[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3-Aminorhodanine reacts with aldehydes to form either 5-[(aryl)alkylidene]- substituted products or Schiff bases or derivatives substituted at both the 3-amino group and the 5-methylene group, depending on the reaction conditions. In this note, synthesis and characterization of 3-amino-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one is reported.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of alkylamino derivatives of N-benzylpyrazine-2-carboxamide was designed, synthesized and assayed in vitro for their antimycobacterial, antibacterial, antifungal as well as antiviral activities. Final structures were prepared from 6-chloro (1), 5-chloro (2) or 3-chloro (3) derivatives of N-benzylpyrazine-2-carboxamide by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine with n-alkylamines in the range from butylamine to octylamine (labelled a-e). Series 1a-e and 2a-e exerted higher activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv compared to the corresponding pattern compounds and the reference compound pyrazinamide. The most active derivatives reached an activity MIC = 4.6-10 μM (M. tbc H37Rv). More importantly, activity was also observed against other tested mycobacterial strains (including drug-resistant strains). Substitution of 3-chlorine was disadvantageous and led to completely inactive compounds 3a-e. Some compounds showed activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains (including MRSA) or influenza virus, but no antifungal activity was observed. This journal is
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Medicinal Chemistry Communication
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of N-alkyl-3-(alkylamino)pyrazine-2-carboxamides and their N-alkyl-3-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamide precursors were prepared. All compounds were characterized by analytical methods and tested for antimicrobial and antiviral activity. The antimycobacterial MIC values against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv of the most effective compounds, 3-(hexylamino)-, 3-(heptylamino)- and 3-(octylamino)-N-methyl-pyrazine-2-carboxamides 14‒16, was 25 μg/mL. The compounds inhibited photosystem 2 photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach chloroplasts. This activity was strongly connected with the lipophilicity of the compounds. For effective PET inhibition longer alkyl chains in the 3-(alkylamino) substituent in the N-alkyl-3-(alkylamino)pyrazine-2-carboxamide molecule were more favourable than two shorter alkyl chains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new approach for aminodehalogenation reaction between 3-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamide and ringsubstituted anilines is described. A series of 16 compounds (15 of them novel) derived from pyrazinamide have been synthesized successfully using the advantage of microwave-assisted reaction. The conditions for this aminodehalogenation reaction have been put to investigation to optimize the conversion, yield and time. The final methodology reduces the time needed for reaction from 24 hours using conventional heating to 30 minutes under microwave irradiation and increases the yield. The synthetic procedure together with analytical data of all compounds is presented. Lipophilicity properties were calculated and experimentally determined.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Organic Synthesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work presents synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of nineteen 6-alkylamino-N-phenylpyrazine-2-carboxamides. Antimycobacterial activity was determined against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, M. kansasii and two strains of M. avium. Generally, the antimycobacterial activity increased with prolongation of simple alkyl chain and culminated in compounds with heptylamino substitution (3e, 4e) with MIC = 5-10 μM against M. tuberculosis H3Rv. On the contrary, derivatives with modified alkyl chain (containing e.g. terminal methoxy or hydroxy group) as well as phenylalkylamino derivatives were mainly inactive. The most active compounds (with hexyl to octylamino substitution) were evaluated for their in vitro activity against drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis and possessed activity comparable to that of the reference drug isoniazid. None of the tested compounds were active against M. avium. Some derivatives exhibited activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (best MIC = 7.8 μM), while Gram negative strains as well as tested fungal strains were completely unsusceptible. Active compounds were tested for in vitro toxicity on various cell lines and in most cases were non-toxic up to 100 μM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Chemical Biology & Drug Design
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alkaloid extracts of eight Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) species and varieties were studied with respect to their acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE) inhibitory activity and alkaloid patterns. Thirty alkaloids were determined by GC/MS, and twenty-five of them identified from their mass spectra, retention times and retention indexes. Promising HuAChE inhibition activity was demonstrated by six Narcissus taxa and HuBuChE inhibition by N. jonquila cv. Double Campernelle and N. nanus cv. Elka with IC50 values of 24.1 +/- 1.9 microg/mL and 25.1 +/- 1.8 microg/mL, respectively. Two alkaloids were isolated in pure form using preparative TLC and identified as the galanthamine type alkaloid narwedine and the lycorine type alkaloid incartine. Both compounds were tested for their biological activity. They were considered inactive in HuAChE/HuBuChE assays, but showed promising prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition activities with IC50 values of 0.95 +/- 0.12 mM and 0.91 ğ 0.09 mM, respectively.