Akira Ishida

Akita University, Akita, Akita, Japan

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Publications (48)146.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Electrocardiogram (ECG) and impedance pneumography (IPG), the most widely used techniques for cardiorespiratory monitoring in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), have the disadvantage of causing skin damage when used for very premature newborn infants. To prevent skin damage, we designed a new piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sensor. To assess the potential of the PZT sensor for cardiorespiratory monitoring in the NICU. The PZT sensor was placed under a folded towel under a neonate to detect an acoustic cardiorespiratory signal, from which heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR) were calculated, together with simultaneous ECG/IPG recording for 1-9 days for long and brief (1-min) assessment. The brief assessment showed average correlation coefficients of 0.92 +/- 0.12 and 0.95 +/- 0.02 between instantaneous HRs/BRs detected by the PZT sensor and ECG/IPG in 27 and 11 neonates examined. During the long assessment, the HR detection rate by the PZT sensor was approximately 10% lower than that by ECG (82.6 +/- 12.9 vs. 91.8 +/- 4.1%; p = 0.001, n = 27), although comparable (90.3 +/- 4.1 vs. 92.5 +/- 3.4%, p = 0.081) in approximately 70% (18/27) of neonates examined; BR detection rate was comparable between the PZT sensor and IPG during relatively stable signal conditions (95.9 +/- 4.0 vs. 95.3 +/- 3.5%; p = 0.38, n = 11). The PZT sensor caused neither skin damage nor body movement increase in all neonates examined. The PZT sensor is noninvasive and does not cause skin irritation, and we believe it does provide a reliable, accurate cardiorespiratory monitoring tool for use in the NICU, although the issue of mechanical-ventilation noise remains to be solved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Neonatology
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    ABSTRACT: Ascorbic acid (AA) is a potent antioxidant, and its neuroprotective effect has not been established yet. Using the Rice-Vannucci model, we examined the effect of AA on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in the immature rat brain. Under isoflurane anesthesia, 7-day-old rat pups received 750 mg/kg of AA by intraperitoneal injection just before hypoxic exposure; 8% oxygen for 90 min. Vehicle controls received an equal volume of saline. AA decreased a macroscopic brain injury score at 48 and 168 h post-HI compared with vehicle controls (48 h post-HI, AA 1.38+/-0.45 vs. controls 2.94+/-0.24, p<0.05; 168 h post-HI, 1.13+/-0.44 vs. 2.50+/-0.25, p<0.05). AA injection significantly decreased the number of both necrotic and apoptotic cells in cortex, caudate putamen, thalamus and hippocampus, and also seemed to reduce the number of TUNEL-positive cells. Western blot analysis showed that AA significantly suppressed 150/145 kDa subunits of alpha-fodrin breakdown products (FBDP) in cortex, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus at 24 and 48 h post-HI, and also 120 kDa subunit of FBDP in all examined regions except for thalamus, which indicated that AA injection inhibited both calpain and caspase-3 activation. Western blot analysis of nitrotyrosine failed to show inhibition of free radical production by AA, however, our results show that AA inhibits both necrotic and apoptotic cell death and that AA is neuroprotective after HI in immature rat brain.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: The child's brain is more malleable or plastic than that of adults and this accounts for the ability of children to learn new skills quickly or recovery from brain injuries. Several mechanisms contribute to this ability including overproduction and deletion of neurons and synapses, and activity-dependent stabilization of synapses. The molecular mechanisms for activity-dependent synaptic plasticity are being discovered and this is leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several disorders including neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, Fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome. Many of the same pathways involved in synaptic plasticity, such as glutamate-mediated excitation, can also mediate brain injury when the brain is exposed to stress or energy failure such as hypoxia-ischemia. Recent evidence indicates that cell death pathways activated by injury differ between males and females. This new information about the molecular pathways involved in brain plasticity and injury are leading to insights that will provide better therapies for pediatric neurological disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Brain & development
