[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is not expressed in normal breast epithelia but is up-regulated in invasive breast carcinomas. In the present study, we found that matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) robustly activates the PAR1-Akt survival pathway in breast carcinoma cells. This process is blocked by a cell-penetrating lipopeptide "pepducin," P1pal-7, which is a potent inhibitor of cell viability in breast carcinoma cells expressing PAR1. Both a MMP-1 inhibitor and P1pal-7 significantly promote apoptosis in breast tumor xenografts and inhibit metastasis to the lungs by up to 88%. Dual therapy with P1pal-7 and Taxotere inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenografts by 95%. Consistently, biochemical analysis of xenograft tumors treated with P1pal-7 or MMP-1 inhibitor showed attenuated Akt activity. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt rescues breast cancer cells from the synergistic cytotoxicity of P1pal-7 and Taxotere, suggesting that Akt is a critical component of PAR1-dependent cancer cell viability. Together, these findings indicate that blockade of MMP1-PAR1 signaling may provide a benefit beyond treatment with Taxotere alone in advanced, metastatic breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) play important roles in normal and pathological remodeling processes including atherothrombotic disease, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. MMPs have been viewed as matrix-degrading enzymes, but recent studies have shown that they possess direct signaling capabilities. Platelets harbor several MMPs that modulate hemostatic function and platelet survival; however their mode of action remains unknown. We show that platelet MMP-1 activates protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) on the surface of platelets. Exposure of platelets to fibrillar collagen converts the surface-bound proMMP-1 zymogen to active MMP-1, which promotes aggregation through PAR1. Unexpectedly, MMP-1 cleaves PAR1 at a distinct site that strongly activates Rho-GTP pathways, cell shape change and motility, and MAPK signaling. Blockade of MMP1-PAR1 curtails thrombogenesis under arterial flow conditions and inhibits thrombosis in animals. These studies provide a link between matrix-dependent activation of metalloproteases and platelet-G protein signaling and identify MMP1-PAR1 as a potential target for the prevention of arterial thrombosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a unique class of G protein-coupled receptors that play critical roles in thrombosis, inflammation, and vascular biology. PAR1 is proposed to be involved in the invasive and metastatic processes of various cancers. However, the protease responsible for activating the proinvasive functions of PAR1 remains to be identified. Here, we show that expression of PAR1 is both required and sufficient to promote growth and invasion of breast carcinoma cells in a xenograft model. Further, we show that the matrix metalloprotease, MMP-1, functions as a protease agonist of PAR1 cleaving the receptor at the proper site to generate PAR1-dependent Ca2+ signals and migration. MMP-1 activity is derived from fibroblasts and is absent from the breast cancer cells. These results demonstrate that MMP-1 in the stromal-tumor microenvironment can alter the behavior of cancer cells through PAR1 to promote cell migration and invasion.