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Natural product communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 18 N-alkyl substituted 3-aminopyrazine-2-carboxamides was prepared in this work according to previously experimentally set and proven conditions using microwave assisted synthesis methodology. This approach for the aminodehalogenation reaction was chosen due to higher yields and shorter reaction times compared to organic reactions with conventional heating. Antimycobacterial, antibacterial, antifungal and photosynthetic electron transport (PET) inhibiting in vitro activities of these compounds were investigated. Experiments for the determination of lipophilicity were also performed. Only a small number of substances with alicyclic side chain showed activity against fungi which was the same or higher than standards and the biological efficacy of the compounds increased with rising lipophilicity. Nine pyrazinamide derivatives also inhibited PET in spinach chloroplasts and the IC50 values of these compounds varied in the range from 14.3 to 1590.0 μmol/L. The inhibitory activity was connected not only with the lipophilicity, but also with the presence of secondary amine fragment bounded to the pyrazine ring. Structure-activity relationships are discussed as well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ongoing studies of Zephyranthes robusta resulted in the isolation of the lycorine-type alkaloid previously called carinatine and 10-O-demethylgalanthine. The NMR data given previously for this compound were revised and completed by two-dimensional 1H-1H and 1H-13C chemical shift correlation experiments. The name of the isolated compound was corrected to 9-O-demethylgalanthine in accordance with the currently used system of numbering of lycorine-type alkaloids. 9-O-Demethylgalanthine and galanthine, a previously isolated alkaloid from Z robusta, were inactive in acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase assays (IC50 > 500 microM), but showed important prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition activity.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Natural product communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work a series of 15 N-benzylamine substituted 5-amino-6-methyl-pyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitriles was prepared by the aminodehalogenation reactions using microwave assisted synthesis with experimentally set and proven conditions. This approach for the aminodehalogenation reaction was chosen due to its higher yields and shorter reaction times. The products of this reaction were characterized by IR, NMR and other analytical data. The compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal activity. Compounds 3 (R = 3,4-Cl), 9 (R = 2-Cl) and 11 (R = 4-CF3) showed good antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL). It was found that the lipophilicity is important for antimycobacterial activity and the best substitution on the benzyl moiety of the compounds is a halogen or trifluoromethyl group according to Craig's plot. The activities against bacteria or fungi were insignificant. The presented compounds also inhibited photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts and the IC50 values of the active compounds varied in the range from 16.4 to 487.0 µmol/L. The most active substances were 2 (R = 3-CF3), 3 (R = 3,4-Cl) and 11 (R = 4-CF3). A linear dependence between lipophilicity and herbicidal activity was observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and invasive mycoses, represent serious health problems. As a part of our long-term efforts to find new agents for the treatment of these diseases, a new series of pyrazine analogs of chalcones bearing an isopropyl group in position 5 of the pyrazine ring was prepared. The structures of the compounds were corroborated by IR and NMR spectroscopy and their purity confirmed by elemental analysis. The susceptibility of eight fungal strains to the studied compounds was tested. The results have been compared with the activity of some previously reported propyl derivatives. The only strain that was susceptible to the studied compounds was Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was found that replacing a non-branched propyl with a branched isopropyl did not have a decisive and unequivocal influence on the in vitro antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes. In vitro activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable with that of fluconazole was exhibited by nitro-substituted derivatives. Unfortunately, no compound exhibited efficacy comparable with that of terbinafine, which is the most widely used agent for treating mycoses caused by dermatophytes. Some of the prepared compounds were assayed for antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The highest potency was also displayed by nitro-substituted compounds. The results of the present study are in a good agreement with our previous findings and confirm the positive influence of electron-withdrawing groups on the B-ring of chalcones on the antifungal and antimycobacterial activity of these compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (1-11) were isolated from fresh bulbs of Chlidanthus fragrans Herb. The chemical structures were elucidated by MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic experiments. Complete NMR assignments were achieved for deoxypretazzetine (1). All compounds were evaluated for their erythrocytic acetylcholinesterase and serum butyrylcholinesterase inhibition activity using Ellman's method. In the prolyl oligopeptidase assay, Z-Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide was used as substrate. In biological assays, only the crinine type Amaryllidaceae alkaloid undulatine showed promising acetylcholinesterase and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibition activity with IC50 values of 23.0 +/- 1.0 microM and 1.96 +/- 0.12 mM, respectively. Other isolated compounds were considered inactive.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Natural product communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new isoquinoline-isoquinolone alkaloid was isolated from the root bark of Berberis vulgaris and named berbanine. The structure was established by spectroscopic methods (including 2D NMR, HR-EI-MS).