospectively reviewed the results of nine patients treated for a locked MPJ of the index finger. In three patients, closed reduction was successful. In six cases, volar radial osteophytes were excised from the metacarpal head using a ligament-preserving technique through a longitudinal incision on the radial side. We analyzed osteophyte shape and height as demonstrated by X-ray and computed tomography (CT). Function was evaluated by examining the range of motion, recurrence, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, and MPJ stability based on the key pinch strength. One male and eight female patients were followed for an average of 33 months (range, 12 to 65 months); the average age of patients was 41 years (range, 34 to 47 years). The average duration of locking of the MPJ was 23 days (range, 1 to 53 days).
The sharp type of osteophytes was identified in six patients and the blunt type of osteophytes was indentified in three patients. The average height of radial osteophytes on the index finger metacarpal was 4.6 ± 0.4 mm in the axial CT image. At the final follow-up, the average extension limitation decreased from 26° (range, 10° to 45°) to 0°, and further flexion increased from 83° (range, 80° to 90°) to 86°. There was no recurrent locking after surgery. The DASH score improved from 24.3 to 7.2. Key pinch strength improved from 67.3% to 90.4%.
We obtained satisfactory outcomes in irreducible locking of the MPJ of the index finger by excising volar radial osteophytes of the metacarpal head using a ligament-preserving approach.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinics in orthopedic surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prestressed Concrete Wire and Strand (PC) strands are the most used materials to introduce prestress in a Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) structure. However, it is difficult to evaluate the final prestress force of the PC strand after prestressing or its residual prestress force after completion of the structure on site. This impossibility to assess eventual loss of prestress of the PC strand has resulted in a number of serious accidents and even in the collapse of several structures. This situation stresses the necessity to maintain the prestress force residual or after prestressing for the evaluation of the health of the concrete structure throughout its lifespan. Recently, several researchers have studied methods enabling one to verify the prestress force by inserting an optical fiber sensor inside the strand but failed to provide simple techniques for the fabrication of these devices to fulfill measurement performance from the design prestress to failure. Moreover, these methods require the additional installation of electrical resistance strain gages, displacement sensors and load cells on the outer surface of the structure for long-term precise measurement. This paper proposes a method enabling one to evaluate precisely and effectively the prestress force of the PC strand and intends to verify the applicability of the proposed method on actual concrete structures. To that end, an innovative PC strand is developed by embedding a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in the core wire of the PC strand so as to enable short term as well as long term monitoring. The measurement performance of the developed strand is then evaluated experimentally and the reliability of the monitoring data is assessed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of two levels (1.4 vs 2.8%) of fresh garlic on lipid oxidation and microbial growth in pork patties were evaluated. Hunter color (L, a, b), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative volatile compounds, total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in the pork patties with or without fresh garlic were measured during storage at 4 C. Addition of fresh garlic decreased redness (a), while increased pH and yellowness (b) values of the fresh pork patties were observed, regardless of the levels added. The TBARS values of the pork patties were increased with the addition of fresh garlic (p< 0.05). Similar results were observed in oxidative volatile compounds. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected in the patties (5 sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl-(E)-propenyl-disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, and the 8 other oxidative compounds, including 1-pentanol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-octenal and nonanal). Fresh garlic accelerated development of oxidative products in the pork patties, especially hexanal and the total oxidative volatile compounds. However, the addition of 1.4 and 2.8% of fresh garlic inhibited the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, indicating low total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae than the controls.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Hangug chugsan sigpum haghoeji = Korean journal for food science of animal resources
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional laser accelerated proton beam has broad energy spectra. It is not suitable for clinical use directly, so it is necessary for employing energy selection system. However, in the conventional laser accelerated proton system, the intensity of the proton beams in the low energy regime is higher than that in the high energy regime. Thus, to generate spread-out-Bragg peak (SOBP), stronger weighting value to the higher energy proton beams is needed and weaker weighting value to the lower energy proton beams is needed, which results in the wide range of weighting values. The purpose of this research is to investigate a method for efficient generating of the SOBP with varying magnetic field in the energy selection system using a carbon-proton mixture target. Energy spectrum of the laser accelerated proton beams was acquired using Particle-In-Cell simulations. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was implemented for energy selection, particle transportation, and dosimetric property measurement. The energy selection collimator hole size of the energy selection system was changed from 1 to 5 mm in order to investigate the effect of hole size on the dosimetric properties for Bragg peak and SOBP. To generate SOBP, magnetic field in the energy selection system was changed during beam irradiation with each beam weighting factor. In this study, our results suggest that carbon-proton mixture target based laser accelerated proton beams can generate quasi-monoenergetic energy distribution and result in the efficient generation of SOBP. A further research is needed to optimize SOBP according to each range and modulated width using an optimized weighting algorithm.