[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Mechanized dry seeded rice can save both labour and water resources. Rice seedling establishment is sensitive to sowing depth while mesocotyl elongation facilitates the emergence of deeply sown seeds.
A set of 270 rice accessions, including 170 from the mini-core collection of Chinese rice germplasm (C Collection) and 100 varieties used in a breeding program for drought resistance (D Collection), was screened for mesocotyl lengths of seedlings grown in water (MLw) in darkness and in 5 cm sand culture (MLs). Twenty six accessions (10.53 %) have MLw longer than 1.0 cm. Eleven accessions had the highest mesocotyl lengths, i.e. 1.4 - 5.05 cm of MLw and 3.0 - 6.4 cm in 10 cm sand culture, including 7 upland landraces or varieties. The genotypic data of 1,019,883 SNPs were developed by re-sequencing of those accessions. A whole-genome SNP array (Rice SNP50) was used to genotype 24 accessions as a validation panel, giving 98.41 % of consistent SNPs with the re-sequencing data in average. GWAS based on compressed mixed linear model was conducted using GAPIT. Based on a threshold of -log(P) ≥8.0, 13 loci were associated to MLw on rice chromosome 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9, respectively. Three associated loci, on chromosome 3, 6, and 10, were detected for MLs. A set of 99 associated SNPs for MLw, based on a compromised threshold (-log(P) ≥7.0), located in intergenic regions or different positions of 36 annotated genes, including one cullin and one growth regulating factor gene.
Higher proportion and extension of elongated mesocotyls were observed in the mini-core collection of rice germplasm and upland rice landraces or varieties, possibly causing the correlation between mesocotyl elongation and drought resistance. GWAS found 13 loci for mesocotyl length measured in dark germination that confirmed the previously reported co-location of two QTLs across populations and experiments. Associated SNPs hit 36 annotated genes including function-matching candidates like cullin and GRF. The germplasm with elongated mesocotyl, especially upland landraces or varieties, and the associated SNPs could be useful in further studies and breeding of mechanized dry seeded rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensive rice breeding over the past 50 y has dramatically increased productivity especially in the indica subspecies, but our knowledge of the genomic changes associated with such improvement has been limited. In this study, we analyzed low-coverage sequencing data of 1,479 rice accessions from 73 countries, including landraces and modern cultivars. We identified two major subpopulations, indica I (IndI) and indica II (IndII), in the indica subspecies, which corresponded to the two putative heterotic groups resulting from independent breeding efforts. We detected 200 regions spanning 7.8% of the rice genome that had been differentially selected between IndI and IndII, and thus referred to as breeding signatures. These regions included large numbers of known functional genes and loci associated with important agronomic traits revealed by genome-wide association studies. Grain yield was positively correlated with the number of breeding signatures in a variety, suggesting that the number of breeding signatures in a line may be useful for predicting agronomic potential and the selected loci may provide targets for rice improvement.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grain chalkiness is an important grain quality related to starch granules in the endosperm. A high percentage of grain chalkiness is a major problem because it diminishes grain quality in rice. Here, we report quantitative trait loci identification for grain chalkiness using high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of a chromosomal segment substitution line population in which each line carried one or a few introduced japonica cultivar Nipponbare segments in the genetic background of the indica cultivar ZS97. Ten quantitative trait loci regions were commonly identified for the percentage of grain chalkiness and the degree of endosperm chalkiness. The allelic effects at nine of these quantitative trait loci reduced grain chalkiness. Furthermore, a quantitative trait locus (qPGC8-2) on chromosome 8 was validated in a chromosomal segment substitution line-derived segregation population, and had a stable effect on chalkiness in a multiple-environment evaluation of the near-isogenic lines. Residing on the qPGC8-2 region, the isoamylase gene (ISA1) was preferentially expressed in the endosperm and revealed some nucleotide polymorphisms between two varieties, Nipponbare and ZS97. Transgenic lines with suppression of ISA1 by RNA interference produced grains with 20% more chalkiness than the control. The results support that the gene may underlie qPGC8-2 for grain chalkiness. The multiple-environment trials of the near-isogenic lines also show that combination of the favorable alleles such as the ISA1 gene for low chalkiness and the GS3 gene for long grains considerably improved grain quality of ZS97, which proves useful for grain quality improvement in rice breeding programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) hybrid rice has made a great contribution to the increase of rice yield globally. To facilitate the development of high-quality pairs of the wild abortive (WA) male sterile and maintainer lines, the genetic basis of fertility restoration of WA-CMS and stigma exsertion was investigated in this study using a testcross population with the WA-CMS background. Seed-setting rate and stigma exsertion rate were used as the indicators of the two traits, respectively. Results showed that four minor QTL regions from 9311 were responsible for the variation of seed-setting rate, while a few minor QTLs and epistatic QTL pairs influenced stigma exsertion rate. These results would be of great use in the development of high-quality pairs of WA male sterile and maintainer lines in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant metabolites are important to world food security in terms of maintaining sustainable yield and providing food with enriched phytonutrients. Here we report comprehensive profiling of 840 metabolites and a further metabolic genome-wide association study based on ∼6.4 million SNPs obtained from 529 diverse accessions of Oryza sativa. We identified hundreds of common variants influencing numerous secondary metabolites with large effects at high resolution. We observed substantial heterogeneity in the natural variation of metabolites and their underlying genetic architectures among different subspecies of rice. Data mining identified 36 candidate genes modulating levels of metabolites that are of potential physiological and nutritional importance. As a proof of concept, we functionally identified or annotated five candidate genes influencing metabolic traits. Our study provides insights into the genetic and biochemical bases of rice metabolome variation and can be used as a powerful complementary tool to classical phenotypic trait mapping for rice improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NCII design (North Carolina mating design II) has been widely applied in studies of combining ability and heterosis. The objective of our research was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, testcross numbers and heritability influence QTL analyses of combining ability and heterosis. A series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments with QTL mapping were then conducted for the base population performance, testcross population phenotypic values and the general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and Hmp (midparental heterosis) datasets. The results indicated that: (i) increasing the number of testers did not necessarily enhance the QTL detection power for GCA, but it was significantly related to the QTL effect. (ii) The QTLs identified in the base population may be different from those from GCA dataset. Similar phenomena can be seen from QTL detected in SCA and Hmp datasets. (iii) The QTL detection power for GCA ranked in the order of DH(RIL) based > F2 based > BC based NCII design, when the heritability was low. The recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (or DHs) allows more recombination and offers higher mapping resolution than other populations. Further, their testcross progeny can be repeatedly generated and phenotyped. Thus, RIL based (or DH based) NCII design was highly recommend for combining ability QTL analysis. Our results expect to facilitate selecting elite parental lines with high combining ability and for geneticists to research the genetic basis of combining ability.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant metabolites are crucial for both plant life and human nutrition. Despite recent advance in metabolomics, the genetic control of plant metabolome remains largely unknown. Here, we performed a genetic analysis of the rice metabolome that provided over 2,800 highly resolved metabolic quantitative trait loci for 900 metabolites. Distinct and overlapping accumulation patterns of metabolites were observed and complex genetic regulation of metabolism was revealed in two different tissues. We associated 24 candidate genes to various metabolic quantitative trait loci by data mining, including ones regulating important morphological traits and biological processes. The corresponding pathways were reconstructed by updating in vivo functions of previously identified and newly assigned genes. This study demonstrated a powerful tool and provided a vast amount of high-quality data for understanding the plasticity of plant metabolome, which may help bridge the gap between the genome and phenome.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The size of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) grains has been altered by both domestication and artificial selection over the course of evolutionary history. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain size have been cloned in the past 10 yr. To explore the natural variation in these QTLs, resequencing of grain width and weight 2 (GW2), grain size 5 (GS5) and QTL for seed width 5 (qSW5) and genotyping of grain size 3 (GS3) were performed in the germplasms of 127 varieties of rice (O. sativa) and 10-15 samples of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). Ten, 10 and 15 haplotypes were observed for GW2, GS5 and qSW5. qSW5 and GS3 had the strongest effects on grain size, which have been widely utilized in rice production, whereas GW2 and GS5 showed more modest effects. GS5 showed small sequence variations in O. sativa germplasm and that of its progenitor O. rufipogon. qSW5 exhibited the highest level of nucleotide diversity. GW2 showed signs of purifying selection. The four grain size genes experienced different selection intensities depending on their genetic effects. In the indica population, linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected among GS3, qSW5 and GS5. The substantial genetic variation in these four genes provides the flexibility needed to design various rice grain shapes. These findings provide insight into the evolutionary features of grain size genes in rice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LC-MS-based metabolomics has been facilitated by the construction of MS2 spectral tag (MS2T) library from the total scan ESI MS/MS data, and the development of widely targeted metabolomics method using MS/MS data gathered from authentic standards. In this report, a novel strategy called stepwise multiple ion monitoring-enhanced product ions (stepwise MIM-EPI) was developed to construct the MS2T library, in which stepwise MIM was used as survey scans to trigger the acquisition of EPI. A total number of 698 (almost) non-redundant metabolites with MS(2) spectra were obtained, of which 135 metabolites were identified/annotated. Integrating the data gathered from our MS2T library and other available multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) information, a widely targeted metabolomics method was developed to quantify 277 metabolites, including some phytohormones. Evaluation the dehydration responses and natural variations of these metabolites in rice leaf not only suggested the coordinated regulation of ABA with metabolites such as serotonin derivative(s), polyamine conjugates under drought stress, and also revealed some C-glycosylated flavones as the potential markers for the discrimination of indica and japonica rice subspecies. The new MS2T library construction and widely targeted metabolomics strategy could be used as a tool for rice functional genomics.