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new benzyldihydroisoquinoline alkaloid (1) was isolated from the tubers of Corydalis cava and named corylucinine. Additionally, 8-trichloromethyl-7,8-dihydropalmatine (2), an isolation artifact of tetrahydropalmatine, was obtained. The structures were established by spectroscopic (including 2D NMR and optical rotation) and HR-ESI-MS methods. Both compounds were tested for human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE) inhibitory activity. In comparison with the used standards, both compounds showed only moderate inhibitory activity against HuAChE (IC50,. HuAChE = 127.6 +/- 5.2 microM for 1, and IC50, HuAChE = 82.9 +/- 3.9 microM for 2) and none against HuBuChE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclization of the easily accessible compounds (I) to the dihydropyrans (III) which undergo an acid catalyzed unprecedented rearrangement to the compounds (IV)-(VI) is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amaryllidaceae species are known as ornamental plants. Some contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. The chemical composition of the alkaloid extract of bulbs of Nerine bowdenii Watson has been analyzed by means of GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds were detected and nineteen of them identified, one of which was belladine. The alkaloid extract showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 = 87.9 +/- 3.5 microg/mL) and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 = 14.8 +/- 1.1 microg/mL). Belladine inhibited HuAChE and HuBuChE in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 781 +/- 12.5 microM and 284.8 +/-4.2 microM, respectively.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Natural product communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of rhodanine derivatives was prepared. The synthetic approach, analytical and spectroscopic data of all synthesized compounds are presented. Lipophilicity of all the discussed rhodanine derivatives was analyzed using the RP-HPLC method. The compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts and reduce chlorophyll content in freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structure, physical properties and biological activities of the evaluated compounds are discussed. For majority of the tested compounds the lipophilicity of the compound and not electronic properties of the R1 substituent were decisive for PET-inhibiting activity. The most potent PET inhibitor was (5Z)-5-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (IC(50) = 3.0 μmol/L) and the highest antialgal activity was exhibited by (5Z)-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (IC(50) = 1.3 μmol/L).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubers of Corydalis cava were extracted with ethanol and fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol. Repeated column chromatography, preparative TLC and crystallization led to the isolation of fifteen isoquinoline alkaloids. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic techniques and by comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were tested for human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE) inhibitory activity. (+)-Canadaline inhibited acetylcholinesterase as well as butyrylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 20.1 +/- 1.1 microM and 85.2 +/- 3.2 microM, respectively. (+)-Canadine, with an IC50 value of 12.4 +/- 0.9 microM, was the most potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, whilst (+/-)-corycavidine and (+)-bulbocapnine were effective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 46.2 +/- 2.4 microM and 67.0 +/- 2.1 microM, respectively. The other isolated alkaloids were considered inactive (IC50 > 100 microM).
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Natural product communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of fifteen new compounds related to pyrazinamide (PZA) were synthesized, characterized with analytical data and screened for antimycobacterial, antifungal and antibacterial activity. The series consists of 6-chloro-5-cyanopyrazine-2-carboxamide and N-substituted 6-amino-5-cyanopyrazine-2-carboxamides, derived from the previous by nucleophilic substitution with various non-aromatic amines (alkylamines, cycloalkylamines, heterocyclic amines). Some of the compounds exerted antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis equal to pyrazinamide (12.5-25 μg/mL). More importantly, 6-chloro-5-cyanopyrazine-2-carboxamide and 5-cyano-6-(heptylamino)pyrazine-2-carboxamide were active against Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium, which are unsusceptible to PZA. Basic structure-activity relationships are presented. Only weak antifungal and no antibacterial activity was detected.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of rhodanine derivatives was prepared. The synthetic approach, analytical and spectroscopic data of all synthesized compounds are presented. Lipophilicity of all the discussed rhodanine derivatives was analyzed using the RP-HPLC method. The compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts and reduce chlorophyll content in freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structure, physical properties and biological activities of the evaluated compounds are discussed. For majority of the tested compounds the lipophilicity of the compound and not electronic properties of the R 1 substituent were decisive for PET-inhibiting activity. The most OPEN ACCESS Molecules 2011, 16 5208 potent PET inhibitor was (5Z)-5-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (IC 50 = 3.0 μmol/L) and the highest antialgal activity was exhibited by (5Z)-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (IC 50 = 1.3 μmol/L).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of sixteen pyrazinamide analogues with the -CONH- linker connecting the pyrazine and benzene rings was synthesized by the condensation of chlorides of substituted pyrazinecarboxylic acids with ring-substituted (chlorine) anilines. The prepared compounds were characterized and evaluated for their antimycobacterial and antifungal activity, and for their ability to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport (PET). 6-Chloro-N-(4-chlorophenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide manifested the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv (65% inhibition at 6.25 μg/mL). The highest antifungal effect against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for 6-chloro-5-tert-butyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide (MIC=62.5 μmol/L). 6-chloro-5-tert-butyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide showed the highest PET inhibition in spinach chloroplasts (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts (IC50=43.0 μmol/L). For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds as well as their structure-activity relationships are discussed.