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    ABSTRACT: Down syndrome with transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) is often associated with perinatal liver fibrosis. The authors recently encountered an autopsy case of this disease with a characteristic severe perisinusoidal liver fibrosis. Osteopontin (OPN) is a molecule that plays an important role in diverse fibro-inflammatory diseases. The purpose of the present report was to examine the involvement of OPN in development of the Down syndrome-associated liver fibrosis. Histology indicated severe perisinusoidal fibrosis and ductular arrangements of hepatocytes in the liver. Appearance of atypical megakaryocytes in the liver, a feature of TMD associated with Down syndrome, was not evident. On immunohistochemistry expression of OPN was observed in hepatocytes often having ductular arrangements and infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, a small number of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-positive mononuclear cells were present in the liver. Numerous activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were seen in the perisinusoidal area. A recent report indicated that OPN could directly activate the HSC. Thus, it is suggested that OPN produced by hepatocytes and macrophages induces activation of the HSC, and leads to the development of perisinusoidal liver fibrosis.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Pathology International
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report a case of aseptic meningitis associated with cephalosporins in an infant. A 1-year-old boy with trisomy 21 received several antimicrobials including cefotaxime and ceftriaxone for bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae b. High fever continued for more than a month, and discontinuation of cefotaxime broke the fever and improved the findings of cerebrospinal fluid. Because third-generation cephalosporins are the first choice against bacterial meningitis for infants, recognition and diagnosis of this rare occurrence of drug-induced aseptic meningitis is important. It is treatable by withdrawal of the drug, and recurrence can be prevented.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Child Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal cell damage following hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is partly caused by production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ascorbic acid (AA) is a potent antioxidant, which scavenges various types of ROS. Some studies have shown that it is neuroprotective, however, the issue is still controversial. In this study, we examined the effect of intraventricular AA administration on immature HI brain using the Rice-Vannucci model. After unilateral carotid artery ligation under isoflurane anesthesia, 7-day-old rat pups received varying concentrations of AA (0.04, 0.2, 1 and 5 mg/kg) by intraventricular injection and were exposed to 8% oxygen for 90 min. Vehicle controls received an equal volume of phosphate saline buffer. We assessed the neuroprotective effect of AA at 7 days post-HI. The percent brain damage measured by comparing the wet weight of the ligated side of hemisphere with that of contralateral one was reduced in both 1 and 5 mg/kg groups but not in either 0.04 or 0.2 mg/kg groups compared to vehicle controls (5 mg/kg 16.0 +/- 4.3%, 1 mg/kg 10.9 +/- 5.0%, vs. controls 36.7 +/- 3.6%, P < 0.05). Macroscopic evaluation of brain injury revealed the neuroprotective effect of AA in both 1 and 5 mg/kg groups (5 mg/kg 1.1 +/- 0.4, 1 mg/kg 0.4 +/- 0.3, vs. controls 2.9 +/- 0.3, P < 0.05). Western blots of fodrin on the ligated side also showed that AA significantly suppressed 150/145-kDa bands of fodrin breakdown products, which suggested that AA suppressed activation of calpain. Neuropathological quantitative analysis of cell death revealed that 1 mg/kg of AA injection significantly reduced the number of necrotic cells in cortex, caudate putamen, thalamus and hippocampus CA1, whereas that of apoptotic cells was only reduced in cortex. These findings show that intraventricular AA injection is neuroprotective after HI in immature rats.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: Although hypothermia is an effective treatment for perinatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, it remains unclear how long and how deep we need to maintain hypothermia to obtain maximum neuroprotection. We examined effects of prolonged hypothermia on HI immature rat brain and its protective mechanisms using the Rice-Vannucci model. Immediately after the end of hypoxic exposure, the pups divided into a hypothermia group (30 degrees C) and a normothermia one (37 degrees C). Rectal temperature was maintained until they were sacrificed at each time point before 72h post HI. Prolonged hypothermia significantly reduced macroscopic brain injury compared with normothermia group. Quantitative analysis of cell death using H&E-stained sections revealed the number of both apoptotic and necrotic cells was significantly reduced by hypothermia after 24h post HI. Hypothermia seemed to decrease the number of TUNEL-positive cells. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot showed that prolonged hypothermia suppressed cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol and activation of both caspase-3 and calpain in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and striatum throughout the experiment. These results showed that prolonged hypothermia significantly reduced neonatal brain injury even when it was started after HI insult. Our results suggest that prolonged hypothermia protects neonatal brain after HI by reducing both apoptosis and necrosis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Brain and Development
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    ABSTRACT: MDL 28170 is a CNS-penetrating calpain inhibitor, and we examined the effects of MDL 28170 on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in immature brain using the Rice-Vannucci model. Immediately after hypoxic exposure, 24 mg/kg of MDL 28170 was injected intraperitoneally as an initial dose, followed by 12 mg/kg every 4 h for a total dose of 60 mg/kg over 12 h post-HI. A vehicle control group received peanut oil injection instead. Macroscopic evaluation of brain injury revealed the neuroprotective effect of MDL 28170 after 12 h post-HI. Neuropathological quantitative analysis of cell death showed that MDL 28170 significantly decreased the number of necrotic cells in all the examined regions except for cingular cortex, and the number of apoptotic cells in caudate putamen, parietal cortex, hippocampus CA1, and laterodorsal thalamus. Western blots showed that MDL 28170 suppressed 145/150 kDa subunits of alpha-spectrin breakdown products (SBDP) in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and striatum, and also 120-kDa subunit of SBDP in all regions except for striatum. This suggests that MDL 28170 inhibited activation of calpain and caspase-3, respectively. Our results indicate that post-hypoxic MDL 28170 injection is neuroprotective in HI newborn rat brain by decreasing both necrosis and apoptosis. SBDP expression also suggests that MDL 28170 injection inhibits both calpain and caspase-3 activation after HI insult.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Brain Research
  • Hirokazu Arai · Wataru Kikuchi · Akira Ishida · Goro Takada
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid hormones play an important role in architectural and biochemical lung maturation. Although much of the molecular mechanism of their action in the lung is not fully understood, glucocorticoids directly or indirectly regulate lung maturation. Indirect effects of glucocorticoids may involve the modulation of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Fibronectin (FN) is the major constituent of the pulmonary extracellular matrix and exists in multiple isoforms arising from alternative RNA splicing. EIIIA is the major alternatively spliced segment, and its expression is regulated in a spatiotemporal and oncodevelopmental manner. The present study focuses on the regulation of EIIIA-containing FN isoforms (referred to as EIIIA+ FN) by glucocorticoids in the developing lung. Dexamethasone (DEX) or saline was injected daily into pregnant rats from day 15 of gestation (term = day 22) until 24 h before sacrifice. The expression of EIIIA+ FN and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a biochemical marker for cell proliferation, was investigated in the fetal rat lung. At day 20 of gestation (the canalicular stage), the DEX-treated lung showed a significant decrease in weight and saccular septal wall thickness, while the messenger RNA expression of the surfactant protein SP-B was increased in the DEX-treated lung, as compared with the control lung. The expression of EIIIA+ FN and PCNA around the distal airspaces was less extensive in the DEX-treated lung than in the control lung at day 20 of gestation. Given the finding in vitro that EIIIA+ FN regulated the cell cycle, our results suggest that the change of EIIIA+ FN expression in the DEX-treated lung affected pulmonary cell proliferation.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Biology of the Neonate
  • Noriko Yasuoka · Wako Nakajima · Akira Ishida · Goro Takada
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    ABSTRACT: Edaravone has an inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation by scavenging free radicals and prevents vascular endothelial cell injury. We examined whether edaravone was effective on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in immature brain or not using the Rice-Vannucci model. The initial dose, 3 mg/kg (0.05 ml) of edaravone, was injected intraperitoneally just before hypoxic exposure. Subsequently, the same dose was injected every 12 h until the animals were killed. Controls received saline injection as the same protocol. Macroscopic evaluation of brain injury revealed that the neuroprotective effect of edaravone on HI brain after 48 h post HI. TUNEL showed that edaravone injection decreased neurodegeneration. Quantitative analysis of cell death using H&E-stained 2.5 microm sections showed that there was a trend for both necrotic and apoptotic cells to decrease in edaravone injection group. Edaravone injection inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and caspase-3 activation in cortex and hippocampus between 24 and 168 h post HI. Our results suggest that edaravone is protective after HI insult in the immature brain by decreasing both apoptosis and necrosis and also by inhibiting mitochondrial injury.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Developmental Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: There have been only three previous reports of women with Ewing sarcoma who received chemotherapy while pregnant. A 17-year-old woman with Ewing sarcoma was treated with a combination of doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and ifosfamide during the 25th to 30th week of gestation, and the baby was delivered at the 32nd week. The baby was developing normally at follow-up at 8 months of age. This case report supports the idea that in this situation, the pregnancy can be continued to await fetal growth, and second-trimester chemotherapy may not have a deleterious effect on the fetus.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Fibronectin is known to regulate the development of the lung. The EIIIA segment of fibronectin is one of the major alternatively spliced segments and modulates the cell proliferative potential of fibronectin in vitro. But the specific role of the EIIIA-containing fibronectin isoform (referred to as EIIIA+ fibronectin) in pulmonary cell proliferation has not been explored in vivo as yet. In this study, to see whether EIIIA+ fibronectin is associated with pulmonary cell proliferation in vivo, the authors immunohistochemically examined the spatiotemporal relationship of the EIIIA+ fibronectin isoform protein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a biochemical marker for the cell proliferation, during the alveolar formation in the developing rat lung. EIIIA+ fibronectin protein was localized in the epithelial cells and in the mesenchymal tissues. The expression of EIIIA+ fibronectin protein gradually decreased from the pseudoglandular stage to the saccular stage and then slightly increased from the saccular stage to the alveolar stage. This change in the EIIIA+ fibronectin expression seemed to be in accord with the change in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the distal pulmonary cells throughout the lung development. These results suggest that the expression of EIIIA+ fibronectin is associated with the distal pulmonary cell proliferation during the alveolar formation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Experimental Lung Research
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    ABSTRACT: Deficient activity of human lysosomal hydrolase, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), results in the neuronopathic (type A) and non-neuronopathic (type B) forms of Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). A deficiency of ASM is known to deprive lymphoblasts of their response to apoptotic induction by X-ray irradiation. To elucidate the genetic heterogeneity of apoptotic induction in NPD cells, we investigated radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphoblasts in patients with type A (genotype: IVS3-2A-G/IVS3-2A-G) and type B (genotype: S436R/S436R) NPD. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblasts established from a patient with type A NPD, a patient with type B NPD and a normal control were irradiated with 20 Gy and incubated for 24 h. The cells were harvested and the morphological features of apoptosis were observed with DNA-specific fluorochrome bis-benzimide. Exposure of lymphoblasts to 20 Gy of radiation resulted in 25-30% apoptosis of total cells in normal lymphoblasts, 8-9% apoptosis in type A NPD and 20-27% apoptosis in type B NPD. The radiation-induced apoptotic response in the lymphoblasts of type A NPD was significantly different from that of the normal lymphoblasts (P<0.0005). On the other hand, the radiation-induced apoptotic response in type B NPD was not markedly different from that in normal lymphoblasts (P=0.624). In the patient with type B NPD, the signaling pathway for radiation-induced apoptosis was preserved in lymphoblasts, which suggests that the extent of cell signaling system disturbance due to ASM deficiency may be related to the phenotypes in types A and B NPD.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide mediates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity associated with cerebral hypoxia-ischemia through production in the brain by several isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We examined the influence of the selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), on brain NOS activity and its neuroprotective effects against cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury in the postnatal day (PND) 7 rat. In the first set of experiments, 7-NI (50 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) transiently inhibited NOS activity to 40% below the vehicle control level at 1 h after injection (P<0.001, analysis of variance (ANOVA)). In contrast, 7-NI (100 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited NOS activity to 56% below the control level at 1 h with prolonged suppression of NOS activity at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after injection. Two-factor ANOVA revealed an overall effect on NOS activity of 7-NI treatment (P<0.001) and time after injection (P<0.001). In the second set of experiments, 7-NI (50, 100 mg/kg) or an equal volume of vehicle was administered after unilateral carotid artery ligation, but 30 min before hypoxia in PND 7 rats. 7-NI (100 mg/kg) significantly protected against cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury (100 mg/kg of 7-NI, 1.7+/-1.0% damage; control, 8.7+/-1.6%,P<0.05). 7-NI administered 15 min after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia was not neuroprotective. The data suggest that the protective effect of 7-NI is dose dependent, and is related to the duration of suppressed NOS activity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2001 · Brain and Development
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxic ischemia is a common cause of damage to the fetal and neonatal brain. Although systemic and cerebrovascular physiologic factors play an important role in the initial phases of hypoxic-ischemic injuries, the intrinsic vulnerability of specific cell types and systems in the developing brain may be more important in determining the final pattern of damage and functional disability. Excitotoxicity, a term applied to the death of neurons and certain other cells caused by overstimulation of excitatory, mainly glutamate, neurotransmitter receptors, plays a critical role in these processes. Selected neuronal circuits as well as certain populations of glia such as immature periventricular oligodendroglia may die from excitotoxicity triggered by hypoxic ischemia. These patterns of neuropathologic vulnerability are associated with clinical syndromes of neurologic disability such as the extrapyramidal and spastic diplegia forms of cerebral palsy. The cascade of biochemical and histopathologic events triggered by hypoxic ischemia can extend for days to weeks after the insult is triggered, creating the potential for therapeutic interventions.Abbreviations: Ca2+, calcium; FD-glucose, fluorodeoxyglucose; HIE, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; MR, magnetic resonance; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; MRS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy; NMDA, N-methyl-d-aspartate a subtype of glutamate receptor; PET, positron emission tomography
    Preview · Article · May 2001 · Pediatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the response of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing CNS neurons in rats exposed to a unilateral hypoxic-ischemic insult at 7 days of age. Animals were sacrificed at several time points after the injury, up to and including 7 days (Postnatal Day 14). Brain regions ipsilateral to the injury (including cerebral cortex, caudate-putamen, and thalamus) exhibited delayed, focal increases in nNOS immunoreactivity. The increase in nNOS immunoreactive fiber staining was prominent in areas adjacent to severe neuronal damage, especially in the cortex and the thalamus, regions that are also heavily and focally injured in term human neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In cerebral cortex, these increases occurred despite modest declines in nNOS catalytic activity and protein levels. Proliferation of surviving nNOS immunoreactive fibers highlights regions of selective vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic insult in the neonatal brain and may also contribute to plasticity of neuronal circuitry during recovery.
    No preview · Article · May 2001 · Experimental Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Birth asphyxia can cause moderate to severe brain injury. It is unclear to what degree apoptotic or necrotic mechanisms of cell death account for damage after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In a 7-d-old rat HI model, we determined the contributions of apoptosis and necrosis to neuronal injury in adjacent Nissl-stained, hematoxylin and eosin-stained, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick end-labeled sections. We found an apoptotic-necrotic continuum in the morphology of injured neurons in all regions examined. Eosinophilic necrotic neurons, typical in adult models, were rarely observed in neonatal HI. Electron microscopic analysis showed "classic" apoptotic and necrotic neurons and "hybrid" cells with intermediate characteristics. The time course of apoptotic injury varied regionally. In CA3, dentate gyrus, medial habenula, and laterodorsal thalamus, the density of apoptotic cells was highest at 24-72 hr after HI and then declined. In contrast, densities remained elevated from 12 hr to 7 d after HI in most cortical areas and in the basal ganglia. Temporal and regional patterns of neuronal death were compared with expression of caspase-3, a cysteine protease involved in the execution phase of apoptosis. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses showed increased caspase-3 expression in damaged hemispheres 24 hr to 7 d after HI. A p17 peptide fragment, which results from the proteolytic activation of the caspase-3 precursor, was detected in hippocampus, thalamus, and striatum but not in cerebral cortex. The continued expression of activated caspase-3 and the persistence of cells with an apoptotic morphology for days after HI suggests a prolonged role for apoptosis in neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2000 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy(HIE) is being studied in laboratory models that allow the delayed cascade of events triggered by the energetic insult to be examined in detail. The concept of the 'excitotoxic cascade' provides a conceptual framework for thinking about the pathogenesis of HIE. Major events in the cascade triggered by hypoxia-ischaemia include overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors, calcium entry into cells, activation of calcium-sensitive enzymes such as nitric oxide synthase, production of oxygen free radicals, injury to mitochondria, leading in turn to necrosis or apoptosis. New experimental approaches to salvaging brain tissue from the effects of HIE include inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, administration of neuronal growth factors, and inhibition of the caspase enzymes that execute apoptosis. Recent experimental work suggests that these approaches may be effective during a longer 'therapeutic window' after the insult, because they are acting on events that are relatively delayed. Application of modest hypothermia may allow these agents to be neuroprotective at even longer intervals after hypoxia-ischaemia.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Seminars in Neonatology
  • Maya Ogasawara · Wako Nakajima · Akira Ishida · Goro Takada
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    ABSTRACT: Using in vivo microdialysis and HPLC, we examined the effects of indomethacin on extracellular dopamine (DA) in the striatum of immature rats submitted to anoxia. Rat pups in two indomethacin groups received intrastriatal perfusion of either 1 mM or 5 mM indomethacin throughout the experiment. The DA level reached 1185+/-400% of the basal level during anoxia; in contrast, the peak levels of DA were only 307+/-63%, 153+/-35% in indomethacin groups (p<0.05). We consider that this suppression would be one of the mechanisms of the protective effect of indomethacin on hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1999 · Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: A case of Down's syndrome associated with liver fibrosis is reported. The fibrosis was diffusely distributed along sinusoids, and an excess of megakaryocytes was also found in the liver. To determine the mechanism of liver fibrosis in Down's syndrome, we immunohistochemically stained the liver with markers of myofibroblast-like cells, antialpha smooth muscle actin antibodies and antidesmin antibodies. The myofibroblast-like cells were found along sinusoids, suggesting that liver fibrosis in Down's syndrome is caused by the myofibroblast-like cells derived from Ito cells/lipocytes. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-betal, which is an important mediator of the activation of lipocytes, was immunohistochemically examined. The accumulation of TGF-betal was observed in cells in the sinusoidal spaces, which involve the intracellular expression of megakaryocytes. Together, these findings suggest that megakaryocyte-derived TGF-betal is one of the likely candidates in the lipocyte activation of liver fibrogenesis in Down's syndrome.
    No preview · Article · May 1999 · Human Pathlogy

Publication Stats

1k Citations
146.52 Total Impact Points


  • 1997-2010
    • Akita University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • School of Medicine
      Akita, Akita, Japan
  • 1996-2008
    • Akita University Hospital
      Akita, Akita, Japan
  • 2001
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Neurology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2000
    • Kennedy Krieger Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States