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Australasian physical & engineering sciences in medicine / supported by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists in Medicine and the Australasian Association of Physical Sciences in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the results of basic tests conducted to evaluate the flexural behavior of lap-spliced joints that exploit the remarkable bonding performance of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) are presented. The effects of varying the lap-spliced length and joint length on the flexural behavior of the test members were examined. The failure pattern, load–deflection relationship, and load–strain relationship obtained by the static loading test were then analyzed with respect to the details of the joints. The results suggest lower bounds for the major test variables. A modified model, which considers the bonding performance of UHPC at the joint interface and the yield behavior of the reinforcement, is suggested on the basis of analytical models proposed for UHPC sections in previous studies. The corresponding results for this model are then compared with the test results.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum condition for the manufacture of these products. Medium-fat (∼15%) fermented sausages reduced the drying time and cholesterol contents, as compared to regular-fat counterparts. In proximate analysis, the contents of moisture and protein of regular-fat products were lower than medium-fat with reduced fat content. The regular-fat products also had a lighter color and less redness, due to reduced fat content. Approximately 35 volatile compounds were identified in functional fermented sausages, and hexanal, trans-caryophyllene, and tetradecanal were the major volatile compounds. Selected mixed starter culture showed the potential possibility of replacing the commercial starter culture (LK30 plus) in flavor profiles. However, medium-fat fermented sausage containing selected mixed starter culture tended to be less acceptable than their high-fat counterparts, due to excess dry ring developed in the surface. These results indicate that the use of combinations of L. plantarum 115 and 167, and P. damnosus L12 as a starter culture, will prove useful for manufacturing the fermented sausage.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Hangug chugsan sigpum haghoeji = Korean journal for food science of animal resources
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate the differences between the tensile stress-crack opening relationships of the small size notched beam and the real size beam which were made of two ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) having different volume fractions and lengths of fibers. The stress-crack opening relationships of two UHPFRCs were first obtained from the inverse analysis for the small size notched beam tests. In addition, the three types of real size beams were manufactured for each mix: (1) plain beam, (2) beam with tensile reinforcement, and (3) beam with both tensile and compressive reinforcements. The flexural tests of the plain and reinforced beams were conducted up to a failure state. The load-deflection curves of the plain and reinforced UHPFRC beams calculated based on the tensile stress-crack opening relationship of the notched beams did not give an accurate prediction on the measured load-deflection curves of the real size beams. The tensile stress-crack relationships accurately fitting the measured load-deflection curves were additionally found, and the difference in the tensile stress-crack opening relationships of the small size notched beams and the real size beams was analyzed in this study.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Computers, Materials and Continua
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
We evaluated the glass dosimeter suitability as an external audit program in proton therapy beam. A feasibility test of the glass dosimeter postal dose intercomparison was performed for high-energy proton beam use in radiation oncology with the collaboration of five proton therapy centers (Shizuoka Cancer Center, University of Florida Proton Center, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine).
Material and methods
The dosimetric properties of a GD-301 glass dosimeter were investigated for its potential use for postal dosimetry. Measurements were performed in a water phantom using a stair-like holder specially designed for this study. The depth-dose distribution measured with the glass dosimeter was compared to those from GEANT4 Monte-Carlo simulation. The GEANT4 code was also used to simulate the influence of holder material in the absorbed dose by inserting the glass dosimeter in a water phantom within the stair-like holder. We investigated the methodology of the absorbed dose determination with the glass dosimeter system establishing the calibration factor and various correction factors (non-linearity, fading, energy, holder). The participating proton therapy centers were asked to irradiate the glass dosimeter to 2 Gy with similar setup and conditions.
The repeatability and dose rate dependence is within 1.2% and 1.5%, respectively. Depth-dose distributions in the pristine Bragg curve and the spread-out Bragg curve were estimated to be within 3%, compared with depth-dose measured with the ionization chamber. The difference in absorbed dose between the glass dosimeter and ionization chamber was within ±2% as a function of proton beam quality, residual ranges were between 2.1 and 9.0 cm. The influence of the holder material in absorbed doses of the proton beams is less than 1%. In the accuracy evaluation of the glass dosimeter system established in blind test, we obtained within 2.5% agreements with the ionization chamber dosimetry for the proton beam. In this feasibility study, the results on the proton beam output check are relatively good within ±6% for all participating centers.
We believe that the glass dosimeter system has considerable potential to be used for a postal dose audit program in proton beam.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Radiation Measurements
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One-lung ventilation (OLV) is accomplished with a double-lumen tube (DLT) or a bronchial blocker (BB). The authors compared the effectiveness of lung collapse using DLT, BB, and BB with the disconnection technique.
Prospective, randomized, blind trial.
A university hospital.
Fifty-two patients undergoing elective pneumothorax surgery.
Patients were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: The DLT group (group 1), the BB group (group 2), and the BB with the disconnection technique group (group 3). The authors modified the disconnection technique in group 3 as follows: (1) turned off the ventilator and opened the adjustable pressure-limiting valve, allowing both lungs to collapse and (2) after loss of the CO2 trace on the capnograph, inflated the blocker cuff and turned on the ventilator, allowing only dependent-lung ventilation.
Five and ten minutes after OLV, the degree of lung collapse was assessed by the surgeon, who was blinded to the isolation technique. The quality of lung collapse at 5 and 10 minutes was significantly better in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2. No significant differences were observed for the degree of lung collapse at any time point between groups 1 and 3. The average time for loss of the CO2 trace on the capnograph was 32.3±7.0 seconds in group 3.
A BB with spontaneous collapse took longer to deflate and did not provide equivalent surgical exposure to the DLT. The disconnection technique could be helpful to accelerate lung collapse with a BB.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia