Carole A Bolin

Michigan State University, Ист-Лансинг, Michigan, United States

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Publications (84)195.09 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Temporal changes in the distribution of Salmonella subtypes in livestock populations may have important impacts on human health. The first objective of this research was to determine the within-farm changes in the population of subtypes of Salmonella on Michigan dairy farms that were sampled longitudinally from 2000-2001 and again in 2009. The second objective was to determine the yearly frequency (2000 through 2012) of reported human illnesses in Michigan associated with the same subtypes. Comparable sampling techniques were used to collect fecal and environmental samples from the same 18 Michigan dairy farms in 2000-2001 and 2009. Serotypes, multilocus sequence types (STs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) banding patterns were identified for isolates from 6 farms where >1 Salmonella isolate was recovered in both 2000-2001 and 2009. The distribution of STs was significantly different between time frames (p < 0.05), and only two of 31 PFGE patterns identified in both time frames, and each was recovered from the same farm in each time frame. Previously reported within-farm decreases in the frequency of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella were due to recovery of MDR subtypes of serotype Senftenberg and Typhimurium in 2000-2001, and genetically distinct, pansusceptible subtypes of the same serotypes in 2009. The annual frequency human illnesses between 2001 and 2012 with a PFGE pattern matching a bovine strain decreased for patterns recovered from dairy farms in 2000-2001, and increased for patterns recovered in 2009. These data suggest important changes in the population of Salmonella on dairy farms and the frequency of human illnesses associated with cattle-derived subtypes. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
  • J M Gary · I M Langohr · A Lim · S Bolin · C Bolin · I Moore · M Kiupel
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    ABSTRACT: Four, 1-to 4-week-old ferret kits were submitted to the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health at Michigan State University for post-mortem examination. Grossly, multiple bowel loops in all ferret kits were distended by mucoid faecal material. Microscopically, there was no evidence of inflammation or notable alteration to the normal mucosal morphology. Gram-positive coccoid bacteria colonized variable segments of the small intestine. These bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus delphini by phenotypic and molecular analyses. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Staphylococcus enterotoxins was positive and polymerase chain reaction detected the gene for Staphylococcus enterotoxin E in the isolates. The hypersecretory diarrhoea in these ferret kits may have been associated with colonization of the small intestine by S. delphini, cultures of which were shown in vitro to be potentially capable of producing enterotoxin E. The condition described in these ferrets is similar to 'sticky' kit syndrome in mink.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Comparative Pathology
  • A.F.A. Pires · J.A. Funk · C Bolin
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing swine. A longitudinal study was conducted in 18 cohorts of pigs from three finishing sites of one swine production company. Among the 446 Salmonella isolates (isolated from 187 pigs), there were 18 distinct serovars. The six most common serovars were S. enterica serovar Derby (47.3%), S. Agona (27.4%), S. Johannesburg (10.5%), S. Schwarzengrund (2.7%), S. Litchfield (2.5%) and S. Mbandaka (2.2%). Survival analysis techniques, Kaplan-Meier methods and Log-rank test were used to estimate the duration of Salmonella shedding in days and to evaluate differences in shedding associated with risk factors at different organizational levels: isolate (serovar), pig, cohort and site. The risk factors at the pig-level were: sex, age and individual health status; and the risk factors at the cohort-level were: health risk, treatment and "at risk pigs" proportions, nursery and barn environment Salmonella status and prior exposure to the same serovar in the nursery or barn environment. Survival analysis using acceleration failure time models, with a log-normal distribution, was applied to investigate risk factors associated with Salmonella persistence (175 pigs) and serovar-specific persistence (151 pigs) during the study period. Pigs detected Salmonella positive for the first time at 10 weeks of age had a longer duration of shedding, than pigs first detected at an older age. The duration of shedding was shorter among pigs infected with S. Derby, S. Johannesburg and other serovars as compared to pigs infected with S. Agona. A significant difference was observed among sites. Cohorts with pig treatment proportions greater than the median were more likely to have a shorter duration of Salmonella shedding. Pigs from cohorts with nursery positive pools greater than the overall mean had a longer duration of Salmonella shedding as compared to pigs from cohorts with nursery pools less than or equal to the mean. These results suggest that the duration of Salmonella shedding may depend on Salmonella serovar, pig age at the time of infection, farm site and cohort-level risk factors. Identification of risk factors associated with the duration of shedding may allow more targeted interventions for the control Salmonella by evaluation of control measures not only for prevalence reduction, but also to decrease the duration of shedding. Such measures may decrease the risk of contamination of pork and subsequent risk of foodborne illness.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Preventive Veterinary Medicine
  • A.F.A. Pires · J.A. Funk · C. Bolin
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing swine. A longitudinal study was conducted in 18 cohorts of pigs from three finishing sites of one swine production company. Among the 446 Salmonella isolates (isolated from 187 pigs), there were 18 distinct serovars. The six most common serovars were S. enterica serovar Derby (47.3%), S. Agona (27.4%), S. Johannesburg (10.5%), S. Schwarzengrund (2.7%), S. Litchfield (2.5%) and S. Mbandaka (2.2%). Survival analysis techniques, Kaplan-Meier methods and Log-rank test were used to estimate the duration of Salmonella shedding in days and to evaluate differences in shedding associated with risk factors at different organizational levels: isolate (serovar), pig, cohort and site. The risk factors at the pig -level were: sex, age and individual health status; and the risk factors at the cohort -level were: health risk, treatment and “at risk pigs” proportions, nursery and barn environment Salmonella status and prior exposure to the same serovar in the nursery or barn environment. Survival analysis using acceleration failure time models, with a log-normal distribution, was applied to investigate risk factors associated with Salmonella persistence (175 pigs) and serovar-specific persistence (151 pigs) during the study period. Pigs detected Salmonella positive for the first time at 10 weeks of age had a longer duration of shedding, than pigs first detected at an older age. The duration of shedding was shorter among pigs infected with S. Derby, S. Johannesburg and other serovars as compared to pigs infected with S. Agona. A significant difference was observed among sites. Cohorts with pig treatment proportions greater than the median were more likely to have a shorter duration of Salmonella shedding. Pigs from cohorts with nursery positive pools greater than the overall mean had a longer duration of Salmonella shedding as compared to pigs from cohorts with nursery pools less than or equal to the mean. These results suggest that the duration of Salmonella shedding may depend on Salmonella serovar, pig age at the time of infection, farm site and cohort- level risk factors. Identification of risk factors associated with the duration of shedding may allow more targeted interventions for the control Salmonella by evaluation of control measures not only for prevalence reduction, but also to decrease the duration of shedding. Such measures may decrease the risk of contamination of pork and subsequent risk of foodborne illness.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a molecular detection technique (nested PCR) with that of mycobacterial culture in the detection of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in a set of 687 samples of experimentally inoculated environmental substrates (hay, soil, corn, water) exposed to natural weather conditions in Michigan. Four replicates of each substrate were used; half were autoclaved for sterilization, all were inoculated with 50,000 CFU of M. bovis isolated from Michigan livestock, and all were placed in outdoor enclosures, with half under shade and the other half exposed to direct sunlight. Samples were tested for the presence of M. bovis during one 12-month period, with monthly sample testing and during three 12-week periods (winter, spring, summer) with weekly sample testing. Samples were subjected to mycobacterial culture for isolation of M. bovis and a nested PCR with two primer sets targeting IS6110 to detect M. bovis DNA. In 128 samples tested during the 12-month period, M. bovis was not detectable by culture after 2 months but M. bovis DNA was detectable by PCR for at least 7 months. Of the 559 samples tested during the 12-week periods, PCR detected M. bovis DNA for up to 88 days in all of the sample types. There were no significant differences in the detection of M. bovis between shade and sun samples or between sterile and unsterilized samples, regardless of the detection method (PCR or culture). For use in epidemiologic investigations, the PCR assay was more rapid than mycobacterial culture, was not hindered by contaminating organisms, and detected M. bovis DNA in environment samples much longer after initial contamination than mycobacterial culture did.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: We report an outbreak of severe respiratory disease associated with a novel Mycoplasma species in ferrets. During 2009-2012, a respiratory disease characterized by nonproductive coughing affected ≈8,000 ferrets, 6-8 weeks of age, which had been imported from a breeding facility in Canada. Almost 95% became ill, but almost none died. Treatments temporarily decreased all clinical signs except cough. Postmortem examinations of euthanized ferrets revealed bronchointerstitial pneumonia with prominent hyperplasia of bronchiole-associated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis with polyclonal antibody against Mycoplasma bovis demonstrated intense staining along the bronchiolar brush border. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 12 affected ferrets yielded fast-growing, glucose-fermenting mycoplasmas. Nucleic acid sequence analysis of PCR-derived amplicons from portions of the 16S rDNA and RNA polymerase B genes failed to identify the mycoplasmas but showed that they were most similar to M. molare and M. lagogenitalium. These findings indicate a causal association between the novel Mycoplasma species and the newly recognized pulmonary disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Emerging Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical and diagnostic features of 155 cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and 186 controls with negative urine culture/s were characterized retrospectively (signalment, clinical signs, urinalysis, urine culture, concurrent diseases, lower urinary tract diagnostic/therapeutic procedures). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with UTI. Cats of all ages were affected by UTI with no sex/breed predisposition. Lower urinary tract signs were absent in 35.5% of cats with UTI. Pyuria and bacteriuria had sensitivities of 52.9% and 72.9%, and specificities of 85.5% and 67.7% for detection of UTI, respectively. Risk factors significantly associated with increased odds of UTI were urinary incontinence [odds ratio (OR) = 10.78, P = 0.0331], transurethral procedures (OR = 8.37, P <0.0001), urogenital surgery (OR = 6.03, P = 0.0385), gastrointestinal disease (OR = 2.62, P = 0.0331), decreased body weight (OR = 0.81, P = 0.0259) and decreased urine specific gravity (OR = 0.78, P = 0.0055). Whilst not independently significant, renal disease and lower urinary tract anatomic abnormalities improved statistical model performance and contributed to UTI.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Reisolation of Mycobacterium bovis from inoculated substrates was used to follow the persistence of viable M. bovis bacteria exposed to natural weather conditions over a 12-month period. Environmental factors were recorded continuously, and factors affecting M. bovis persistence (i.e., temperature, season, and substrate) were studied using survival analysis and Cox's proportional hazards regression. Persistence of M. bovis in the environment was significantly shorter in the spring/summer season, characterized by the highest average daily temperatures over the 12-month period. M. bovis persisted up to 88 days in soil, 58 days in water and hay, and 43 days on corn. These studies demonstrate that M. bovis bacteria persist long enough to represent a risk of exposure for cattle and/or wildlife and strengthen evidence that suggests cattle farm biosecurity and efforts to eliminate supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer will decrease the risk of bovine TB transmission among and between cattle and deer populations.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Veterinary Medicine International
  • Susan Jacobi · Wendy M Townsend · Carole A Bolin
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether equine serum administered via a simulated subpalpebral lavage system (SPL) supports proliferation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the tubing. A sterile i.v. catheter with injection cap was inserted into sterilized silicone tubing (Mila). To mimic an SPL within the dorsal conjunctival fornix, the tubing was secured to an elevated platform. The tip of the tubing extended from the platform into a vial containing culture medium just inoculated with approximately 1.5 x 10(8) CFU/mL P. aeruginosa or S. zooepidemicus. To mimic administration of medication, the tubing was infused twice daily with equine serum, sterile saline (negative control), or culture medium (positive control) followed by air. Incubation was at 25 or 37 degrees C. At 24, 48, and 72 h postinoculation, samples were obtained for bacterial culture from one simulated SPL for each experimental variant. The following sections were cultured: (i) tubing tip previously submerged in the inoculated culture medium, (ii) tubing mid-section, and (iii) tip of the i.v. catheter. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Streptococcus zooepidemicus or P. aeruginosa were isolated from 100% of the tubing tips. Streptococcus zooepidemicus was isolated from one mid-section flushed with culture medium incubated at 37 degrees C. All other samples were negative for growth of the inoculated agents. Streptococcus zooepidemicus and P. aeruginosa did not proliferate within silicone tubing infused with equine serum. These data suggest that topical serum can be safely administered through a superiorly placed SPL in clinical cases.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Veterinary Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: An intervention study was conducted to determine whether discontinuing the feeding of milk replacer medicated with oxytetracycline and neomycin to preweaned calves reduced antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Results demonstrated that the intervention did reduce multidrug resistance in these bacteria but that other factors also influenced multidrug resistance.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of clinical microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: To report the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amikacin sulfate for equine clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and characterize the initial kill and duration of the postantibiotic effect (PAE) for selected strains. Experimental study. Isolates of MRSA (n=35) had their amikacin MIC determined using the E-test agar diffusion method. Two isolates with MICs>256 microg/mL limit were further characterized using broth macrodilution. Six distinct isolates with amikacin MICs of 32, 48, 128 (2 isolates) and 500 (2 isolates) microg/mL had PAE determinations made over a range of amikacin concentrations from 31.25-1000 microg/mL using standard culture-based techniques. Median MIC of the 35 isolates was 32 microg/mL (range 2 to >256 microg/mL). Mean PAE of selected MRSA strains had an overall mean (all amikacin doses) of 3.43 hours (range 0.10-9.57 hours). PAE for MRSA exposed to amikacin at 1000 microg/mL was 6.18 hours (range 3.30-9.57 hours), significantly longer than that for all other concentrations (P<.0001). There was no statistically significant effect of isolate MIC on PAE. Isolates had a wide range of MIC; however, growth of all 6 selected strains were inhibited within the range of concentrations tested, including 2 strains with MICs of 500 microg/mL. PAE duration was not influenced by the MIC of amikacin but was significantly longer with treatment at 1000 microg/mL than at lower concentrations. Clinical isolates of MRSA are susceptible to amikacin at concentrations achieved by regional perfusion: however, the modest duration of PAE observed suggest that further laboratory and in vivo evaluation be conducted before recommending the technique for clinical use.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Veterinary Surgery
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    Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Linda Ross · Richard Jakowski · Carole Bolin · Matti Kiupel
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate renal tissue from dogs with renal pathology for evidence of leptospira. The pathology database at Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, which included accessions from Tufts Foster Hospital for Small Animals as well as a number of private small animal practices, was searched for dogs that had renal pathology of any type recorded as one of the diagnoses from January 1999 through July 2002. Sections of renal tissue from 265 cases underwent immunohistochemistry staining for leptospira. For each case, an attempt was made to obtain the following data: signalment, state of origin, BUN, serum creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and bilirubin concentration, titers for leptospirosis, and vaccination status. Of the 265 cases, 48 (18.1%) were positive for the presence of leptospiral antigen. There was no correlation between gender, breed, state of origin, histopatho-logic diagnosis, presence of azotemia, or current vaccination for leptospirosis and a positive test.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, The
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    ABSTRACT: A randomized intervention study was conducted to determine if discontinuing use of calf milk replacer medicated with oxytetracycline results in increased tetracycline susceptibility in Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in dairy calves over a 12-month period. Dairy herds with enteric bacteria with known low tetracycline susceptibility were enrolled for the study. Fecal samples from preweaned calves and environmental samples were collected from eight dairy herds in Michigan and New York State. Samples were collected monthly for 3 months prior to and 12 months after four of the eight herds discontinued medicated milk replacer feeding. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and E. coli were isolated, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using automated broth microdilution. A total of 804 intervention and 1,026 control calf fecal samples and 122 intervention and 136 control environmental samples were collected for testing. No differences in owner-reported morbidity and mortality between treatment groups were seen. The intervention was significantly associated with increasing tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli and Salmonella. Tetracycline susceptibility increased in intervention herds for the first 3 months after switching to nonmedicated milk replacer but declined in subsequent months. Discontinuing the practice of feeding medicated milk replacers to calves increased tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli and Salmonella on dairy farms, without increasing cattle disease, but declines in effectiveness after 3 months suggest that other factors contribute to decreasing susceptibility on the farm.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of clinical microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis has a wide host range that includes several wildlife species, and this can hamper attempts to eradicate bovine tuberculosis from livestock. The purpose of this study was to determine if common rodent species, namely meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), house mice (Mus musculus), and Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), that inhabit the bovine tuberculosis endemic area of Michigan, can be experimentally infected with M. bovis. The objectives of the study were: 1) to determine if these rodent species can be infected, and if so, to document attendant pathologic processes/pathogenesis; 2) to detect any fecal shedding of M. bovis; and 3) to evaluate the relative susceptibility of the three species to M. bovis infection. For each species (n=36) there were two treatment (n=12/group) and one or two control groups depending on species (n=6-12/group); the maximum study duration was 60 days. The meadow vole treatments consisted of high dose inocula that were given by oral or intranasal routes, whereas the house mice and Norway rats were given only oral inocula at either a high or low dose. Of the three species, meadow voles were most susceptible to M. bovis infection. Upon intranasal inoculation, all 12 voles were infected as determined by gross and microscopic lesions and culture of M. bovis from tissue and feces. Seven of the 12 meadow voles inoculated orally were infected. House mice also were susceptible; M. bovis was isolated from 14 of 24 animals. Only one Norway rat in the high dose treatment group was positive by culture and this was the only animal from which minimal attendant lesions were observed. Results of this study indicate that meadow voles and house mice can be infected with M. bovis and might serve as spillover hosts. Concerted efforts should, therefore, be made to reduce or eliminate these rodents on premises where M. bovis-infected livestock are present.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of wildlife diseases
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of antibodies against 6 Leptospira serovars and determine risk factors associated with positive Leptospira titers in healthy client-owned dogs in Michigan. Cross-sectional study. 1,241 healthy dogs at least 4 months of age. Dogs were examined by veterinarians at private practices. Vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs were enrolled in the study, which occurred prior to the availability of a 4-serovar (Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona) Leptospira vaccine. Sera were tested by use of the microscopic agglutination test to determine antibody titers against Leptospira serovars Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information about each dog to identify risk factors associated with seropositive status. 309 of 1,241 (24.9%) dogs had antibody titers against at least 1 of the 6 Leptospira serovars, which suggested exposure to Leptospira spp. Prevalence of antibodies was highest to serovar Grippotyphosa, followed by Bratislava, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. Age, travel outside Michigan, exercise outside fenced yards, and exposure to livestock and wildlife were significant risk factors for positive titers. Among healthy dogs from the lower peninsula of Michigan, > 20% have antibodies against leptospiral serovars historically considered uncommon but more recently incriminated as causing clinical canine leptospirosis. Wildlife and livestock may be of increasing importance as reservoirs for canine leptospirosis as urbanization continues to occur. Expanded vaccination strategies may partially mitigate these trends.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Although avian species are known to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium spp. organisms, much remains unknown about the susceptibility of birds to infection with M. bovis. The objective of this current study was to determine if wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can be infected with M. bovis when inoculated by the oral or intratracheal route. Six turkeys were orally inoculated and another six were inoculated via the trachea with a high dose of M. bovis, 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml. Six turkeys were sham-inoculated controls. Two turkeys from each treatment group were sacrificed on days 30, 60, and 90 postinoculation. There were no gross or microscopic lesions consistent with mycobacteriosis in the 23 inoculated turkeys over the 90-day duration of this study. Fecal cultures were also consistently negative for M. bovis when sampled before inoculation and on days 1, 30, and 60 postinoculation. Two intratracheally inoculated turkeys were positive for M. bovis in visceral tissues at 30 days postinoculation. However, this finding was only indicative of passive persistence of mycobacteria in the tissues and not of infection, as there were no attendant lesions or clinical compromise to support infection. Thus, it can be concluded that young wild turkeys are resistant to infection with M. bovis and, therefore, pose minimal threat as reservoir or spillover hosts for this organism.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Avian Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate gross, histopathologic, and serum biochemical findings caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona and bratislava inoculated in dogs. Twenty-seven 8-week-old female Beagles. Dogs were randomly assigned to challenge or control groups. Challenge groups were conjunctivally inoculated on 3 successive days with 5 x 10(7) L interrogans serovar pomona (n = 12) or serovar bratislava (11). Clinical signs were recorded throughout the experiment, and clinical pathology assays, bacteriologic culture, and necropsies (6 or 7 dogs necropsied at each time point) were done on postinoculation day (PID) 7, 10, 14, and 20. Infection could not be confirmed in any serovar bratislava-inoculated dog, and control dogs remained healthy throughout the experiment. Positive culture and fluorescent antibody test results were confirmed in 11 of 12 serovar pomona-inoculated dogs. Fever and lethargy starting at PID 7 were the most common clinical signs in serovar pomona-infected dogs. On day 10, gross lesions included multifocal renal and pulmonary hemorrhage and perirenal edema. Serovar pomona-inoculated dogs had histopathologic lesions including hepatitis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia at PID 7, 10, 14, and 20. Increases in BUN, anion gap, and bilirubin concentration occurred on PID 10, 14, and 20. Platelet counts in dogs with positive results of bacteriologic culture were decreased from baseline values on PID 10, 12, and 14. Conjunctival inoculation with L interrogans serovar pomona resulted in a high rate of infection with concomitant hemorrhagic and inflammatory lesions of the kidneys, liver, and lungs.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
  • Daniel L Grooms · Carole A Bolin
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    ABSTRACT: Determining a cause of reproductive loss in cattle can be difficult. With proper use of diagnostic tools and strategies, the chance of getting a more definitive diagnosis increases significantly. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and Leptospira are two common pathogens associated with reproductive losses in cattle. By understanding the disease pathogenesis and the diagnostic tools available, strategies to diagnose and control these important reproductive pathogens are available.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) are susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium bovis by either oral or intratracheal inoculation and to assess their potential role in the spread of bovine tuberculosis. Six ducks were orally inoculated with 1.0 x 10(5) colony-forming units of M. bovis, six ducks were intratracheally inoculated with the same dose, and six ducks served as sham-inoculated controls. The study length was 90 days postinoculation, with samples of two birds from each group necropsied at 30-day intervals. Both fecal and tissue samples were collected for mycobacterial culture. None of the inoculated ducks shed M. bovis in their feces at any culture point (days 1, 30, and 60) during the study. No evidence of illness or weight loss was present during the course of the study, and only one duck had M. bovis isolated from any tissue, although there were no associated microscopic lesions. Mallard ducks were highly resistant to infection with M. bovis following high-dose inoculation and did not shed the organism in their feces. This study was conducted using high-dose inoculation; therefore, it appears that ducks are unlikely to play any significant role in the transmission of M. bovis between infected and uninfected mammalian hosts.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Avian Diseases

Publication Stats

3k Citations
195.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2015
    • Michigan State University
      • • Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health (DCPAH)
      • • Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation
      • • Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Pathobiology
      Ист-Лансинг, Michigan, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1987-2002
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Fort Collins, CO, United States
  • 1996-1998
    • China Animal Disease Control Center
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1993-1994
    • University of Zimbabwe
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Salisbury, Harare, Zimbabwe
  • 1991
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1990
    • Agricultural Research Service
      ERV, Texas, United States